Nutrition For Office management

Jasper, a 5-year-old neutered male Labrador, has been fed a grocery store brand adult dog food for the past year. But now Jasper’s owner says Jasper is sluggish and has lost his shiny hair coat and weight. You determine Jasper’s body condition score to be 3 on a 9-point scale. To regain his energy, lustrous hair coat and weight, Jasper’s diet needs more nutrients from which categories? (Choose the best answer.)
A. water and vitamins
B. minerals and vitamins
C. protein and fat
D. carbohydrates and water
C. protein and fat
This year, Mr. Gordon will be pheasant hunting with friends in South Dakota, so he wants Flash, his 2-year-old intact male English Pointer, healthy and ready to flush and retrieve. Mr. Gordon asks about changing Flash’s food in preparation for hunting season so that he will have enough energy to hunt for several hours. Flash is eating a high-protein, moderate-fat diet. Compared to Flash’s current food, what nutrient could be increased in the new diet to provide greater energy density and more staying power on the hunt?
A. fat
B. vitamins
C. protein
D. water
A. Fat
Selecting a dog food with a higher proportion of fat will increase the diet’s energy, or caloric, density.
During a new puppy wellness visit, Ms. Sutton asks how much she should feed her new puppy. She doesn’t want to overfeed him, but she also wants to avoid underfeeding the puppy. What factors will influence the puppy’s energy needs?
A. neuter status
B.body size
C.environmental conditions
D.life stage
E. all of the listed factors may affect energy requirements
E.
Ms. Trotter has brought her adult Domestic Shorthair cat, Baloo, to the clinic for her rabies booster vaccination. Now she’s studying the Nestlé Purina Body Condition System™ poster on the exam room wall. As you step toward Ms. Trotter and the poster, she asks you about the purpose of body condition scoring and what score you would give Baloo.
You explain to Ms. Trotter that scoring Baloo’s body condition provides a quick, easy way to determine if Baloo is “just right,” too thin or too heavy for her skeletal structure and body type.
True
False
You also explain that a pet’s body condition score reflects the balance between calorie intake and energy requirements.
True
False
True
True
Ms. Olsen is calling with questions about the dry food she feeds her newly adopted 1-year-old neutered male tabby, Tigger. One of her coworkers told her Tigger shouldn’t be fed a dry cat food because dry foods contain high levels of carbohydrates, which cats don’t eat “in the wild.” You explain that, although carbohydrates are not an essential dietary nutrient for cats, carbohydrates can serve an important function because:

A.Carbohydrates are the primary building blocks of protein.
B.Carbohydrates act as messengers between cells.
C.Carbohydrates provide a readily available source of energy.
D. Good job! While carbohydrates are not essential nutrients for cats, small amounts of carbohydrates give cats a ready energy source so they can use more of the protein they eat to maintain and repair body tissues instead of making glucose.
E.Carbohydrates are converted to several key enzymes important to fat metabolism.

C
Mrs. Humphries has brought her 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat, Pussy Willow, and Puss’ litter of six 5-week-old kittens into the clinic. Pussy Willow has lost a substantial amount of hair and what is left is dry and brittle. Mrs. Humphries also is concerned because the kittens seem to be growing more slowly and mewing more frequently than in previous weeks. Pussy Willow has been eating a grocery-store brand of dry cat food that’s labeled for maintenance. Pussy Willow’s hair loss and the kitten’s slowed growth could be attributed to an inadequate amount of which nutrient?
protein
water
carbohydrates
vitamin K
Protein
Ms. Jefferson, who has a 7-year-old, spayed Siamese cat, recently heard from a friend that cats require more essential fatty acids than dogs. She wants to know if that’s true and, if so, which essential fatty acids her cat needs. What is your reply?

Yes, cats require two essential fatty acids, oleic acid and linolenic acid.
No, dogs require two essential fatty acids compared to the one fatty acid required by cats.
Yes, cats require two essential fatty acids, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid.
Yes, cats require two essential fatty acids, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid.

Great job! Cats require both arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, while dogs only require linoleic acid. These essential fatty acids are provided in sufficient amounts in all complete and balanced cat foods. (last answer)
Roadie, a 15-year-old Jack Russell Terrier belonging to Mr. Stewart, is fed a senior dog food with a guaranteed analysis of 29% crude protein, 14% crude fat, 2% crude fiber and 8% moisture on an as-fed basis. Roadie is in ideal body condition, his appetite is good, and he seems to like the food. Still, Mr. Stewart is concerned that Roadie’s food contains too much fat and wants to switch Roadie to a low-fat diet. Before Mr. Stewart makes the switch, you explain that fat in food has several important functions. Which one of the following reasons do you give?

Dietary fat is needed to transport fat-soluble vitamins from the intestines to the bloodstream.
Dietary fat provides a concentrated, readily digested source of energy.
Dietary fat provides essential fatty acids that are necessary for cell membrane integrity.
All of the above reasons would be included in a response to Mr. Stewart.

all of above
While reviewing the ingredient list of the canned chicken and beef entrée cat food she feeds her 12-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat, Mrs. Olson came across several terms that she didn’t recognize. Mrs. Olson’s question for you is, “Why are things like tricalcium phosphate, potassium chloride and ferrous sulfate added to cat food?” How do you respond?

Ingredients such as tricalcium phosphate, potassium chloride and ferrous sulfate are added to pet foods to ensure the food contains the proper amount and proportion of essential minerals.
You’re not sure why those ingredients are included, since diets high in chicken and beef contain enough calcium and magnesium to maintain a senior cat.
Adding potassium chloride is important for ensuring adequate potassium. It’s common for cat foods to be deficient in this key mineral.
Good question, Mrs. Olson! The ingredients are added to canned cat food for insurance, since the canning process destroys minerals naturally present in chicken and beef.

A
Ms. LeMons is calling with a question about her 3-year-old neutered male Chihuahua’s nutritional needs. While taking her daily vitamin-mineral supplement this morning, Ms. LeMons realized she knew nothing about her dog’s mineral requirements. Which one of the following microminerals (trace minerals) is essential for dogs and cats?

calcium
sodium
biotin
zinc

zinc
Ms. Schumacher will be picking up her newly adopted 2-month-old female puppy in three days and would like some advice. She recalls learning in high school biology class about a vitamin that works with minerals to produce strong bones, but she can’t remember anything more. Which fat-soluble vitamin fits Ms. Schumacher’s description?
vitamin B1
vitamin E
vitamin D
vitamin K
vitamin d
Mr. Biffle came to your hospital today with a question about his new puppy’s nutritional needs. A coworker suggested Mr. Biffle give his 4-month-old Labrador Retriever, Nitro, a vitamin C supplement because it can prevent developmental bone disease in large and giant breed dogs. Should Mr. Biffle give Nitro additional vitamin C?

Since vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is involved in collagen production, Mr. Biffle should supplement Nitro’s diet with vitamin C.

Mr. Biffle should give Nitro a daily vitamin C tablet because vitamin C deficiency can cause scurvy in puppies, just as it does in people.

Although vitamin C is involved in collagen production, Mr. Biffle does not need to give a vitamin C supplement because healthy dogs can make this vitamin from glucose.

