Northwestern Chapter 8

What is motivation?
The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
A comprehensive approach to understanding motivation, behavior, and performance must consider three elements for the work situation
1. the individual
2. the job and
3. the work environment
and how these elements interact
What Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis?
A method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person’s motives and needs
The Protestant Ethic was the fuel for BLANK
human industriousness and hard work ethic
What is self-interest?
In the best interest of the individual
What is theory X vs. Maslow’s?
MacGregor’s Theory X is the basic needs – lower needs – of human of Maslow’s hierarchy -internal needs –
1. Physiological needs – Bottom of hierarchy
2. Safety and Security Needs
What is Theory Y vs. Maslow’s?
MacGregor’sTheory Y is the upper needs – upper three levels of Maslow’s hierarchy
3. Love (social) needs
4. Esteem Needs
5. Self-actualization needs – Top of hierarchy
External incentives
Early organization scholars they assumed people were motivated by self-interest and economic gain
The Hawthorne studies confirmed the
positive effects of pay incentives
on productivity and also found that
social and
interpersonal motives were important
Adam Smith and the “invisible hand”
Laid the cornerstone for the free enterprise system of economics when he formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers tot he unseen forces of a free market system that shape the most efficient use of people, money and resources for productive ends. Thus, employees are motivated by Self-Interest
Frederick Taylor the founder of scientific management
His central concern was to change the relationship between management and labor from on of
conflict to one of
cooperation. Aimed at enlarging the total profits.
Need hierarchy
The theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs by higher order needs
Maslow’s Need hierarchy
The theory assumes that only ungratified needs motivate behavior
The lowest level of ungratified needs in the hierarchy motivates behavior
McGregor’s Assumptions About People
Theory X
People are by nature indolent. That is, they work as little as possible
People lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led
People are inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs
People are by nature resistant to change
People are gullible and not very bright, the ready dupes of the charlatan and the demagogue
McGregor’s Assumptions about People
Theory Y
People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations
The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, and the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people. Management does not put them there. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves
The essential tasks of management is to arrange conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives.
ERG Theory
Clayton Alderfer vs. Maslow’s grouped human needs into three categories
1. existence – lowest of Maslow
2. relatedness
3. growth – highest of Maslow
Alderfer’s regression hypothesis helped to explain peoples frustration in meeting needs in the next higher level. His hypothesis states that people regress to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify these needs.
Mclellands Need Theory focuses on personality and learned needs.
Three learned or acquired needs, called manifest needs
1. Needs for achievement
2. power
3. affiliation
The Murrary Thematic Apperception Test
TAT was used as an early measure of the achievement motive and was further developed by McClelland and his associates. The TAT is a projective test
Need for achievement
A manifest – easily perceived – need that concerns individuals issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties
People that have a high need for achievement three unique characteristics
1. they set goals that are moderately difficult, yet achievable
2. they like to receive feedback on their progress toward these goals
3. they do not like having external events or other people interfere with their progress toward the goals

Highest achievement tendencies for U.S. an individualistic culture
Lowest for Japan and Hungary collectivistic societies

Need for Power
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life.
McClelland makes an important distinction between socialized power, which is the benefit of many, and personalized power, which is used for individual gain.
Socialized is a constructive force, whereas the individual gain may be a very disruptive, destructive force.
A high need for “power” was one distinguishing characteristic of managers rated the “best” in McClelland’s research. True or False
True – Specifically, the best managers had a very high need for socialized power, as opposed to personalized power. They have a concern for others, have an interest in organizational goals; and have a desire to be useful to the larger group, organization , and society
Need for Affiliation
A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people
Over and above affiliation, power and need for achievement, Murray’s manifest needs theory included the need for Autonomy
People with a high need for autonomy like to work alone and to control the pace of their work. They dislike bureaucratic rules, regulations, and procedures.
Describe the Herzberg’s two-factor theory – he departed from the need theories of motivation
Examination of the experiences that satisfied and
dissatisfied people had at work
Motivation Factor – A work condition related to satisfaction of the need for Psychological Growth
Hygiene Factor – A work condition related to Dissatisfaction caused by Discomfort or Pain
Eustress – is healthy, normal stress.
Aligned with eustress is the new discipline of positive organizational scholarship are investing in strengths, finding positive meaning in work, displaying courage and principled action, and drawing on positive emotions at work. This new, positive perspective on organizational life encourages optimism, hope and health for people at work.
Rather than focusing on the individual’s Needs, or Alternatively on the Rewards or Punishments metered out in the work environment, this new idea in motivation Focuses on the Individuals Interpretation of Events.
1. Opportunities rather than obstacles
2. Challenges rather than barriers
3. Energized rather than frustrated by the daily experiences of organizational life
Jim Loehr’s central tenets are the Management of Energy rather than Time and the Strategic Use of Disengagement to Balance the Power of Full Activity Engagement
A manager’s task is the help individuals learn to manage their energy so that they can experience periodic renewal and recovery and thus build positive energy and capacity for work
Energy recovery is equally important to, if not more than important than, energy expenditure
Equity theory is a Social Processes that Focuses on the Individual Environment Interaction –
In contrast to the internal needs theories of motivation, Equity Theory is concerned with the Social Processes that influence Motivation and Behavior.
Power and exchange are important considerations in understanding human behavior.
Amitai Etzioni developed Three categories of exchange relationships that people have with organizations
1. committed – moral ones of high positive intensity ie: religious group
2. calculated – low positive or low negative intensity
3. alienated involvements – high negative intensity ie: prison
Social exchange theory may be the best way to understand effort-reward relationships and the sense of fairness at work as seen in a Dutch Study
Moral principles in workplace fairness are important because failures in fairness, or unfairness lead to such things as theft, sabotage and even violence
Calculated involvements
Social exchange in which each party in the relationship demands certain things of the other and contributes accordingly to the exchange.
Ie: Business partnerships
Adam’s Theory of Inequity
1. Inequity in the social exchange process is an important motivator. People are motivated in situations of Inequity or Unfairness.
2. Inequity leads to the experience of Tension, and Tension Motivates a person to act in a Manner to Resolve the Inequity
3. People consider their inputs or contributions to the relationship and their outcomes the organizations contributions to the relationship then calculate the input/outcome ratio
Adam’s the theory of inequity – resolution
Once a person establishes the existence of an inequity, a number of strategies can be used to restore equity to the situation.
1. Alter the person’s outcomes
2. Alter the person’s inputs
3. alter the comparison others outcomes
4. alter the comparison others inputs
5. change who is used as a comparison other
6. rationalize the inequity
7. leave the organizational situation
Equity sensitive
An individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of his or her comparison other
Benevolent
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio than that of his or her comparison other
Entitled
An individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of his or comparison other
Organizational position may be more important than pay in determining the level of a person’s performance expectations – True or False
True
One of the unintended consequences of inequity and organizational injustice is
dysfunctional behavior
Workplace injustice can trigger aggressive reactions or other forms of violent and deviant behavior that do harm to both individuals and the organization
Whereas Equity Theory focuses on a Social Exchange Process, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation focuses on Personal Perceptions of the Performance Process –
1. Basic notion that people desire certain outcomes of behavior and performance, which maybe thought of as rewards or consequences of behavior, and that they believe there are relationships between the effort they put forth, the performance they achieve, and the outcomes they receive.
2. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is a Cognitive Process Theory of Motivation
3. Expectancy Theory has been used in a wide variety of contexts, including test-taking motivation among students.
Valence
The value or importance one places on a particular reward
Expectancy
The belief that effort leads to performance – “If I try harder I can do better”
Instrumentality
The believe that performance is related to rewards – “If I perform better, I will get more pay”
Within Vroom’s Expectancy Theory framework, motivational problems stem from three basic causes
1. A disbelief in a relationship between effort and performance
2. A disbelief in a relationship between performance and rewards and
3. A lack of desire for the rewards offered
Moral maturity
The measure of a person’s cognitive moral development

