OB CH. 7

1. The demand, person, activity, or event that triggers an uncomfortable encounter is known as:
a. stress
b. distress
c. the stressor
d. strain
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may occur as a result of stressful events is known as:
a. distress
b. the stressor
c. the stress response
d. anxiety disorder
The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand is known as:
a. avoidance
b. instinct
c. arousal
d. stress
Strain is the same as:
a. stress
b. distress
c. eustress
d. tension
The approach to stress that is based on the concept of homeostasis is known as:
a. physiological
b. psychoanalytical
c. social psychological
d. psychological-cognitive
The medical approach to stress is most similar to:
a. the person-environment fit approach
b. the cognitive appraisal approach
c. the psychoanalytic approach
d. homeostatic approach
7. Which of the following people developed the idea of the stress response?
a. Richard Lazarus
b. Harry Levinson
c. Walter B. Cannon
d. Robert Kahn
8. Utilizing the cognitive appraisal approach to stress, problem-focused coping emphasizes:
a. managing your response
b. managing the stressor
c. managing the set of role expectations such that there is a good person-situation fit
d. managing the gap between your ego-ideal and real self-image
The psychoanalytic approach to stress most likely include which of the following personality dimensions?
a. self-monitoring
b. internal/external control
c. self-efficacy
d. self-esteem
The person-environment fit approach to stress emphasizes the:
a. fit between external and internal role expectations
b. belief that effort will lead to performance
c. notion that perception and cognitive evaluations of situations differ and accordingly stress is mostly determined by perception
d. idea that the fit between a person’s self-image or concept and their ideal generates large stress when there is lack of fit
The person-environment fit approach to studying and understanding stress emphasizes:
a. homeostasis
b. cognitive appraisal of the stress situation
c. ego involvement
d. social and organizational role stress
The fight-or-flight stress response is most closely associated with which approach to stress?
a. homeostatic
b. cognitive appraisal
c. person-environment fit
d. psychoanalytic
Which of the following is NOT a mind-body change associated with stress?
a. redirection of blood to brain and large muscle groups
b. increased sensory alertness
c. release of glucose into bloodstream
d. normal physical fatigue
Organizations need to be sensitive to sources of stress, which include all of the following except:
a. work
b. nonwork
c. global
d. resource
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a source of stress at work?
a. task demands
b. interpersonal demands
c. psychological demands
d. role demands
Task demands include all of the following except:
a. leadership style
b. lack of control
c. work overload
d. uncertainty
Two of the most stressful demands people face at work are:
a. change and heavy workload
b. lack of control and heavy workload
c. change and lack of control
d. change and lack of clear direction
***Role conflict results from:
a. lack of control
b. role ambiguity
c. work overload
d. inconsistent expectations
An employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience:
a. interrole conflict
b. intrarole conflict
c. person-role conflict
d. role ambiguity
A manager who presses employees for both very fast work and high-quality work would likely cause:
a. interrole conflict
b. intrarole conflict
c. person-role conflict
d. role ambiguity
A manager instructs an employee to ship an item with a minor defect to a customer. This is an example of:
a. role ambiguity
b. person-role conflict
c. interrole conflict
d. non-role conflict
22. Role ambiguity is:
a. the difficulty stemming from a situation where expectations of two roles conflict
b. conflicting expectations within a single role
c. the difficulty a person has in reconciling job demands and personal values
d. the confusion one experiences related to the expectations of others
The two major categories of “role stress” at work include:
a. role conflict and role overload
b. role conflict and role ambiguity
c. role ambiguity and role overload
d. role overload and ethical conflict
Which of the following is the best example of a positive (challenge) stressor?