Mr. Biffle does not need to give a vitamin C supplement because the vitamin has
nothing to do with collagen or bone formation.

c
3. The ______________ secretes enzymes, such as amylase and lipase, and releases sodium bicarbonate into the small intestine to aid in digestion.

a. gall bladder

b. liver

c. pancreas

d. salivary glands

C
4. The large intestine is the site of:

a. digestive enzyme secretion

b. vitamin D production

c. protein digestion

d. water and electrolyte absorption

D
5. Ingested food is mixed with bile and digestive enzymes
in the ______________.

a. large intestine

b. rectum

c. small intestine

d. stomach

C
. Which of these nutrients is most important for survival?

a. carbohydrates

b. energy

c. protein

d. water

D
8. Bioavailability refers to the:

a. amount of nutrients absorbed from the GI tract into the bloodstream

b. proportion of nutrients in food available for excretion via the large intestine

c. concentration of nutrients ingested by an animal regardless of absorption

d. percentage of nutrients found in 100 metabolizable calories of food

A
9. Stating nutrient levels on a dry-matter (DM) basis enables more accurate comparison of pet foods than expressing nutrient levels on an as-fed basis.

a. true

b. false

True
Water is essential to life because it:

a. facilitates chemical reactions, including those that occur during normal digestion

b. regulates body temperature by dissipating body heat

c. provides shape and flexibility to the body as a component of body cells, tissues and fluids

d. lubricates and cushions joints, body organs and the central nervous system

e. facilitates all of the activities listed above

E
What is the key function of energy in the body?

a. fueling metabolic reactions

b. transporting nutrients via the bloodstream

c. exchanging air in the lungs

d. contributing carbon atoms to other substances

A
Which nutrient is the most concentrated source of calories in pet food?

a. carbohydrates

b. fat

c. protein

d. all of the above

B
Fiber is a type of:

a. carbohydrate

b. fat

c. protein

d. vitamin

A
What is the primary function of carbohydrates in cat and dog foods?

a. carry vitamins A, D, E and K

b. deliver essential fatty acids

c. provide energy from glucose

d. supply essential amino acids

C
How does the cat’s ability to metabolize carbohydrates differ from the dog?

a. The cat lacks the enzyme glucokinase, which efficiently metabolizes glucose within cells. Instead, the cat uses hexokinase for glucose metabolism.

b. Cat saliva does not contain amylase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.

c. The cat has lower concentrations of carbohydrate-digesting enzymes than the dog.

d. All of the above explain the difference between feline and canine carbohydrate metabolism.

D
Which is a function of protein?

a. helps relieve constipation

b. serves as a structural component of tissues

c. supplies essential fatty acids

d. stimulates hunger

B
Which of the following can develop when cats and dogs are fed protein-deficient diets?

a. decreased immune function

b. increased appetite

c. weight gain

d. lustrous hair coat

B
Both dogs and cats require the essential fatty acid ______________.

a. arachidonic acid

b. eicosapentaenoic acid

c. linoleic acid

d. palmitic acid

C
Which macromineral plays a key role in maintaining acid-base balance and regulating normal osmotic pressure?

a. iron

b. phosphorus

c. sodium

d. sulfur

C
Moxie is a healthy 3-month-old spayed female Labrador Retriever that is eating Purina® Pro Plan® brand Chicken & Rice Formula for Puppies. Moxie’s owner wants to know if Moxie should receive a daily calcium supplement?

a. Yes, because a supplement helps protect against rickets, a common bone mineralization disorder in U.S. pets.

b. No, because Moxie is fed a complete and balanced dog food. Giving Moxie more dietary calcium than she needs may upset the diet’s nutritional balance.

c. No, because giving a calcium supplement may increase Moxie’s food intake.

d. Yes, because growing large-breed dogs like Moxie need more calcium than most adult dog foods provide.

C
Moxie is a healthy 3-month-old spayed female Labrador Retriever that is eating Purina® Pro Plan® brand Chicken & Rice Formula for Puppies. Moxie’s owner wants to know if Moxie should receive a daily calcium supplement?

a. Yes, because a supplement helps protect against rickets, a common bone mineralization disorder in U.S. pets.

b. No, because Moxie is fed a complete and balanced dog food. Giving Moxie more dietary calcium than she needs may upset the diet’s nutritional balance.

c. No, because giving a calcium supplement may increase Moxie’s food intake.

d. Yes, because growing large-breed dogs like Moxie need more calcium than most adult dog foods provide.

B
Which micromineral is essential to the production of thyroid hormones?

a. copper

b. iodine

c. selenium

d. zinc

B
Which vitamins are not stored in the body and must be provided in the diet every day?

a. alcohol-soluble vitamins

b. fat-soluble vitamins

c. protein-soluble vitamins

d. water-soluble vitamins

B
AAFCO does not recognize vitamin C (ascorbic acid) as essential for cats and dogs because healthy dogs and cats:

a. are born with a lifetime supply of vitamin C.

b. can make vitamin C from glucose.

c. do not require vitamin C.

B
Which statement about energy requirements and cats is true?
a. A cat’s energy requirement increases from young adulthood through middle age.
b. A cat’s energy requirement typically decreases from young adulthood through middle age, but then tends to increase after 10 to 13 years of age.
c. Feline energy needs decrease with age once a cat reaches its geriatric years.
d. Once a cat reaches 7 years old, its energy needs remain constant as it ages.
B
Mr. Wright has been surfing various Web sites lately to read about dog food ingredients. When he looked at the ingredient list of the adult maintenance food he’s feeding his 4-year-old Beagle, he saw that poultry by-product meal was the second ingredient. Mr. Wright wants to know what poultry by-product meal is and the value it adds to pet food. How do you respond?

A)Poultry by-product meal is made of ground, cooked parts of poultry carcasses including necks, feet and feathers. It’s a source of protein and fiber.

B)Poultry by-product meal consists of various parts of poultry carcasses, minus feathers, that have been rendered and ground. It can be an excellent source of protein and minerals.

C)Poultry by-product meal includes various parts of non-rendered poultry carcasses that have been ground up.

D)Poultry by-product meal consists of ground, uncooked parts of poultry carcasses such as necks, feet and feathers.

B
While participating in a local walk for animals with her 2-year-old Boston Terrier, Maggie, Ms. Grant listened as a group of dog owners discussed the making of pet foods. She’s calling today because she’s concerned that no regulatory agency oversees pet food manufacturers. Which U.S. federal agencies regulate the pet food industry?

A)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
B)U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
C)Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
D)FDA and USDA

D
Ms. L’Enfant is calling for advice on Sweet’ems, her 12-year-old Siamese cat that has suddenly become finicky about eating her canned food. Because she has been extremely busy at the office, Ms. L’Enfant explains, she has been giving Sweet’ems enough food to last into the late-evening hours. Sweet’ems is leaving food in her dish, yet acts hungry when Ms. L’Enfant returns home. Ms. L’Enfant gives Sweet’ems more canned cat food, even though she strongly dislikes wasting it.
Which option for feeding Sweet’ems should you suggest to Ms. L’Enfant?

A)Replace a portion of canned food with high-quality dry kibble that can be left out all day so Sweet’ems can nibble when she’s hungry

B)Switch Sweet’ems to a semi-moist cat food because it will stay fresh longer than canned food

C)Change Sweet’ems diet to include only dry cat food because it can be conveniently fed ad lib, allowing Sweet’ems to consume fresh food throughout the day

A
While wandering through the pet aisles at a local discount store, Mr. Irwin sees a new brand of dog food and buys a small bag for his 3-year-old neutered male Australian Cattle Dog, Dundee. Now he’s not sure if the new food contains enough protein to meet Dundee’s needs. Where on the pet food label would you look to address Mr. Irwin’s concern?

