Network Management Principles and Practice

Abstract Syntax Notation (ASN.1)
A formalized syntax language used to define managed objects.
Access Mode
The MIB access privilege defined in an SNMP agent based on community name to a network element—read only or read-write.
Access Policy
A pairing of an SNMP community name with an SNMP community profile is defined as SNMP access policy.
Accounting Management
Administration of cost allocation of the usage of network resources.
ADSL Transmission Unit (ATU)
ATU is an ADSL modem. ATU-C is located at the central office and ATU-R is at the remote (customer premises) site.
Agent Module
A management software module resident in a network component that can be queried for information by another software module resident in network manager. The agent module can also generate and transmit information in an unsolicited manner. These are called notifications (traps in SNMPv1).
Aggregate Managed Object
A group of related managed objects. It is represented by a conceptual table of rows, each row comprising a list of scalar managed objects. The columns of the table are columnar objects, with each row being an instance of the entry. This group is distinct from MIB groups.
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
A digital-to-analog modulation scheme in which the carrier is amplitude modulated.
Application Control Service Element (ACSE)
Sets up and coordinates the activities of setting up and releasing an association with an application. This is used in conjunction with ROSE in OSI management.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
Digital subscriber line that carries multimedia information from the central office to the customer premises. The downstream and upstream frequencies are different, hence the term asymmetric.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
A cell-based technology that is used to transport digital data. A switch that switches ATM protocol is called ATM switch.
ATM Forum
An industry-sponsored international organization accelerating cooperation on ATM technology.
Authentication Key
A secret key derived from a chosen password of the user (SNMPv3) that is used in authenticating the legitimacy of the user accessing a secure system.
Autodiscovery
In a network management system, the process of discovering the components of a network-automatically, usually using the ping commands. This is done when the system is turned on and during maintenance on a scheduled basis.
Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
The encoding rules used to code ASN.1 syntax defined objects. SNMP message is encoded in BER using type, length, and value (TLV).
Beacon
A management enabling stations to establish and maintain communications in an ad-hoc wireless network in an orderly fashion.
Bridge
A device that connects two LANs at the data link layer.
Broadband Networks
Broadband networks are multimedia networks that provide integrated services of voice, video, and data over the same medium. It is the short form for broadband ISDN (BISDN). The network comprises WAN using ATM technology and the local loop based on cable, digital subscriber line, and wireless technologies. The services offered are referred to as broadband services.
Cable Modem
A device used in broadband services that modulates and demodulates from the customer equipment to the radio frequency signal that is carried on the cable.
Case-based Reasoning
A paradigm used in network management that is based on comparing a problem to previously encountered cases to derive the cause of the problem.
Cipher Block Chaining Method of Data Encryption Standard (CBC-DES)
A symmetric encryption protocol recommended in SNMPv3 for secure communication.
Codebook
In network management, codebook is a matrix of problems and symptoms that is generated modeling the network. Multiple symptoms are correlated to isolate the root cause of the problem.
Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP)
OSI standard management protocol, which is object-oriented.
Common Management Information Service (CMIS)
A management service function provided in OSI management that uses CMIP protocol. CMISE is a CMIS Element.
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
CORBA standard provides a communication bus for distributed applications to interact over the network.
Community
Pairing of two SNMP entities that can communicate with each other is called an SNMP community and is given a name community name. All SNMP entities with the same community name can communicate with each other. A pairing of MIB view with SNMP access mode is called community profile.
Compliance
Defined in SNMPv2 as the minimum set of modules and mandatory groups that should be implemented in an SNMP entity for it to be declared compatible with SNMP.
Configuration Management
Setting and changing of configuration of networks and network components.
Conformance
SNMPv2 defines conformance in units of OBJECT-GROUPS. The SNMP conformance of a product is specified including compliance modules and additional OBJECT-GROUPS.
CORBA Agent
A server with IDL interfaces for each GDMO.
CORBA Management Technology
Object-oriented CORBA-based technology for implementation of distributed management application architecture.
CORBA-based Manager
A network manager with distributed management applications.
