Nutrition Final Study

An important characteristic of the nutrition care plan for clients who have AIDS is:
use of an individualized plan and adjusting it as needed.
Weight loss in clients with AIDS is characterized by the loss of:
muscle protein.
Healthy infants born to mothers who are HIV positive should be:
formula-fed
The approach that is most likely to be helpful in diet planning with a client who has cancer is:
using personal food preferences to select nutrient-dense foods.
Dry foods may be helpful to a patient who has:
nausea.
The approach to nutritional management of clients who have cancer that is usually tolerated best is:
frequent small meals and snacks.
The vitamins that are essential for building new tissues are:
vitamins A and C.
To counteract the hypermetabolic state of cancer, it is most important for clients to increase their intake of:
carbohydrate.
The primary goal of nutrition care for clients who have cancer is:
maintaining nutritional status.
Abdominal radiation therapy can produce:
general malabsorption.
The greatest interference with normal food intake is caused by treatment of cancer in the:
head and neck
The prevalence of obesity is higher in:
women than in men.
Obesity is associated with increased risk of:
hypertension.
The three components that identify obesity as a disease are:
cause, clinical signs, and pathophysiology
Another name for conscious control of food intake to maintain stable weight is:
restrained eating.
The factor that contributes most to the success of a diet plan is:
adherence.
The widely used sweetener that appears to be associated with increased calorie intakes in recent years is:
high-fructose corn syrup.
A factor during infancy that may decrease the risk of obesity during childhood and adolescence is:
exclusive breast-feeding.
Risk of being overweight is inversely related to intakes of
calcium.
An environmental factor that has contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity is the:
relatively low increase in the price of carbonated beverages.
The preferred mode of feeding for hospitalized patients is:
oral diet.
The percentage of a woman’s body weight that is composed of essential body fat is:
10% to 12%.
The percentage of a man’s body weight that is composed of essential body fat is:
3% to 5%.
The percentage of daily kilocalorie (kcalorie or kcal) intake that should be provided by dietary protein is about:
10% to 35%.
Intake of more protein than is recommended results in increased production of:
urea.
Fatty acids are mobilized for energy by:
hormone sensitive lipase.
Some fat should be included in the diet to:
supply linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Glycogen is stored in the:
muscles and liver.
The percentage of total daily kcalories that should be provided by dietary fat should not exceed:
20% to 35%.
Gastric bypass is recommended only for patients who need to lose more than:
100 lb.
Nutrients lost in the initial period following a major burn injury are:
fluids, electrolytes, and protein.
In the first 24 to 48 hours after the burn injury, patients with second- or third-degree burns that cover 15% to 20% or more of their total body surface usually require:
IV fluid and electrolytes.
Absorption of iron is improved by eating foods that are high in:
vitamin C.
A vitamin that can help overcome pulmonary oxygen toxicity is vitamin:
E.
The phrase that best describes the term energy is:
the body’s ability to do work.
When the supply of muscle glycogen is exhausted, the condition is called muscle:
fatigue.
Exercise improves mental health via production of:
endorphins.
The basic compound that supplies energy to body cells is:
adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The body’s immediate energy needs are supplied by:
ATP.
The body’s short-term energy needs are supplied by:
glycogen.
The site responsible for the largest amount of energy production is the:
mitochondria.
The body systems that contribute to the ability to supply cells with necessary oxygen are:
cardiovascular and pulmonary.
True or False: The lungs (pulmonary system) and heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system) all help to transport oxygen to the cells. The gastrointestinal tract (digestive system) helps provide energy substrates from macronutrients. Hormones (endocrine system) help control the release of energy from stored fat and carbohydrate.
True
With prolonged exercise, two nutrients that can become depleted are:
glucose and glycogen.
Fat cells store and release fatty acids and:
secrete hormones.
The preventive strategies to deal with the obesity epidemic are:
education, regulation, and modification of the food supply.
The stage of change in which people actually start making changes to help them lose weight is:
action.
Dietetic professionals working with clients who need to lose weight should work toward:
permanent lifestyle changes.
Two types of diets that have been shown to have some long-term weight loss success are:
low-fat and very-low-calorie diets.
An example of behavioral therapy is:
rewarding yourself by going to a movie after walking 5 times a week for a month.
The healthcare professional responsible for making valid nutrition diagnoses and recommending a plan of nutrition care is the:
dietitian.
Nutrition diagnoses are:
defined using standardized language.
Nutrition therapy is based on modification of
the client’s normal nutritional needs.
Nutrition therapy is likely to be successful if the diet is matched to the client’s:
food preferences.
A special therapeutic diet may be modified in:
nutrients, energy, and texture.
A dietary intake assessment method that depends on the patient’s memory is a:
24-hour food recall.
Appropriate foods for a client on a clear liquid diet include:
broth, plain gelatin, apple juice, and tea.
For patients with burns covering more than 20% of total body surface area, resting energy expenditure (REE) exceeds that calculated using the Harris-Benedict equations by about:
50% to 60%.
Vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower can accelerate medication metabolism because they:
stimulate enzymes in the liver.
The action of liver enzymes that metabolize drugs is influenced by relative dietary quantities of:
carbohydrate and fat.
Measurement of nitrogen balance requires:
an accurate 24-hour urine collection.
During critical illness, plasma levels of the hepatic proteins (albumin, transferrin, and prealbumin) generally indicate:
risk of morbidity and mortality.
Complications associated with parenteral nutrition include:
electrolyte abnormalities.
The most important factor in decisions concerning use of parenteral nutrition is:
status of the gastrointestinal tract.