A)Guaranteed analysis
B)Nutritional adequacy statement
C)Ingredient list

A
Mrs. VanDorn has brought Sugar, her 18-month-old spayed female Husky, in for a checkup. Sugar appears healthy, but is a bit thin (BCS of 3.5 on a 9-point scale). Sugar is fed a dry food ad lib and is very active. Dr. Cline has recommended to Mrs. VanDorn that she switch Sugar to a diet with greater digestibility. After Dr. Cline leaves the exam room, Mrs. VanDorn asks you what “digestibility” means. You explain that digestibility:

A)Refers to the process pet food manufacturers use to make meat and poultry meals.

B)Is the proportion of nutrients in food available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

C)Is the ability of a nutrient to be absorbed and used by the body.

D)Refers to Sugar’s willingness to eat the new dog food.

B
Which protein source is preferred by body cells when synthesizing new proteins?

a. beef

b. chicken by-product meal

c. soybean meal

d. The original source doesn’t matter once proteins are digested to amino acids.

D
2. “Nutrients” and “ingredients” can be used interchangeably when describing dog and cat foods.

a. true

b. false

B
A pet food that is complete and balanced for one or more specific life stages contains:

a. most of the required nutrients for all life stages in a digestible form and in the correct ratios.

b. all required ingredients for a certain life style in a bioavailable form that exceeds AAFCO standards.

c. a majority of the required nutrients and ingredients in a digestible form and in the correct amounts.

d. all required nutrients for a particular life stage in a bioavailable form and in the correct proportions.

D
Ingredient quality has a substantial impact on nutrient availability, digestibility, nutritional adequacy and palatability of a pet food.

a. true

b. false

A
Which organization is NOT associated with defining, overseeing or approving the ingredients and additives used in cat and dog foods?

a. American Pet Product Manufacturers Association

b. Association of American Feed Control Officials

c. Food and Drug Administration

d. U.S. Department of Agriculture

A
Poultry by-product meal, poultry by-products, meat by-products, and meat and bone meal can contribute valuable nutrients, including protein and essential amino acids, fat, calcium and phosphorus, to cat and dog foods.

a. true

b. false

A
Pet food manufacturers often use more than one protein source in a dog or cat food because no single ingredient contains the correct proportions of all essential amino acids required by dogs or cats.

a. true

b. false

A
Which nutritional component stimulates intestinal tract movement, controls intestinal passage time and helps a cat or dog feel full when eating fewer calories?

a. fat

b. fiber

c. minerals

d. protein

B
How much water does a typical dry dog or cat food (kibble) contain?

a. less than 5%

b. less than 12%

c. approximately 15%

d. more than 12%

B
Which type of pet food, dispensed only through veterinary clinics, is formulated with unique nutrient profiles to help veterinarians manage specific health conditions?

a. premium

b. standard

c. super premium

d. veterinary

D
Which of the following statements is NOT true?

a. ABC Beef Dog Food contains at least 95% beef by weight.

b. ABC Beef Dinner contains at least 25% beef by weight.

c. ABC Dog Food With Beef contains at least 3% beef by weight.

d. ABC Beef Flavored Dog Food contains at least 25% beef by weight

D
Which nutrient guarantees are always required on the label of any cat and dog food marketed in the United States?

a. % crude protein (min), % crude fat (min), % crude fiber (max)

b. % crude protein (min), % crude fat (min), % linoleic acid (min)

c. % crude protein (min), % crude fiber (max), % calcium (max)

d. % crude fat (min), % magnesium (max), % water (min)

A
Based on the ingredient list shown, which ingredient is present in the largest quantity by weight?(turkey, brewers rice, animal fat preserved)

a. brewers rice

b. corn gluten meal

c. poultry by-product meal

d. turkey

D
The nutritional adequacy statement on a pet food package tells whether a food provides complete and balanced nutrition and is adequate for one or more life stages.

a. true

b. false

A
What is the definition of digestibility?

a. a percentage of a nutrient in food that is available for absorption by the body

b. the total amount of a specific nutrient present in the diet

c. an indication of the amount of food an animal will consume

d. the volume of a nutrient excreted from the body

A
Which of the following is a key safety concern associated with feeding raw meat or poultry and bones to dogs and cats?

a. damage to the GI tract by jagged or sharp bones

b. inability of animals to absorb minerals from ground bone

c. potential for ammonia toxicity due to a high-protein diet

d. absence of microorganisms in meat labeled fit for human consumption

A
Why might a raw meat diet be considered a public health issue?

a. Raw meat diets, especially those made from meat labeled for human consumption, are not considered a public health issue.

b. Raw meat diets may be contaminated with bacteria, protozoa and parasites that are capable of causing disease in people and pets.

B
The by-product and meal ingredients (e.g., poultry by-product meal, meat and bone meal) used to make cat and dog foods include indigestible or undesirable parts such as hair, feathers, hooves and stomach contents.

a. true

b. false

B
Decreasing the protein level in senior dog diets may be inappropriate because dietary protein helps:

a. slow age-associated loss of lean body mass.

b. maintain a strong immune system.

c. maximize protein turnover in the body.

d. all of the above.

A
Corn is a valuable ingredient that:

a. provides highly digestible carbohydrates.

b. is a good source of linoleic acid.

c. provides amino acids that complement those found in other proteins.

d. delivers all of the above listed nutrients

D
One of the most common food allergens for both dogs and cats is:

a. beef

b. lamb

c. rice

d. soybean meal

A
Which of the following statements about soy are true?

a. Soy is an excellent source of protein and essential amino acids.

b. Soy protein by itself contains enough taurine to meet the needs of cats and dogs.

c. Soy in dry dog food may increase a dog’s risk of developing gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

d. None of the above statements are true.

A
Several studies show that dietary protein levels consistent with complete and balanced nutrition may negatively affect kidney function of healthy older dogs.

a. true

b. false

B
Why should pet owners avoid feeding their dogs any form of onions?

a. Onions disrupt electrical impulse conductivity in the heart.

b. Onions are toxic to red blood cells, causing Heinz body anemia.

c. Onions damage white blood cells, leading to a compromised immune system.

d. Onions may cause severe halitosis in dogs.

B
Which compound is found in chocolate and may be toxic to dogs if consumed in large quantities?

a. histamine

b. phenylethylamine

c. serotonin

d. theobromine

D
Dogs are:

a. obligate carnivores

b. vegetarians

c. omnivores

d. none of the above

C
Dogs benefit from eating a variety of foods rather than a single-ingredient diet.

a. true

b. false

A
Which of the following is the most common nutritional disorder among dogs?

a. vitamin A deficiency

b. obesity

c. muscle atrophy

d. protein deficiency

B
Life stage nutrition refers to nutrient needs based on _____________.

a. age

b. gender

c. weight

d. overall health status

A
Of the three most important factors related to the health and wellness of companion animals — genetics, environment and nutrition — upon which might a veterinary professional expect to have the greatest impact?

a. genetics

b. environment

c. nutrition

C
_______________ is defined as “a specific quantity of food appropriate for a dog’s life stage and lifestyle offered at specific time(s) during the day.”

a. free-choice feeding

b. time-restricted feeding

c. food-restricted meal feeding

C
Maintaining a dog’s ideal body condition can help support _________.

a. healthy joints

b. optimal blood sugar levels

c. ideal blood pressure and heart rate

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

D
In the Nestle Purina PetCare Life Span Study, feeding to ideal body condition throughout dogs’ lives extended their median life span by 1.8 years.