Counter
An SNMP application-wide data type, whose value is a non-negative integer. Its value is monotonically increasing and wraps around when it reaches a maximum value.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Any equipment in the customer or subscriber premises, which is connected to the service provider network. The CPE network interfaces to the service provider network at the “demarcation point.”
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (DWDM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexer is add-drop Optical signal multiplexer. DWDM was developed for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), which is an economical system.
DESCRIPTOR
Defines a unique mnemonic name for an object type and begins with lower case letter.
Digital Over Cable System Interface Specifications (DOCSIS)
Specifications for cable modem access technology approved by the MCNS industry consortium.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Transmission link (loop) between the central office and the customer premises that carries information in a digital format. There are several implementations of DSL: Asymmetric DSL, in which the upstream and downstream bands are different; HDSL is high data rate DSL, which offers symmetric service at a higher data rate; VDSL, very high data rate DSL is asymmetric at a very high data rate (up to 52 Mbps).
Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM)
A device at the central office that multiplexes several ATU-C modems.
Discovery
A process in network management system that discovers network elements and builds an inventory of network elements and links. See autodiscovery.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Converts and dynamically allocates global IP address to local IP address in local networks.
Element Management System (EMS)
Lowest level in management hierarchy that manages the network elements directly.
Emulated LAN (ELAN)
Emulated LAN is an ATM network configured as a LAN and coexists with Ethernet LAN.
Ethernet
A LAN based on bus architecture that uses CSMA/CD medium access protocol and operates at 10 Mbps speed. Fast Ethernet functions at 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet at 1 Gbps.
eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
A markup language for document exchange in the Web.
Fast Channel
In ADSL, the channel that handles audio and real-time video with fast buffers.
Fault Management
Detection and isolation of the problem causing the failure in the network.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
A LAN based on token-ring technology that uses fiber medium and operates at 100 Mbps. It can be implemented as either a single or a dual ring configuration.
Forward Equivalent Class (FEC)
FEC is used to map forwarding of a packet to a next hop port in a router.
Gateway
A router that connects two networks and can perform protocol conversion.
Gauge
An SNMP application-wide data type, whose value is a non-negative integer. Its value can move either up or down and pegs at a maximum value.
Get-Bulk-Request
An SNMP message issued by the manager to an agent to retrieve a group of managed objects and their values in bulk.
Get-Next-Request
An SNMP message issued by the manager to an agent to retrieve the object ID and the value of the next managed object in the MIB.
Get-Request
An SNMP message issued by the manager to an agent to retrieve the value of a managed object.
Get-Response
An SNMP message issued by an agent to a manager in response to either a get or set request message. It is simply called response in SNMPv2.
Guidelines for Definition of Managed Objects (GDMO)
The technique that is adopted to specify managed objects in OSI management using templates.
Half Bridge/Half Router
Provides a method to connect a LAN via a bridge to a router. This configuration is deployed for access to service provider by small office-home office customer on an as-required basis using a dial-up link.
High Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)
Digital subscriber line that operates in duplex mode at T1 or E1 rate.
HMAC Protocols
The authentication protocols used for authentication scheme in security management. It is based on hashing algorithm (H) to derive message access code (MAC). Two common algorithms used in SNMP security management are HMAC-MD5-96 and HMAC-SHA-96.
HomePlug
HomePlug, also known as PLC (Power Line Communication), distributes data over power line in the house.
HomePNA
HomePNA (Home Phoneline Network Alliance) is a technology that can distribute broadband over the phone line in the house.
Hub
A LAN in a box. It is a hybrid of star topology with either Ethernet or token-ring configuration inside the hub.
Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Cable (HFC) Technology
The HFC technology is based on multimedia services provided over the television cable system. It is also called cable modem technology.
Inform-Request
An SNMPv2 message from a manager to another manager.
Inheritance
In OSI network management, managed object classes are inherited from other managed objects. There are several categories of inheritance, such as single inheritance and multiple inheritance.
Instructional Scientific and Medical Service (ISM)
A wireless transmission system that operates over two frequency bands (902-928 MHz) and (2400-2483.5 MHz) with a range of 0.5 and 15 miles, respectively.
