OD: Human Resource Management Interventions

What are the Human Resource Management interventions discussed?
1. Performance Management
2. Developing Talent
3. Managing Workforce Diversity and Wellness
What are the Performance Management interventions discussed?
1. Goal Setting
2. Performance Appraisal
3. Reward Systems
What are the Talent Management interventions discussed?
1. Coaching and mentoring
2. Career planning and development
3. Management and leadership development
Contextual factors of Performance Management
1. Business Strategy
2. Employee Involvement
3. Workplace Technology
Elements of Performance management
1. Goal Setting
2. Performance Appraisal
3. Reward Systems
Establishing Challenging Goals
1. Realistic and high level of commitment
2. Varied amount of participation in the goal setting process
Clarifying Goal Measurement
1. Objectives should be operationally defined
2. Negotiate resources to achieve goals
Management by Objectives
attempt to align personal goals with business strategy by increasing communication bet. manager and workers
6 Steps to implementing Management by Objectives
1. Work group involvement
2. Joint manager-subordinate goal setting
3. Establish action plans for goals
4. Establish criteria
5. Review and recycle
6. Maintain records
Performance Appraisal – definition
feedback system involving the direct evaluation of performance by supervisor, manager or peers
Steps to Designing a Performance Appraisal System
1. Select the right people
2. Diagnose the current situation
3. Establish the system’s purposes and objectives
4. Design the system
5. Experiment with implementation
6. Evaluate and monitor the system
Criteria for Designing Effective Performance Appraisal Systems
1. Timeliness
2. Accurate
3. Acceptance
4. Understanding
5. Focus on critical control points
6. Economic feasibility
Reward System Design Features
1. Person/Job based vs. Performance Based
2. Market position
3. Internal equity
4. Hierarchy
5. Centralization
6. Rewards mix
7. Security
8. Seniority
Value Expectancy Model
workers will expend effort to achieve goals they believe will lead to outcomes they value
Value Expectancy Model Factors
1. Availability
2. Timeliness
3. Performance contingency
4. Durability
5. Visibility
4 Types of Reward Systems
1. Skill/Knowledge Based Pay
2. Pay for Performance
3. Gain Sharing
4. Promotions
Skill-Based Pay Systems – Pros
1. High equity
2. Flexible workforce = Leaner staffing
3. Reinforce individual development
Skill-Based Pay Systems – Cons
1. Expensive
2. Fails to reward all skills
3. Discourages learning new skills
4. Views pay as entitlement
5. Lack of performance contingency
Skill-Based Pay Systems – Contingencies
1. Management support
2. Having the right kind of people
Performance-Based Pay Systems – dimensions
1. Organizational unit: indiv, group, org
2. Way Performance is Measured: cost, productivity, subjective ratings
3. Rewards: pay increase, stock, bonuses
Gain-Sharing Systems – Design Elements
1. Process of design
2. Org unit covered
3. Bonus formula
4. Sharing process
5. Frequency of bonus
6. Change management
7. Participative system
Goal-Sharing vs Gain-Sharing
– Goal sharing uses changing strategic objectives as standard of performance instead of operating results
– Goal sharing is more flexible
Reward-System Process Issues
– Managers should “own” process as way to manage workforce performance
– Employee participation can increase ownership
– Secrecy reduces motivation by obscuring relationship bet. perf. and pay
– Secrecy reduces beneficial impact of accurate performance feedback
Coaching vs Mentoring
– Both estab. relations bet. more experienced and less experienced people in the org to help improve performance
– Mentoring is more directive; mentor intentionally transfers info
Coaching vs Therapy
– coaching assumes client is healthy
– coaching is future and action oriented
Coaching – Application Stages
1. Establish the principles of the relationship
2. Conduct assessment
3. Debrief results
4. Develop action plan
5. Implement action plan
6. Assess results
Career Planning and Development – Goals
Career Planning – choosing jobs, occupations, and organizations at each stage of career
Career Development – helping employees attain career objectives
Career Stages
1. Establishment
2. Advancement
3. Maintenance
4. Withdrawal
Career Planning and Development – Interventions
1. Realistic job preview
2. Assessment centers
3. Job rotation and challenging assignments
4. Consultative roles
5. Developmental training
6. Performance management
7. Work-life balance
8. Phased retirement
Management and Leadership Development – Focus
developing skills and knowledge the org believes will be necessary to implement future strategies and manage the business
Management and Leadership Development – Application Stages
1. Perform needs assessment
2. Develop the objectives and design of training
3. Deliver training
4. Evaluate training
Elements of Framework for Managing Diversity
– Internal Pressures
– External Pressures
– Implementation Style
– Strategic Responses
– Management’s Perspectives and Priorities
Dimensions of Workforce Diversity
– Age
– Gender
– Disability
– Culture and values
– Sexual orientation
– Race/ethnicity
Categories of Diversity Programs
1. Structures of Responsibility: affirmative action, task forces
2. Educational Programs
3. Networking and Mentoring Programs
Workplace Stressors
1. Physical environment
2. Individual: overload, role conflict
3. Group: poor relationships
4. Organizational: politics, HR policies, structural design
Alleviating and Coping with Stress – Interventions
1. Role clarification
2. Supportive relationships
3. Work leaves
4. Health facilities
5. Employee assistance programs