a. true

b. false

A
Based on the Nestle Purina Body Condition System™’s 9-point scale, a body condition score of ________ is ideal for a dog.

a. 2 to 3

b. 4 to 5

c. 6 to 7

d. 8 to 9

B
If you provide free-choice food to a dog, the dog:

a. will always restrict intake to maintain ideal body condition

b. may overeat

c. neither a nor b

d. both a and b

B
In general, a dog is not considered to be a senior until the age of:

a. 3 years

b. 5 years

c. 7 years

d. 9 years

C
Puppies should be introduced to solid food by offering dry food mixed with warm water at:

a. 2 weeks of age

b. 3 to 4 weeks of age

c. 6 to 8 weeks of age

d. 12 weeks of age

B
What percentage of their energy intake do puppies use for growth in the first few weeks after weaning?

a. 10%

b. 25%

c. 50%

d. 100%

C
How many meals a day should a young puppy receive?

a. 1 meal a day

b. 2 meal a day

c. at least 3 meals a day

C
Puppies of various breed sizes all gain weight and mature at the same rate.

a. true

b. false

B
Providing _______________ during growth can produce excessively rapid growth in larger breed puppies.

a. an excess of calories

b. a diet high in fat

c. a diet high in fiber

d. all of the above

A
A diet of table scraps for an adult dog generally provides complete and balanced nutrition.

a. true

b. false

B
Puppy food should not be fed to adult dogs because:

a. Growth diets may be too energy-dense for some adult dogs.

b. Adult dogs will not find puppy food to be palatable.

c. both a and b

d. neither a nor b

A
Regardless of the type of dog food fed to an adult dog, the dog should always be given supplements.

a. true

b. false

B
Nutritional requirements of bitches during lactation are similar to:

a. puppies

b. other adult dogs

c. senior dogs

A
A bitch’s weight increases most rapidly during the __________ trimester.

a. first

b. second

c. third

C
The goal of a senior dog nutrition plan is to ______________ even though age-related metabolic changes may be taking place.

a. maintain optimal health

b. maintain ideal body condition

c. both a and b

d. neither a nor b

C
A dog’s resting metabolic rate _________________ with age.

a. does not change

b. slows

c. increases

B
A good senior dog diet has reduced _____________ to help maintain ideal body condition.

a. fiber

b. fat and calories

c. protein

d. glucosamine

B
A dog’s environment can affect its nutritional needs.

a. true

b. false

A
A ________________ formula is an ideal diet for a hardworking dog.

a. growth

b. maintenance

c. performance

d. senior

C
Which of the following characteristics does NOT describe a performance diet for dogs?

a. optimal protein-to-fat ratio

b. highly digestible

c. highly palatable

d. low calorie content

D
Dog foods designed for optimizing dermatologic health should contain:

a. specialized blends of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

b. increased levels of certain vitamins and/or minerals

c. high-quality, highly digestible proteins

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

D
A weight management formula for dogs typically contains _________ fiber than a maintenance formula to help dogs feel satisfied while losing weight.

a. more

b. less

A
In addition to diet, what other recommendation would you likely make for a dog needing to lose weight?

a. supplements

b. exercise

c. medication

d. none of the above

e. all of the above

B
1. Domestic cats are:

a. omnivores

b. carnivores

c. vegetarians

d. none of the above

B
By nature, cats:

a. are nibblers

b. eat one meal a day

c. eat large meals once or twice a week

d. none of the above

A
Cats cannot synthesize ___________________, so it must be included in their diets.

a. acetic acid

b. arachidonic acid

c. boric acid

d. none of the above

B
Each day, cats require _______________________ dogs.

a. less protein than

b. as much protein as

c. more protein than

d. none of the above

C
Tabitha, a 4-year-old Persian cat, has a body condition score of 6. How does her score compare with ideal body condition?

a. Tabitha is too thin.

b. Tabitha has ideal body condition.

c. Tabitha is too heavy.

C
Choosing the appropriate nutrition plan for a cat allows its owner to:

a. feed to help promote optimal health, longevity and performance

b. meet their cats’ individual nutritional needs

c. match nutritional intake to the cat’s needs based on life stage, lifestyle and body condition

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

D
__________________ feeding is recommended for cats (unless they are overweight) because they tend to eat multiple meals throughout the day and night.

a. meal-restricted

b. free-choice

B
For cats, cow’s milk is a good substitute for water.

a. true

b. false

B
Regularly feeding ______________________ may cause a thiamine deficiency in cats.

a. raw meat

b. raw eggs

c. raw fish

d. cow’s milk

C
Around age 11, a cat’s ability to absorb key nutrients declines and its senses diminish.

a. true

b. false

A
Energy requirements ___________________ as indoor cats age.

a. decrease drastically

b. increase drastically

c. remain fairly constant

C
Because a cat’s size increases by _____________ in its first 5 months of life, she must consume large quantities of nutritious food during that time.

a. 100%

b. 200%

c. 500%

d. 2,000%

D
Kittens need _______________________________.

a. less protein than puppies

b. more protein than puppies

c. slightly less protein than adult cats

d. slightly more protein than adult cats

e. a & c

f. b & d

F
Which of the following statements qualify as a reason to discourage feeding a vegetarian diet to a cat?

a. Vegetables, dairy and grain products cannot supply all the nutrients cats require.

b. Some vegetarian diets are too low in fiber content.

c. Some vegetarian diets are too low in protein content.

A
Cats are not able to readily adapt to _____________________.

a. low levels of dietary fat

b. low levels of dietary protein

c. low levels of dietary fiber

B
_________________ is a good way to increase a cat’s water intake.

a. providing milk as well as water

b. switching from dry food to canned food

c. frequently refreshing water in the water dish

d. a & b

e. b & c

E
How much of a queen’s weight gain during pregnancy is stored as maternal body fat to provide energy during lactation?

a. 20%

b. 40%

c. 60%

d. 80%

C
During the ninth week of pregnancy, __________________ is a good indication a queen will deliver her litter within the next 24 to 48 hours.

a. a marked increase in food intake

b. a marked increase in water intake

c. refusing to eat

C
The demand for mother’s milk by nursing kittens and a queen’s food and water requirements peak when kittens are:

a. 1 to 2 weeks old

b. 3 to 4 weeks old

c. 5 to 6 weeks old

d. 7 to 8 weeks old

B
Beginning at 12 to 14 years of age, some cats become less able to digest ____________________.

a. fiber

b. fat

c. protein

d. a & b

e. b & c

f. a & c

E
Most cats are either very active “live wires” or sedentary “couch potatoes.”

a. true

b. false

B
A cat living in an extremely hot or cold environment will require more calories than a cat living under more moderate conditions.

a. true

b. false

A
Stress often has a _______________ impact on a cat’s appetite.

a. neutral

b. negative

c. positive

B
Which of the following cat breeds is characteristically energetic and active?

a. Persian

b. Russian Blue

c. American Bobtail

d. Abyssinian

D
Occasionally, ingested hair coalesces with _______ in a cat’s stomach to form a hairball that is too big to pass through the gastrointestinal tract.

a. protein

b. fat

c. undigested fiber

d. none of the above

B
There are two ways to help a cat lose weight: reduce its caloric intake and encourage her to expend more energy through increased exercise.

