nutrition//sq chapter 4

Question Answer
carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth
the process of photosynthesis produces which molecule? glucose
the function of glycogen is to store glucose in humans and animals
which of the following substances is a polysaccharide? galactose, glycogen, fiber, starch glycogen, fiber, starch
what is true about enriched wheat bread? missing phytochemicals found in whole wheat bread, missing fiber, made from endosperm of the wheat kernel
which part of the grain kernel contains vitamin E and heart-healthy fats? germ
to which organs do monosaccharides go after absorption? liver
is cheese better tolerated than milk? yes
after the release of insulin, what happens? excess glucose will be stored in muscles as glycogen, stored in fat cells as fat, and stored in liver as glycogen
when does glycogenesis occur? when there is excess glucose in the blood
how long does it take for liver glycogen stores to be depleted? 18 hours
which of the following hormones increases blood glucose levels? glucagon, epinephrine, insulin
what are health benefits attributed to eating insoluble fiber? lowers risk of developing diverticulosis, constipation, and obesity
if poorly managed, diabetes can increase the likelyhood of eye disease, kidney disease, and amputations of limbs
what are names for sugar? dextrose, malt syrup, high-fructose corn syrup
which of the following carbs is made from 2 glucose units joined together? maltose
which of the following carbs is the storage form of glucose in animals? glycogen
which of the following carbs is known as milk sugar? lactose
the enzyme…begins the digestion of starch in the mouth amylase
the…converts galactose and fructose to glucose liver
both fat and … are important sources of stored energy glycogen
what are number-one sources of added sugars in the American diet? sports/energy drinks, sodas
the creation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources is called gluconeogenesis
all the nutrients and phytochemicals lost in the processing of wheat flour are added back in the enrichment process t/f false
being overweight puts a person at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes t/f true
when fasting continues long beyond glycogen depletion, body protein will be broken down to make glucose t/f true
type 1 diabetes requires daily insulin injections or an insulin pump t/f true
refined grains are more nutrient dense than whole grains t/f true
bodily complications that arise from poorly managed diabetes include increased risk of stroke, blindness, amputations, high blood pressure, heart attack, nerve damage
four ways you can increase the amount of fiber in your diet include insoluble fibers, whole grains, legumes, fruits/vegetables
type 1 vs type 2 diabetes type 1: caused by genetics, viral infections, toxins, take insulin everyday, under 30type 2: caused by being overweight, lose weight (exercise)

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