Integrated Local Management Interface (ILMI)
A management interface between two ATM interface management entities (IMFs) that provides view of configuration and fault parameters across user network interface (UNI).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Integrated voice and digital services over a single medium. Narrow-band ISDN, referred to as basic rate, carries two channels. Broadband ISDN, or simply broadband services, is a cell-based technology at high data rate.
Interleaved Channel
In ADSL, the channel that handles data signal, which can tolerate latency and hence interleaved between the fast channel signal.
Internet
A worldwide network that is based on TCP/IP suite of protocols.
IpAddress
An SNMP application-wide data type that defines four groups of dotted decimal notation of IPv4.
Java Management Extensions (JMX)
A Java-based management architecture proposed by Sun Microsystems.
Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
LDP is the protocol used by egress LSR to notify LSP to all the affected routers.
Label Switching Path (LSP)
End-to-end path of an MPLS circuit.
Label Switching Router (LSR)
A router capable of supporting MPLS protocol.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is a shared medium serving many DTEs located in close proximity, as in a building or a campus environment.
Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS)
A wireless transmission system that operates over two frequency bands (27,500-28,350 MHz) and (31,000-31,000 MHz) with a range of about 3 miles.
M-ACTION
An OSI management service element that performs operation in managed objects and sends confirmations on an optional basis.
Managed Object
Commonly, a network element that can be managed remotely by network management system. In TCP/IP-based network management, it consists of object type and object instance. A rigor-ous definition of a managed object is that it is a node in the MIB that could be either a physical or a logical entity.
Managed Object Class
An object-oriented definition of managed objects in OSI network management.
Management Information Base (MIB)
A management information tree containing Internet management objects. A management object holds a unique position and ID in the MIB. The portion of the MIB that a network element permits an SNMP agent to access is called MIB view.
Management Information Tree
A hierarchical tree structure used to organize managed objects and object classes. It is called MIB.in SNMP and naming tree or containment tree in OSI.
Management of Web Services (MOWS)
Management model to manage Web services.
Management Using Web Services (MUWS)
Use of Web services for a system management framework.
M-CANCEL-GET
An OSI management service element that cancels a request message.
M-CREATE
An OSI management service element that creates a management object class.
M-DELETE
An OSI management service element that deletes a management object class.
Media Access Control Protocol
Lower sublayer protocol in OSI layer 2 that interfaces with the physical layer protocol.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
It can be defined as that segment of the network that connects the wide area network to the broadband access network. There are wired and wireless MANs. While the latter is actually access network for the metropolitan area, the former is concerned with extending the WAN closer to the head end of the access network.
M-EVENT-REPORT
An OSI management service element that generates unsolicited notifications to another open system.
M-GET
An OSI management service element that retrieves attributes and values from managed objects.
MIB Browser
An SNMP tool to browse through the MIB. It is also called MIB walk.
M-interface
Five interfaces M1-M5 are defined between network management system and either private or public networks for management of telecommunication networks including ATM networks.
MODULE-IDENTITY
An ASN.1 macro that describes the semantics of an information module in ASN.1 syntax.
M-SET
An OSI management service element that sets or modifies attributes of managed objects.
Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS)
A wireless transmission system that operates over the frequency band of 2500-2686 MHz with a range of up to 35 miles.
Multiple Systems Operator (MSO)
MSO is a service provider, which owns and operates several cable television systems and used to provide primarily cable TV service. MSOs are now providing broadband services over cable.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label
A label is a short, fixed length, locally significant identifier, which is used to identify a FEC.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Network
MPLS is a WAN technology that replaces IP and ATM networks. It combines the richness of IP and the performance of ATM networks
Multitechnology Network Management (MTNM)
A management system that manages network of multitechnology multivendor network elements.
Multitechnology OSI (MTOSI)
A TM Forum standard for framework for OS-OS integration.
Network Address Translator
Converts global IP to local IP address.
Network Interface Device/Unit (NID/NIU)
A device at the customer premises, which is the demarcation point between the customer network and service provider network.
Network Management System (NMS)
A platform that houses the network manager module. It monitors and controls the network components from a centralized operation.
Network Operations Center (NOC)
A centralized operation to monitor and manage the network using network management tools and systems.
NMS Client
A client platform, which accesses NMS server remotely and performs operations on it. An HTML browser can be used as an NMS client.