a. true

b. false

A
Purina® Pro Plan® Urinary Tract Health Formula helps maintain urinary tract health by:

a. increasing urinary pH

b. decreasing urinary pH

c. providing high dietary magnesium

d. providing low dietary magnesium

e. a & c

f. b & d

F
A cat will maintain the same activity level, whether he spends most of his time indoors or outdoors.

a. true

b. false

B
Supplements are rarely necessary when a normal healthy cat is fed a complete balanced diet.

a. true

b. false

A
At what age are kittens ready to try solid food?

a. 1 to 2 weeks

b. 3 to 4 weeks

c. 8 to 10 weeks

d. 12 to 14 weeks

B
It is estimated that between 25% and 40% of cats and dogs seen by veterinarians can be classified as overweight or obese.

a. true

b. false

A
Body weight can be affected by factors such as body conformation and frame; amount of body fat; and weight gain due to fluid retention. Because of these variables, which of the following is a more objective measure than body weight to determine whether a cat or dog is overweight or obese?

a. blood chemistry profile

b. body condition score

c. urinalysis

B
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a technique used ____________________ to estimate body fat level.

a. in the veterinary hospital

b. at home by the pet owner

c. in the research laboratory

C
When canine obesity is the tentative diagnosis, a thorough physical examination and laboratory profile should be performed to rule out which of the following conditions?

a. hypothyroidism

b. abdominal gas distension

c. Cushing’s disease

d. organomegaly

e. all of the above

E
An effective weight loss program depends on creating:

a. a positive energy balance (more food taken in than energy expended)

b. a negative energy balance (less food taken in than energy expended)

B
The best way to get a patient back to ideal body condition is through an easy to understand and follow weight management program.

a. true

b. false

A
Severely restricting calorie intake may result in:

a. rapid weight loss and loss of lean body mass.

b. slow, steady weight loss.

c. effective long-term weight management.

A
Which of the following types of diet has been shown to be effective for weight loss in dogs?

a. high-fat, high-fiber

b. low-fat, high-fiber

c. high-fat, low fiber

B
Diets with higher protein-to-calorie ratios:

a. help minimize loss of lean body mass.

b. help increase fat loss.

c. neither a nor b.

d. both a and b.

D
Client education is not a necessary component of a successful patient weight management program.

a. true

b. false

B
Approximately how many dogs and cats seen at veterinary hospitals have diabetes mellitus?

a. 1 in every 100

b. 5 in every 100

c. 1 in every 1,000

d. 5 in every 1,000

A
Insulin facilitates the entry of what important nutrient into cells?

a. vitamin C

b. vitamin E

c. glucose

C
Type 1 diabetes, which is common in dogs, is characterized by:

a. a lack of insulin in the body.

b. a low amount of insulin.

c. an inability of the body to respond normally to insulin.

A
Many of the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus can be attributed to the effects of ______________ on the body.

a. hypoglycemia

b. hyperglycemia

c. hyperphosphatemia

d. hypokalemia

B
The primary goal of a diabetes management program is to keep ________________________ within a safe range at all times.

a. serum cholesterol

b. blood urea nitrogen

c. blood glucose

d. alkaline phosphatase

C
Feeding similar amounts of which nutrient at consistent times every day has the greatest impact on postprandial blood glucose concentrations?

a. carbohydrate

b. protein

c. fat

d. micronutrients

A
Between meals, when blood glucose levels are typically lowest, the body produces glucose from ____________ in a process called gluconeogenesis.

a. fat

b. protein

c. carbohydrate

B
Adding vitamin E to a diet can reduce:

a. the amount of glucose in the blood.

b. the degree of insulin resistance.

c. the level of oxidative damage.

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber COntrol® brand Canine Formula contains a _____________________________ to help delay glucose absorption.

a. high level of simple carbohydrates

b. low level of complex carbohydrates

c. high level of complex carbohydrates

B
The high protein content of Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management™ brand Feline Formula helps promote insulin sensitivity and aids glucose control.

a. true

b. false

A
Which of the following conditions is the most common joint disorder in dogs?

a. osteochondritis dissecans

b. patellar luxation

c. osteoarthritis

d. rheumatoid arthritis

C
Which of the following joints is most commonly involved in this progressive and irreversible condition?

a. hip

b. hock

c. intervertebral

d. metacarpal

A
Which part(s) of the joint are affected by osteoarthritis?

a. bone

b. articular surfaces

c. cartilage

d. a and b

e. a and c

f. a, b and c

F
Increased release of ________________________ drives inflammatory changes associated with osteoarthritis.

a. pro-inflammatory mediators

b. cholecystokinin

c. lipase

A
Which of the following clinical signs is not exhibited by a dog with osteoarthritis?

a. pain reaction upon palpation of affected joint

b. joint crepitus

c. joint shrinkage

d. joint effusion

C
______________________ is a valuable diagnostic tool to rule out septic or immune-mediated joint disease.

a. Complete blood count

b. Serum analysis

c. Urinalysis

d. Synovial fluid analysis

D
Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for osteoarthritis because excess weight increases the amount of damage to cartilage and fat cells are a source of inflammatory cytokines.

a. true

b. false

A
Adding ______________________ to a dog’s diet helps reduce production of inflammatory mediators such as PGE2.

a. phospholipids

b. cyclooxygenase-2

c. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids

d. omega-6 fatty acids

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® JM Joint Mobility® brand Canine Formula has a __________________ to help dogs maintain ideal body condition and support strong muscles.

a. reduced antioxidant level

b. high protein-to-calorie ratio

c. high level of omega-6 fatty acids

d. high fat content

C
In dogs, the most common type of heart condition affects:

a. heart muscle.

b. heart valves.

c. blood vessels.

B
In cats, the most common type of heart condition affects:

a. heart muscle.

b. heart valves.

c. blood vessels.

A
Which of the following conditions is the most common form of heart disease in cats:

a. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

b. primary hypertension.

c. dilated cardiomyopathy.

A
When the heart begins to fail, it has to work harder, which results in:

a. increased blood flow to tissues.

b. slower heart rate.

c. thickened heart muscle.

C
Although most heart conditions in dogs and cats are chronic, their clinical signs may seem to develop suddenly because the subclinical signs may be difficult to detect.

a. true

b. false

A
Which of the following diagnostic tests is an important tool for diagnosing cardiovascular disease?

a. urinalysis

b. pulmonary function test

c. ACTH stimulation test

d. thoracic radiography

D
Canine and feline congestive heart failure is typically managed with:

a. medication alone.

b. diet alone.

c. exercise alone.

d. medication and diet.

D
Which of the following dietary modifications would be effective for managing the fluid retention often seen with heart failure?

a. increased palatability

b. sodium restriction

c. increased potassium

d. adequate levels of carnitine and taurine

B
Dogs with heart disease often suffer from cardiac cachexia, a syndrome characterized by:

a. sudden weight gain and subsequent problems associated with obesity.

b. gradual hardening of the arteries.

c. unintentional loss of body fat and muscle mass.