Morally mature people act and behave based on universal ethical principles, whereas morally immature people act and behave based on egocentric motivations

Cultural differences in motivations
Individualistic vs. collectivist cultures
What are motivation theories?
They may be broadly classified into
1. Internal
2. Process
3. External
What are Internal Theories?
Internal theories of motivation give primary consideration to variables within the individual that give rise to Motivation and Behavior. The Hierarchy of Needs Theory exemplifies the Internal Theories
What are Process Theories?
Process theories of motivation Emphasize the Nature of the Interaction between the Individual and the Environment. Expectancy Theories exemplifies the Process Theories
What are External Theories?
External theories of motivation focus on the elements in the Environment, including the consequences of Behavior, as the Basis for Understanding and Explaining People’s Behavior at Work
Employee Recognition – External Incentives
Modern management practices such as employee recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans build on Smith’s and Taylor’s original theories they emphasize External Incentives
What is a bridge approach to employee motivation?
One bridge approach to employee motivation that considers both Psychological Needs and External Incentives is Psychological Ownership. Psychological Ownership Increased Organizational Citizenship Behavior, a key contextual performance beyond the call of duty.
What did McGregor see as the responsibility of management under both sets of assumptions Theory X and Theory y?
Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise, money, materials, equipment, people – in the interest of Economic Ends
What is one consequence of McGregor’s Theory Y assumptions?
Employee participation programs. Fortune 1000 corporations use employee involvement as one motivation strategy for achieving High Performance
Herzberg’s Motivation Factors
Job enrichment is created by motivation factors that were identified as Responsibility, Achievement, Recognition, Advancement, and the Work itself. They lead to superior performance and effort on the part of job incumbents. Salary may also be a motivator.
Herzberg – What is a more important factor – Motivation factor or Hygiene Factor?
The motivation factors are the most important of the two sets of factors, because they directly affect a person’s motivational drive to do a good job.
Herzberg – What are the Motivation Factors?
1. Achievement
2. Recognition of Achievement
3. Work Itself
4. Responsibility
5. Advancement
6. Growth
7. Salary
Herzberg – What are the Hygiene Factors?
1. Company policy and administration
2. Supervision
3. Interpersonal Relations
4. Working Conditions
5. Salary
6. Status
7. Security
The hygiene factors are of some importance up to a threshold level but beyond the threshold there is little value in improving the hygiene factors.
What two new ideas on motivation have emerged in the past decade?
1. One new idea centers on eustress, strength, and hope. The idea comes from the new discipline of positive organizational scholarship
2. A second new idea centers on positive energy and full engagement. The idea translates what was learned from high-performance athletes for Fortune 500 executives and managers.
3. Both ideas concern motivation, behavior and performance at work
Adam’s Theory of Inequity – In order to restore equity what must the individual consider?
As a person formulates the strategy and tactics to restore equity, the range of consequences of alternative actions must be taken into account.
Field studies on equity theory suggest that it may help explain important organizational behaviors
In addition, equity theory may play an important role in labor management relationships with regard to union negotiated benefits.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory has important implications for –
1. design work and
2. Independent research found his theory valid in a government research and development environment
How can managers increase employee motivation?
1. Training – increased perceptions of success because of increased ability
2. Coaching – increased confidence
3. Task assignments – Increased perceptions of success because of more experience.
Managers should ensure that rewards are contingent on good performance.