NMS Server
A platform in which NMS software runs in a server-client architecture.
NOTIFICATION-TYPE
An ASN.1 macro of notification, which is an event or alarm generated by a network management agent and sent to a network management system in SNMPv2 and SNMPv3. It is termed as TRAP-TYPE in SNMPv1.
OAMP (Traditionally OAM&P)
Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning functions in the telecommunications industry.
Object
An object type, and associated instance.
Object Identifier
Identifies an object type and is a node in the MIB. It is described in terms of a sequence of numbers or DESCRIPTORs that describes its position in the MIB, or abbreviated by the name of a reference object type followed by a sequence of numbers from that node.
Object Type
The component of the managed object that is defined by SMI and in the MIB. In TCP/IP management, it consists of an object identifier defined by ASN.1 syntax OBJECT-TYPE, and encoded using BER. It does not include object instance.
Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi)
A residential software platform that acts as a gateway to residential network. It supports integration of different home networking technologies and delivery of different services and components, called bundles, from service providers.
Operations System (OS)
Operations system, in the telecommunications industry, is used to control the network and network elements. The term is used in ADSL technology and TMN. The operations system does not directly play a role in the information transfer, but helps in the OAMP of network and information systems.
Optical Carrier (OC)
The data rate unit of SONET (OC-n) digital hierarchy in the USA. The data rate is 51.84 Mbps.
Optical Line Termination (OLT)
Termination point at the central office of PON link.
Optical Network Unit (ONU)
Demarcation point between access network and home network in PON. The ONU may contain a passive or active element that divides access network into individual subscriber cables.
Passive Optical Network (PON)
Fiber access network in broadband system.
Performance Management
Monitoring and management of performance parameters of network and network components.
Personal Area Network (PAN)
There are several wireless personal area networks, each for a specific application and primarily used at residences for short range. Bluetooth is the most popular one, which is specified in IEEE 802.15.1 and is in the unlicensed spectrum of 2.4 GHz. PAN with network control applications for home devices that require low data rate, are specified in IEEE 802.15.4
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
A digital-to-analog modulation scheme in which the phase of the carrier signal is modulated.
Ping
A network tool to test the connectivity to a remote device.
Protocol Converter
A node in a network, which does protocol conversion at layers above the network layer. It is similar to the gateway, which does protocol conversion at the network layer.
Proxy Server
An SNMP device that converts any protocol to an SNMP-compatible MIB and protocol. It is also used to convert SNMPv1 to SNMPv2 protocol.
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
A digital-to-analog modulation scheme in which the carrier is modulated with a combination of amplitude and phase modulation. It is used in HFC and ADSL access technologies.
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
A digital-to-analog modulation scheme in which the phase of the carrier signal is modulated based on four levels of the signal represented by four phase states. It is used in HFC technology.
Rediscovery
Periodic check by NMS for the configuration change in the network.
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
Remotely monitoring the network with a probe is termed RMON. The monitored information, gathered and analyzed by RMON, is transmitted to a remote network management system. RMON1 deals with the data link control layer and RMON2 covers all the higher layers.
Remote Operation Service Element (ROSE)
Issues request to remote system and receives responses in an asynchronous mode. This module is used in conjunction with ACSE in OSI management.
Residential Gateway
The gateway component that is between the access network and home network. It handles primarily the communication interface and can also have application modules in it.
Response
An SNMP message in SNMPv2. See Get-response.
Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
RCA correlates multiple alarms from a single fault, localizes the problem, shows the primary alarm, and suppresses secondary alarms.
Router
A device that does the routing function of packets in a network.
Rule-based Reasoning
An if-then paradigm used in network management that is based on comparing a problem to previously encountered situations to arrive at the source of the problem.
Security Management
Securing legal access to network resources and protecting the information during transfer of data from modification of information, masquerade, message stream modification, and disclosure.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
SLA is a part of a service contract where the level of service, such as service availability and performance, is formally defined and agreed upon between the service provider and subscriber or customer.
Set-Request
An SNMP message from a manager to an agent to set the parameters of a network element.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Internet/TCP-IP-based network management protocol.
Single Line Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)
A high data rate digital subscriber line in which two-way duplex communication occurs over a single twisted pair.