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® Feline Formulas contain added ________ to help support optimal myocardial function.

a. taurine

b. methionine

c. arginine

A
Which of the following is a possible clinical sign of feline lower urinary tract disease?

a. increased frequency of defecation

b. increased hunger

c. weight gain

d. difficult or painful urination

D
What are the most common types of feline lower urinary tract disease?

a. idiopathic cystitis and urolithiasis

b. neoplasia and behavioral problems

c. urinary tract infection and urethral obstruction

d. anatomic defect and urinary tract infection

A
Dietary manipulation may be used to dissolve which type of uroliths in cats?

a. ammonium

b. biurate

c. calcium oxalate

d. sterile struvite

D
Increased water intake and decreased dietary protein are beneficial for cats with lower urinary tract disease.

a. true

b. false

B
Which of the following factors is the most important when managing cats with struvite crystalluria and urolithiasis?

a. decreased dietary magnesium

b. urine pH

c. increased water intake

d. a, b and c

e. b and c

B
Which cat is more likely to develop lower urinary tract disease?

a. a 6-month-old intact Siamese female

b. a 15-year-old intact domestic longhair male

c. a 6-year-old neutered Himalayan male

d. a 10-year-old spayed Abyssinian female

C
A complete urinalysis with sediment evaluation of a fresh urine sample from a feline patient suspected of having lower urinary tract disease may reveal _________________________.

a. crystalluria

b. dysuria

c. pollakiuria

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

A
Dietary magnesium restriction may increase the risk of calcium oxalate urolith formation.

a. true

b. false

A
Purina Veterinary Diets® UR URinary® St/Ox brand Feline Formula is formulated to help reduce risk of __________________________ uroliths and promote increased urine volume.

a. urate and calcium phosphate

b. calcium oxalate and struvite

c. cystine and struvite

d. silica and struvite

B
Uroliths are least likely to form when urine is _______________________ for a particular urolith type.

a. undersaturated

b. saturated

c. supersaturated

d. oversaturated

A
Which of the following factors are considered to be causes of gastrointestinal disorders?

a. dietary indiscretion

b. stress

c. abrupt change in diet

d. none of the above

e. all of the above

E
Which of the following problems is a possible risk factor for or cause of acute gastritis?

a. diabetes mellitus

b. dietary indiscretion

c. anorexia

d. inappetence

B
Colitis is an important cause of:

a. small bowel diarrhea.

b. chronic vomiting.

c. large bowel diarrhea.

C
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is due to a lack of:

a. insulin.

b. antibodies.

c. fatty acids.

d. pancreatic enzymes.

D
Which of the following clinical signs is the most common finding in a cat or dog with an intestinal condition?

a. diarrhea

b. vomiting

c. abdominal pain

d. inappetence

A
The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract can have both positive and negative effects.

a. true

b. false

A
A diet that is highly digestible helps manage small bowel disorders because it facilitates:

a. increased stimulation of gastric and intestinal secretions.

b. nutrient absorption.

c. water retention.

B
Some patients with large bowel disorders may benefit from a diet containing:

a. no fiber.

b. reduced quantities of fiber.

c. moderate amounts of both soluble and insoluble fiber.

C
Which of the dietary characteristics listed below may benefit dogs suffering from exocrine pancreatic disorders?

a. high fat

b. low fat

c. increased levels of long-chain triglycerides

d. reduced amounts of medium-chain triglycerides

B
Which of these Purina Veterinary Diets® formulas is indicated for use in managing dogs with colitis?

a. Purina Veterinary Diet® DRM Dermatologic Management® Canine Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN GastroENteric® brand Canine Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber COntrol® brand Canine Formula

d. Purina Veterinary Diets® HA HypoAllergenic™ brand Canine Formula

C
Which of the following statements about food allergy is true?

a. Food allergy is an adverse immune-mediated reaction to a specific food.

b. A food allergy develops only at very young ages and typically does not require sensitization.

c. Food allergy is a normal response to an abnormal food.

d. A food allergy is easy to diagnose using a patient’s diet history and intradermal skin tests.

A
Since dermatologic signs of food allergy often mimic other common skin conditions, food allergy should be part of the differential diagnosis for all cases of intractable pruritus.

a. true

b. false

A
he nutrient of greatest concern in food allergic reactions is ________________________.

a. carbohydrate

b. fat

c. protein

d. vitamins

C
Dogs and cats with food allergies typically present with:

a. dermatological or renal signs.

b. gastrointestinal or hepatic signs.

c. hepatic or renal signs.

d. gastrointestinal or dermatological signs.

D
Which of these tests is most useful for diagnosing food allergy?

a. serologic test

b. elimination diet trial

c. intradermal skin test

d. urinalysis

B
An elimination diet may need to be fed exclusively for at least _______ weeks as part of an elimination diet trial.

a. 2-4

b. 8-12

c. 20-32

d. 50-52

B
A hypoallergenic diet, such as Purina Veterinary Diets® HA HypoAllergenic® brand Canine Formula, contains soy protein that has been reduced in size by hydrolysis to small peptides.

a. true

b. false

A
As an alternative to a hypoallergenic diet containing hydrolyzed protein, dogs with confirmed food allergies can be managed by feeding a diet that contains:

a. high levels of multiple proteins.

b. a novel protein to which the dog has not been previously exposed.

c. only synthetic amino acids.

d. a common carbohydrate source to which the dog may or may not have been previously exposed.

B
Which nutritional factors promote skin health?

a. omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids

b. zinc

c. vitamin A and vitamin E

d. protein

e. a, b and c

f. all of the above

F
The most common sign of food allergies in dogs is:

a. anorexia.

b. nonseasonal pruritus.

c. increased urination frequency.

d. lethargy.

B
Which of these statements regarding periodontal disease is true?

a. Periodontal disease is a calculus-induced inflammation of mandibular teeth.

b. Periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease; gingivitis is the last stage.

c. Periodontal disease is always reversible, no matter how advanced the condition becomes.

d. Periodontal disease is plaque-induced disease of the periodontium that includes both gingivitis and periodontitis.

D
What tissue covers the outer surface of the tooth’s root?

a. dentin

b. cementum

c. enamel

d. pulp

B
Halitosis is often the first sign of periodontal disease noticed by a pet owner.

a. true

b. false

A
Which of the following tasks are essential for assessing the presence of periodontal disease?

a. examine the face and head for symmetry, swelling or discharge

b. assess the oral cavity, mucous membranes and teeth

c. probe along each tooth to assess gingival sulcus depth, gingival recession and tooth mobility

d. obtain survey radiographs to assess changes in alveolar bone

e. all of the above

E
Plaque bacteria associated with healthy gingivae are mainly ___________________ bacteria, but as plaque thickens and extends into the gingival sulcus, the bacterial population shifts to include more ________________________ bacteria.

a. gram-negative anaerobic; gram-negative aerobic

b. gram-positive anaerobic; gram-negative facultative anaerobic

c. gram-positive aerobic; gram-negative anaerobic

d. gram-negative aerobic; gram-positive aerobic

C
Periodontal disease has been linked to tissue changes in canine kidneys, heart muscle and liver, and oral bacteria may cause pneumonia if aspirated into the lungs.

a. true

b. false

A
In stage ____ periodontal disease, gingival redness, plaque, calculus and edema are seen.

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

A
Which characteristics of pet food can affect plaque and calculus buildup?

a. form (canned vs. dry)

b. kibble size

c. kibble texture

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

D
Purina Veterinary Diets® DH Dental Health® brand Canine and Feline Formulas have a ____________________________ to help keep teeth clean between dental visits when fed every day.

a. common kibble size

b. special tartar-control coating

c. patented kibble texture

d. secret plaque-fighting ingredient

C
Periodontal disease therapy focuses on controlling gingival inflammation, the cause of plaque and calculus accumulation.

a. true

b. false

B
The kidneys act as the body’s _________________ system.

a. infection-fighting

b. oxygenation

c. filtration

C
The prevalence of chronic renal failure is higher in older dogs and cats, especially those over 15 years of age, than in the general pet population.

a. true

b. false

A
The functional unit of the kidney is called the:

a. nephron.

b. acinus.

c. glomerulus.

d. islet of Langerhans.