a. role conflict
b. role ambiguity
c. time pressure
d. the degree politics affects organizational decisions
All of the following are stress-related interpersonal demands of the workplace except:
a. an authoritarian leadership style
b. sexual harassment
c. emotional toxins
d. intrarole conflict
***All of the following would be considered a source of stress due to interpersonal demands except:
a. role ambiguity
b. functional diversity
c. leadership style
d. sexual harassment
27. All of the following are approaches, services, or work arrangements intended to minimize the impact of nonwork demands on work except:
a. flextime scheduling
b. job sharing
c. telecommuting
d. mentoring
The Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that:
a. initial stress (or the onset of stress) causes performance to drop significantly
b. in the midrange of the stress-performance curve, performance tends to be greatest
c. stress and performance are unrelated
d. stress and performance are inversely related
The three forms of individual distress include:
a. psychological, medical, and behavioral problems
b. participation problems, performance decrements, and compensations deficit
c. work-related, stress-related, and organizational
d. personal, interpersonal, and intrapersonal
A positive consequence of organizational distress may take the form of:
a. performance decrements
b. absenteeism
c. employee work stoppage
d. functional turnover
Three direct costs of organizational distress include:
a. participation problems, performance decrements, and compensation awards
b. functional turnover, performance variation, and compensation awards
c. functional turnover, participation problems, and compensation awards
d. performance variation, participation problems, and compensation awards
Costs associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes, work stoppages, and turnover are known as:
a. performance decrements
b. participation problems
c. unrealistic job interview problems
d. intrarole conflict
Organizational costs of distress may take the form of all of the following except:
a. performance loss
b. interpersonal conflicts
c. sabotage
d. compensation awards
Individuals possessing a Type A personality:
a. are socially secure
b. are less prone than Type B personalities to heart attacks
c. may become aggressive, even somewhat hostile when faced with conflict and other work-related difficulties
d. tend to be relatively calm in difficult situations
Assume you are a supervisor of ten employees, one of whom is clearly a Type A personality. Which of the following approaches would you follow to effectively manage this employee?
a. Frequently remind the employee about schedules and deadlines.
b. Try to maintain a certain level of conflict with the employee because this will stimulate higher performance.
c. Keep the employee very busy by adding tasks and projects to the person’s workload.
d. Assist the employee through encouraging time management applications and convincing the person to pace him or herself.
42. The stress-handling strategy that is considered an alternative to transformational coping and may lead to short-term stress reduction at the cost of long-term healthy life adjustment is:
a. tertiary prevention
b. counterdependence
c. regressive coping
d. stress avoidance and withdrawal
Self-reliance is a healthy, secure, _____ pattern of behavior.
a. overdependent
b. counterdependent
c. psychologically distant
d. interdependent
As a supervisor of claim adjusters for a property and casualty insurance company, you assign and reassign adjusters to handle routine and emergency situations. Your managerial skills have become severely tested because several adjusters, after short-term emergency assignments, are threatening to quit. What short-term approach to their stressful situation would be most appropriate?
a. Reduce task demands and make sure no adjuster works more than five days a week.
b. Place them on sick leave or provide immediate comp time.
c. Arrange for psychological counseling.
d. Rotate them back to their home location and place them on medical leave.
A manager’s decision to reduce task demands in a stress management situation is:
a. symptom directed
b. secondary prevention
c. stressor directed
d. asymptomatic
Secondary prevention is intended to:
a. reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand causing stress
b. alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand
c. heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain
d. eliminate key environmental sources of stress or provide direct intervention to reduce the source of the stress
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain is called:
a. primary prevention
b. secondary prevention
c. tertiary prevention
d. job redesign
A secondary prevention method of organizational stress is:
a. job redesign
b. role negotiation
c. goal setting
d. team building
Job redesign, goal setting, and career management would be organizational stress prevention strategies applied at which stage of prevention?
a. escalating stage
b. primary stage
c. reduction stage
d. secondary stage
The job strain model presented in your text suggests:
a. high job demands lead to a high-strain job
b. low self-determination leads to a high-strain job
c. an active job is associated with high strain
d. that the combination of high job demand and restricted job decision latitude leads to a high-strain job
Job redesign as a stress prevention method may involve any one or all of the following except:
a. changing the schedule of work and the sequencing of tasks
b. giving the worker inspection responsibility or expanding the employee’s job decision latitude
c. reducing job tasks
d. setting output goals
Evaluative feedback is an aspect of a(n) _____ approach to stress prevention.
a. social support system
b. focal role definition
c. task specification
d. uncertainty reduction
Learned optimism is:
a. a secondary individual stress prevention method
b. the planning and prioritizing of tasks
c. is non-negative thinking
d. is a strong Type A personality characteristic
The biggest benefits of physical exercise come as a result of:
a. outside exercise that exposes you to sunshine which is linked to serotonin generation
b. low intensity exercise
c. exercising longer than 15 or 20 minutes
d. physical activities such as racquetball, squash, tennis, running
An employee assistance program is:
a. an individual prevention approach to stress relief or reduction
b. a first level or primary stress prevention approach
c. an organizational approach to stress reduction
d. normally an aftercare program for employee drug abusers