SNMP Framework
Defines a version of SNMP and comprises subsystems and models. SNMP Frameworks are specified for SNMPv1, SNMPv2, and SNMPv3.
Source Routing Bridged Network
A network based on token-ring bridges, in which the source node determines the path of the packet.
Spectrum Management System
In HFC link management, a system that deals with the management of RF spectrum allocated to different digital services, both in the upstream and downstream.
Structure of Management Information (SMI)
Definitions for the structure of management information. It defines managed objects and their characteristics, as well as the relationship between the objects.
Switch
A device that switches analog and digital data.
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
The name used in Europe for the digital hierarchy that is used in ATM network. The data rate is an integral multiple of 51.84 Mbps. Equivalent name in United States is SONET.
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
The name used in United States for the digital hierarchy (OC-n) that is used in ATM network. The basic SONET rate (OC-3) is 155.52 Mbps and is three times that of the basic optical carrier (OC-1) of 51.84 Mbps. Equivalent term in Europe is SDH.
Synchronous Transport Signal (STS)
The data rate unit of SDH (STS-n) digital hierarchy in Europe. The data rate is 51.84 Mbps.
System Network Architecture
IBM proprietary network architecture.
Tcpdump
A network tool to monitor the IP packets in a network. A similar tool is called a sniffer.
Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)
The management of telecommunications network was developed by International Standards Organization as part of ISO management. Hence, it is strongly based on ISO network management.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
TDMA is normally used for carrying information from multiple stations to the head end. The individual station information is multiplexed with others under the control of the head end.
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Mode of transmission in which signals are assigned time-divided slots in multiplexing in TDM systems.
TimeTicks
An SNMP application-wide data type, which measures time in units of hundredths of a second.
TMF 814
A standard protocol between EMS and NMS that is specified by the TM Forum.
Topology
A map of the interconnections between routers and switches. Topology representation is done at the network layer (layer 3) or the data link layer (layer 2).
Traceroute
A UNIX network tool to test the route to a remote device. A similar tool in Microsoft Windows in tracert.
Traffic Engineering (TE)
Configuration of traffic flow that is concerned with performance optimization of operational networks.
Transparent Bridged Network
A network of Ethernet-based bridges with a tree topology.
Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
A suite of transport-layer/network-layer protocols that forms the basis for Internet network.
Trap
An alarm or an event generated by a management agent and sent unsolicited to a network management system.
Ultra Wide Band (UWB)
A personal area network carrying information in a very high bandwidth spectrum at 3-10 GHz band that is least impacted by noise.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
A high data rate serial interface out of PC. USB hub multiple interfaces from a single interface.
User-based Security Model (USM)
The security subsystem specified in SNMPv3 that is based on the traditional user name concept.
Very High Data Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL)
VDSL is similar to ADSL and operates at a very high data rate over shorter lines.
Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT)
VSAT is direct transmission to home using geosynchronous satellite. It is more used to access difficult-to-access remote sites and back-up link by service providers.
View-based Access Control Model (VACM)
The access control scheme defined in SNMPv3 that is more secure and flexible than the simple access policy defined in SNMPv1.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
Virtual LAN is a LAN that is based on switched hub technology and enables stations to be assigned to different LANs administratively. They are not restrained by the physical configuration of LAN networks.
Wavelength Division Multiplexer (WDM)
is multiplexing at optical wavelength and is identical to frequency division multiplexing at (relatively) lower frequencies. Information can be transmitted over multiple wavelengths using multiple transmission protocols.
Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
A project undertaken by Desk Top Management Task Force to bring different management systems under one umbrella using Microsoft object-oriented framework, Common Information Module.
WiFi
Commercial name for WLAN using IEEE 802.11a/b/g protocols.
WiFi Protected Access (WPA)
Enhanced security protocol for WiFi network.
WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
A common name for Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) using IEEE 802.16 protocol.
Wired Equivalency protocol (WEP)
Early version of security protocol for WiFi network.
Wireless LAN
Wireless LAN with IEEE 802.11a/b/g interface.
XML-based Network Management
A management architecture comprising XML-based agent in devices and XML-based NMS with communication transported using XML over HTTP.