A
Waste-laden blood enters the kidney. Which of the following substances leave the kidney after the blood has been processed?

a. urine

b. filtered blood

c. lymph

d. bile

e. a and b

f. c and d

E
Which of the following statements characterizes acute renal failure?

a. sudden onset of marked clinical signs

b. gradual onset of subtle clinical signs

A
Chronic renal failure is reversible even though it develops over months or years.

a. true

b. false

B
Which of the following laboratory test results commonly has a higher than normal value in a cat or dog with kidney disease?

a. total RBC count

b. hemoglobin

c. urine specific gravity

d. creatinine

D
Renal failure must be differentiated from other conditions characterized by polyuria and polydipsia.

a. true

b. false

A
It is recommended that the protein level in the diets of canine and feline patients with chronic renal failure be ____________________.

a. increased

b. kept at the same level as that in a maintenance diet

c. restricted

C
Dietary phosphorus should be ________________________ in dogs and cats with chronic renal failure to help preserve renal function.

a. increased

b. kept at the same level as that in a maintenance diet

c. restricted

C
What percent of liver cells must be viable for the liver to function normally?

a. 5% to 10%

b. 10% to 20%

c. 20% to 30%

d. 30% to 40%

C
It is easy to diagnose liver disease in cats and dogs because the clinical signs are obvious early in the disease process.

a. true

b. false

B
What proportion of its blood supply does the liver receive directly from the gastrointestinal tract?

a. one-tenth

b. one-fourth

c. two-thirds

d. the whole blood supply, 100%

C
Which of the following conditions is the most common liver condition seen in dogs?

a. reactive hepatopathies

b. portosystemic shunts

c. neoplasias

A
Obese cats are sometimes afflicted with hepatic lipidosis following prolonged periods of ______________________.

a. diarrhea

b. vomiting

c. inappetence

d. depression

C
As liver disease progresses, less common signs may surface, including:

a. icterus

b. ascites

c. hepatic encephalopathy

d. all of the above

D
If a liver condition is advanced and the patient is suffering from hepatic encephalopathy, which of the diet types listed below would be most appropriate?

a. a diet with moderately increased levels of high-quality protein

b. highly digestible, reduced-protein diet with minimal animal protein

B
Accumulation of ______________ in the liver is associated with hepatitis and cirrhosis due to inherited defects in certain breeds of dogs, such as Bedlington Terriers.

a. copper

b. potassium

c. zinc

d. vitamin K

A
Which of these Purina Veterinary Diets® formulas would you recommend for management of a dog suffering from a liver condition not associated with hepatic encephalopathy?

a. Purina Veterinary Diet® DRM Dermatologic Management® Canine Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN GastroENteric® Canine Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber COntrol® Canine Formula

d. Purina Veterinary Diets® NF KidNey Function® Canine Formula

B
Which of these Purina Veterinary Diets® formulas would you recommend for management of a cat suffering from hepatic lipidosis?

a. Purina Veterinary Diets® NF KidNey Function® Feline Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN GastroENteric® Feline Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diet® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula

d. Purina Veterinary Diets® OM Overweight Management® Feline Formula

e. b or c

E
Which of the following clinical signs is characteristic of large bowel diarrhea?

a. Large-volume stools

b. Weight loss

c. Mucus-laden stools streaked with blood

C
When a dog or cat presents with signs of acute GI upset, it is a good idea to recommend:

a. Withholding food for a day to rest the GI tract

b. Switching the pet to a high-fiber food.

c. Immediately changing the diet.

A
The probiotics in Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora® Canine and Feline Nutritional Supplements are microencapsulated to protect the viable bacteria until they reach the animal’s intestinal tract.

a. True

b. False

A
Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber Control® Canine Formula is an ideal diet for a dog with large bowel diarrhea because it:

a. Provides moderate levels of soluble and insoluble fiber to help slow intestinal transit

b. Provides high levels of soluble and insoluble fiber to help speed up intestinal transit

A
Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula is:

a. High in carbohydrates and low in protein for faster metabolism and quicker release of glucose into the bloodstream

b. Low in carbohydrate and high in protein for more gradual release of glucose into the bloodstream

B
What kind of protein does Purina Veterinary Diets® HA Hypoallergenic® Canine Formula contain?

a. Beef

b. Chicken

c. Soy

d. Lamb

C
In small bowel diarrhea, stools are typically characterized by:

a. Semi-formed stools

b. Large-volume, watery stools

B
What dietary change would you recommend for a well controlled diabetic cat experiencing small bowel diarrhea?

a. Temporarily switch cat from Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula to Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Feline Formula

b. Supplement the cat’s Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula with Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora® Nutritional Supplement

B
Many cats with chronic diarrhea improve when switched to a diet that is:

a. high carbohydrate, high protein diet

b. low carbohydrate, high protein diet

c. low carbohydrate, low protein diet

B
Purina Veterinary Diets® Gentle Snackers® Hypoallergenic Canine Treats are formulated with the same hypoallergenic ingredients as:

a. Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber Control® Canine Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® HA Hypoallergenic® Canine Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Canine Formula

B
What condition would you suspect if a dog presented with non-seasonal pruritus, diarrhea and bilateral otitis externa?

a. Diabetes mellitus

b. Dietary indiscretion

c. Food allergy

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Canine Formula is nutritionally complete and balanced for both growing puppies and adult dogs.

a. True

b. False

A
Colitis is a common cause of large bowel diarrhea in dogs and cats.

a. True

b. False

A
Purina® Glucotest® Feline Urinary Glucose Detection System is designed for:

a. In-clinic urine glucose measurement

b. At-home monitoring of a cat’s urine glucose levels

B
If a puppy presents with soft, mushy stools and a slightly distended belly, you would suspect:

a. Parasitic infection, possibly roundworms

b. Dietary indiscretion

c. Ingestion of a toxic plant

A
Which of the following clinical signs might you see in a dog with a case of dietary indiscretion?

a. Constipation

b. Vomiting

c. Large bowel diarrhea

B
Aerophagia can occur when a dog:

a. Eats dry dog food

b. Eats table food

c. Gulps food too quickly

C
Which of the following methods is most reliable for diagnosing food allergies in dogs and cats?

a. In-clinic allergy testing

b. Veterinary-supervised elimination diet trial

B
The probiotic in Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora® Canine and Feline Nutritional Supplements helps restore proper balance of:

a. “Good” bacteria and “bad” bacteria in the gut

b. Fiber and fat in the gut

c. Glucose in the bloodstream

A
Carbohydrate digestion may decrease in feline GI disease, resulting in carbohydrate malabsorption and osmotic diarrhea.

a. True

b. False

A
Which of the following Purina Veterinary Diets® formulas is the most appropriate for a cat with small bowel diarrhea?

a. Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Feline Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® UR Urinary St/Ox® ® Feline Formula

B
Vomiting and diarrhea are:

a. Common early signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs

b. Systemic complications of advanced cases of diabetes mellitus in cats and dogs

B
Which set of features do Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Canine and Feline Formulas possess:

a. Moderate digestibility, high fiber content, high fat content

b. Low digestibility, high fiber content, low fat content

c. High digestibility, low fiber content, moderate fat content

C
Which clinical sign might you see in a cat with poor digestion and nutrient malabsorption?

a. Weight loss

b. Weight gain

c. Acute diarrhea

A
n a pet with a parasite infection, a fecal exam will always provide a definitive diagnosis

a. True

b. False

B
When GI disease is classified as “idiopathic,” the cause is:

a. Viral

b. Parasitic

c. Immune-mediated

d. Unknown

D
A pet with excessive gas and diarrhea may be gulping food. Which of the following changes could be recommended to help alleviate these GI issues?

a. Feed one large meal once a day

b. Feed smaller meals two to three times per day

c. Restrict exercise

B
Purina Veterinary Diets® HA Hypoallergenic® Canine Formula contains hydrolyzed protein. Hydrolysis:

a. Causes proteins to form large complexes

b. Breaks protein into lower molecular weight peptides.