A client would be a candidate for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) if he or she had:
radiation enteritis causing minimal food intake for over 2 weeks.
If a patient’s dietary intake is inadequate, the first step in nutrition support should be to:
provide small, frequent meals and liberalize modified diets.
The timing of beginning nutrition support depends on the patient’s:
nutritional status.
A problem associated with use of blenderized formulas is:
bacterial contamination
One effect of impaired blood circulation through the liver caused by fibrous tissue is the development of:
portal hypertension.
Nutrition support for the client who has cirrhosis includes a:
low-sodium, soft-texture, high-energy diet.
A key component in the etiology of hepatic encephalopathy is:
high ammonia levels in the systemic circulation.
Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy include:
confusion and impaired motor function.
The primary objective of treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is to:
remove sources of excess ammonia.
The recommended plan of nutrition therapy for clients who have hepatic encephalopathy is a:
restricted protein and moderately high energy diet.
Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may need parenteral administration of:
vitamin K and zinc.
The gallbladder is stimulated to contract and release bile by:
the cholecystokinin (CCK) mechanism.
Plaque usually contains mainly of:
cholesterol.
Several types of blood lipoproteins are synthesized in the:
liver.
The function of lipoproteins in body metabolism is to transport:
lipids to and from the cells.
The class of lipoproteins that has the highest lipid content is:
chylomicrons.
The classes of lipoproteins that carry the most triglyceride by weight are:
chylomicrons and VLDL.
The class of lipoproteins that is most responsible for atherosclerosis and is considered “bad cholesterol” is:
LDL.
VLDL is an abbreviation for which of the following?
very low density lipoprotein
The type of lipoprotein that is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease is:
HDL.
The protein component that attaches itself to lipoproteins and has a significant effect on function is:
apolipoprotein.
In nutritional management of high serum cholesterol levels, TLC stands for:
therapeutic lifestyle changes.
In patients with elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels, monounsaturated fat intake should be:
up to 20% of energy intake.
Foods high in monounsaturated fats include:
nuts.
According to TLC recommendations, a type of fatty acid that should be avoided as much as possible is:
trans fatty acids.
The delta cells of the pancreas synthesize:
somatostatin.
The alpha cells of the pancreas synthesize:
glucagon.
The pancreatic sensors of blood glucose levels are located in the:
juncture points of the alpha, beta, and delta cells.
One of the major functions of insulin is to:
promote uptake of amino acids.
The hormone that is considered to be an antagonist to insulin is:
glucagon.
The percentage of energy provided by protein in parenteral nutrition is normally:
10% to 20%.
The amount of energy provided by dextrose in parenteral nutrition solutions is:
3.4 kcal/g.
To prevent essential fatty acid deficiency, the percentage of energy provided by lipid in parenteral nutrition solutions should be at least:
4% to 10%.
Intravenous iron should be given to patients receiving parenteral nutrition:
only if they have anemia.
During the first 24 hours of TPN formula administration, the amount of carbohydrate infused should not exceed:
200 g.
Placement of enteral feeding tubes should be confirmed using:
x-ray examination.
Peptic ulcers occur most frequently in the:
duodenum.
Peptic ulcer disease may be caused by:
Helicobacter pylori infection.
A characteristic symptom of a peptic ulcer is:
abdominal pain between meals.
A basic principle guiding nutritional management of peptic ulcer disease is to eat:
a well-balanced diet as tolerated
People who have peptic ulcer disease are encouraged to avoid drinking:
tea and coffee.
Diagnosis of celiac disease is confirmed using:
intestinal biopsy.
Grains that should be eliminated from the diets of clients on a restricted gluten diet include:
wheat, rye, and barley.
Cystic fibrosis is a disease that primarily affects the:
pancreas, intestinal tract, sweat glands, and lungs.
Level I routine care of patients with cystic fibrosis includes:
enzyme replacement and vitamin supplements.
The chronic inflammatory bowel disease that involves all layers of the intestinal wall is known as:
Crohn’s disease.
Inflammatory bowel disease that is confined to the colon and rectum is known as:
ulcerative colitis.
During severe acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease, patients should be fed using
enteral feedings or total parenteral nutrition (TPN).
During remission, patients with Crohn’s disease are encouraged to increase their intake of:
antioxidants.
Patients with short-bowel syndrome usually need parenteral nutrition support only until:
their remaining small intestine adapts.
The small outpouchings that protrude from the intestinal lumen are called:
diverticula.
When blood supply to a tissue or body part is reduced, the result is referred to as:
ischemia.
A localized area of dead tissue is called a(n):
infarct.
Dietary modifications immediately after myocardial infarction are designed to promote:
cardiac rest.
Congestive heart failure can lead to an imbalance in:
fluids and electrolytes.
The stimulus for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism is:
decreased renal blood pressure.
Congestive heart failure affects the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism so that:
fluids are retained by the body.
Nutrition therapy for clients who have congestive heart failure focuses on restriction of dietary intake of:
sodium.
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism tends to promote the retention of sodium and the excretion of:
potassium.
The cause of essential hypertension is:
unknown.
The underlying cause of type 1 diabetes is:
an autoimmune attack of insulin-producing cells.
An example of a health factor associated with insulin resistance is:
hyperlipidemia.
A population group that has a genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is:
Pima Indians.
Metabolic syndrome includes:
hypertension and obesity.
In people with type 1 diabetes, insulin production is:
deficient.
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by:
rapid development before age 40.
Type 2 diabetes:
is associated with insulin resistance.
Initial client symptoms of type 1 diabetes include polydipsia, polyuria, and:
polyphagia.
Clinical laboratory results found in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes include:
glycosuria.