Nutrition- Weight management

Android (upper body) obesity
-classic pot belly shape (Apple shape)
-more highly correlated with metabolic risk: metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance (type II diabetes), high blood pressure, elevated lipids
Gynoid (lower body) obesity
-Pear shape
-Encouraged by estrogen and progesterone
-after menopause, upper body obesity appears
-less health risk tham upper body obesity
-more difficult to lose and keep fat off
Common weight management concerns for athletes
-impact on performance–need adequate CHO
-aesthetics, body image
-weight classification for competition
-changing body composition to aid performance
I.e., increase muscle mass and decrease fat mass
Hunger
Physiological (internal) drive to eat
Appetite
Psychological (external) drive to eat
-often in absence of hunger
I.e., seeing/smelling fresh baked cookies
Satiety
Feeling of fullness or satisfaction after eating
Appetite related forces
Availability. Time of day. Social obligations/customs. Characteristics of food (salty, fresh, sweet). Authority figures.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR or REE)
Energy for maintenance of normal body functions and homeostasis
Thermic effect of food
Diet induced energy expenditure
Energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients

Protein>CHO>Fat

Health consequences of obesity
Increased mortality
Increased morbidity
-heart disease, hypertension, stroke, type II diabetes, osteoarthritis
Causes of obesity
Genetic predisposition
Behavior practices
– poor diet and lack of exercise
Social/ cultural influences
Psychological factors
Environmental factors
-fast food, high calorie foods
Hypertrophy
Enlarging existing cell size
Hyperplasia
Increasing the number and fat cells
Dietary intake
Eating pattern of reduced calories and the maintenance of reduced calories. Should
Short term goals
Process oriented
-dieting and exercising
Longer term goals
Product oriented
-weight loss (lbs)
Ketosis
Insufficient CHO in diet (high protein)
Fad diets
Atkins (high protein)- not designed for the athlete
– habits aren’t changed, leads to weight regain
Weight cycling (yo-yo effect)
Typically weight loss is not maintained
-only 5% of weight losers keep It off, 1/3 lost weight regained in one year
Negative health consequences of weight cycling
-associated with upper body body fat deposition, discouragement and decreased self esteem
Componets of best weight loss program
Moderate calorie intake
Behavior management
Elevated physical activity
Keys to sound weight loss
1. Aware of the problem
-assess and evaluate current status
2. Setting goals: first target is 5-10% loss in BW
3. Moderation. 500-1000 kcal/day deficit
– incorporate a modest caloric constriction with elevated physical activity
Short term weight loss goals
1-2 lbs loss per week= negative energy balance of 500 kcal or greater
5-10% of BW over 3-6 month period
Long term weight loss goals
Performance, age, and gender healthy target
Minimal caloric intake
Male-1500 kcals/day
Female- 1200 kcals/day

Less than 1000 leads to intense hunger and diet fails

Behavior management
Identify behaviors that led to adult weight gain
Include behaviors that are appropriate and effective during weight loss
Change lifestyle to keep weight off
Behaviors to stop
Stimulus control- be in charge of temptations
Cognitive restructuring- labeling foods off limits, think about progress not limitations, set realistic goals
Plan for high risk situations
Self monitoring- r cord eating habits
Relapse strategies
Window of 3-5 lbs of weight gain
Lack of physical activity (4 days in a row)
2nd rep of destructive behavior
Withdraw from support group
Physical activity management
Adds to caloric deficit (energy expenditure)
Allows moderation is n diet in creating energy deficits
Workouts (300 kcals per workout)
Essential in keeping weight off
Successful strategies to keep weight off
PA- 300 mins per week
Social support- support groups
Recording what you eat
Positive self talk
Reasonable expectations
No Fad diets
Prior relapse strategies
Female athlete triad
Disordered eating- creating an energy deficit to lose weight
Menstrual irregularities- insufficient energy availability leads to a decrease in estrogen production resulting in amenorrhea
Bone loss, stress fractures, and osteoporosis- the lack of estrogen decreases calcium absorption and retention
Signs of muscle dysmorphia
Preoccupation with body shape/size (bulking up)
Preoccupation with muscularity impairs other aspects of life
Excessive exercise
Obsesses about food
May abuse steroids
Consequences of unhealthy weight loss
Decrease in performance
Glycogen depletion
Dehydration
Increased loss of fat-free mass
-impairs functional capacity
Lower quality training sessions
Requirements to gain weight
Regular resistance training
Positive energy balance
Positive nitrogen balance (protein)
How to train for hypertrophy
Overload principle
Train major muscles
Train for hypertrophy
8-10 reps/ set
3-5 sets/ muscle group
2-3 times per week