B
Purina Veterinary Diets® FortiFlora® Feline Nutritional Supplement can help a group of cats recover from a widespread parasitic infection by:

a. Eliminating parasites from the cats’ GI tracts

b. Improving the microflora balance of the cats’ GI tracts

c. Preventing future parasitic infections

B
Replacing carbohydrate calories with protein calories in the diet of a diabetic cat can slow glucose release into the bloodstream, which contributes to better glucose control.

a. True

b. False

A
What percentage of adult cats and dogs in the United States is considered overweight or obese?

a. 10 to 25 percent

b. 53 to 55 percent

c. 65 to 75 percent

B
In a 14-year-study by Purina researchers, dogs fed to ideal body condition throughout their lives had a median life span of ___ years longer than their overweight littermates.

a. 1.8 years

b. 2.5 years

c. 3.2 years

A
A patient medical history should note any medications the pet is currently being given, since some may affect body weight.

a. True

b. False

A
According to the Nestlé Purina Body Condition System™ (BCS), any pet with a BCS score of what number or greater is a candidate for weight loss?

a. 5

b. 6

c. 7

B
Once it has been determined that a dog or cat should be placed on a weight management program, the next step is to:

a. Give the client a food measuring cup to manage portion control.

b. Set up the next weigh-in appointment.

c. Determine whether the client understands the pet is overweight and is willing and able to help with the weight management program.

C
As you collect a patient’s diet history, it is important to:

a. Immediately question a client’s poor feeding choices.

b. Be encouraging and nonjudgmental.

c. Say nothing in response as you gather and record information.

B
Using the Veterinary Feeding Guide and Weight Management Program software allows you to determine the patient’s total daily calorie intake allowed to achieve weight loss.

a. True.

b. False

A
Treats should be limited to no more than what percentage of a pet’s total daily calories?

a. 5%

b. 10%

c. 15%

B
What Purina Veterinary Diets® formula would be most appropriate for a dog with a body condition score of 8 and no other significant health concerns?

a. Purina Veterinary Diets® DCO Dual Fiber Control® Canine Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® JM Joint Mobility® Canine Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® OM Overweight Management® Canine Formula

C
What Purina Veterinary Diets® formula would be most appropriate for a diabetic cat with a Body Condition Score of 6 or 7?

a. Purina Veterinary Diets® DM Dietetic Management® Feline Formula

b. Purina Veterinary Diets® OM Overweight Management® Feline Formula

c. Purina Veterinary Diets® EN Gastroenteric® Canine Formula

A
If a client is overfeeding his or her pet out of guilt, you could suggest:

a. Having a treat bag prepared and ready

b. Spending more play time with the pet

c. Paying more attention to the pet without food

d. All of the above

B
A good way to begin a new exercise program for an overweight dog is to set a goal of increasing activity by how many minutes per day?

a. 10 minutes

b. 20 minutes

c. 30 minutes

A
What is the most important information you can provide to clients to ensure they follow your clinic’s recommendations for feeding and exercise?

a. Your clinic’s phone number

b. A video showing the success of your other weight management patients

c. Written instructions

C
About one week after the pet begins the weight loss program, call the client to answer questions and address any initial frustrations.

a. True

b. False

A
How long following the initial clinic visit should you schedule the next in-clinic visit?

a. Two weeks

b. One month

c. Two months

B
Purina’s Veterinary Feeding Guide and Weight Management Program software will provide which of the following for each patient?

a. Recommended daily food and treat intake for weight loss

b. Projected weight loss per week

c. Attributes of the recommended Purina Veterinary Diets® formula

d. All of the above

D
What is the most critical component to achieving pet weight loss?

a. Client compliance

b. Nutrition that promotes weight loss

c. Increased activity

A
If a dog is 25% over ideal weight and is losing 1-2% body weight per week, how long should it take for him or her to attain an ideal body weight?

a. Between 3 and 6 months

b. Between 4 and 8 months

c. Between 6 and 12 months

A
What is the key to implementing a successful weight management program in your clinic?

a. An enthusiastic, dedicated staff

b. Committed clients

c. Both a and b

C
What is considered an ideal rate of weekly weight loss for an overweight dog?

a. Less than 1% of body weight per week

b. 1-2% of body weight per week

c. 3-4% of body weight per wee

B
What might be a solution for an older client who is used to sharing table food with his overweight cat?

a. Suggest the client and cat eat at different times.

b. Suggest the cat be placed in a different room while the client is eating.

c. Instruct the client to stop feeding table food and to instead divide the cat’s daily food allotment into three dishes and feed one dish at each of the client’s mealtimes.

C
A CBC, chemistry profile, urinalysis and thyroid panel are typical laboratory tests ordered when a veterinarian is determining whether there is an underlying medical cause for weight gain in a pet.

a. True

b. False

A
How can nutritional intervention help overweight dogs with osteoarthritis (OA)?

a. A diet change can help dogs lose weight, which helps to reduce stress on affected joints.

b. A diet change can help dogs tolerate pain better.

c. A diet change can help lessen irritability.

A
What role do long-chain omega-3 fatty acids play in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA)?

a. Help reduce weight

b. Help minimize damage from oxygen-containing free radicals

c. Help reduce the inflammatory response associated with OA

C
Shorter lifespan, joint problems, diabetes and heart problems are among the potential health risks if a dog or cat is overweight or obese.

a. True

b. False

A
You have recommended short daily walks for an overweight canine patient as part of its weight loss program. The client calls to say the dog is very stiff at the end of the day. What do you advise?

a. Discontinue walks until the next clinic visit

b. Increase walk time to “outsmart” the pain

c. Continue slow, gentle walks, but reduce their duration

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® JM Joint Mobility® Canine Formula can be a good option as a weight loss food for dogs with OA because:

a. JM has a high protein-to-calorie ratio.

b. JM has moderate fat content.

c. JM can be fed to achieve a 1% weight loss per week.

d. All of the above

D
Which is the most likely reason a young, healthy dog may experience “mysterious” and unwanted weight gain?

a. The client has reduced the amount of food fed each day and the dog’s body has become so efficient it is adding pounds while eating less food.

b. The dog misses a daily walk every couple of weeks.

c. The dog is taking food from another food source, such as a new pet that’s been introduced into the household or a child who is learning to eat at the table.

C
In adult dogs, can joint problems and pain lead to excess weight, or can excess weight lead to joint problems and pain?

a. Joint problems and pain can lead to excess weight.

b. Excess weight can lead to joint problems and pain.

c. Either situation can occur.

C
Purina Veterinary Diets® Lite Snackers® Canine Treats are excellent treat choices because:

a. They are exceptionally palatable.

b. They are low in calories.

c. Both a and b

C