Nutrition chap 7

What are the main components of energy balance?
energy input = output
What are the four main purposes for which the body uses energy? Approximately how much does each component contribute to overall energy use by the body?
physical activity(15-35%), digestion, metabolism(60-75 %), thermogenisis (5-10%)
What factors influence basal metabolism?
Greater lean body mass, Larger body surface area per body volume, Male gender. Body temperature, Thyroid hormones, Stress , Pregnancy, Caffeine and tobacco use,
What methods can be used to measure energy use by the body?
Direct calorimetry measures the amount of body heat released by a person., Indirect respiratory gas exchange
How is the body mass index determined?
body weight kg
Height squared
What are five methods by which body fat content can be estimated?
1.underwater weighing 2 Air displacement 3 Skinfold thickness 4 bioelectrical impedance 5 dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
Obesity leads to an increased risk of which diseases?
insulin resistance and fatty liver leading to diabetes, high blood lipids, and heart disease.
Explain how body weight is influenced by nature.
location of fat storage obese mothers are at heightened risk of obesity later in life.
What role does nurture play in determining body weight?
poverty a limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables, excessive television viewing, smoking cessation, lack of adequate sleep, emotional stress, and meals frequently eaten away from home.
Discuss the set-point theory
The set-point theory of weight maintenance proposes that humans have a genetically predetermined body weight or body fat content, which the body closely regulates
What are the characteristics of an appropriate weight-loss program?
rate of loss, flexibility, behavior modification, intake
What are the three points on the weight loss triad?
1) controlling calorie intake, (2) performing regular physical activity, and (3) controlling problem behaviors.
What should dieters remember about physical activity as part of their weight loss plan?
Duration and regular performance, rather than intensity, are the keys to success with this approach to weight loss.
What behavior modification steps are helpful in changing problem eating behaviors to increase weight-loss success?
etting realistic goals, Focus on the total number of calories consumed. Monitor food intake. When eating out, choose smaller portions or lower-calorie options. Prepare, serve, and consume smaller portions of foods and beverages, especially those high in calories.
Eat a nutrient-dense breakfast. Limit screen time.
How does mindful eating help control hunger while dieting?
it makes you conscious of what you are eating
What are the “3 Ms” in weight maintenance?
motivation movement monitoring
What are the surgical options for obese people who have failed to lose weight with other weight-loss strategies?
. Adjustable gastric banding (also known as the lap-band procedure)Gastric bypass
How restrictive is a very-low-calorie diet plan? Why is monitoring by a qualified health professional important?
Major health risks include heart problems and gallstones. VLCD programs are offered almost exclusively by medical centers or clinics since careful monitoring by a physician is crucial throughout this very restrictive form of weight loss.
How is underweight defined and what are some of its primary causes?
defined by a BMI less than 18.5 and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as cancer, infectious disease digestive tract disorders nd excessive dieting or physical activity. Genetic background
20. What are the components necessary to gain weight as muscle and not as fat?
A combination of diet and strength training is needed to gain weight as muscle.