Classical: Emphasis on purpose, formal structure, hierarchy of management, technical requirements, and common principles of organisation.
HR: Attention to social factors at work, groups, leadershio, the informal organisation, and behaviour of people.
Systems: The integration of the classical human relations approaches. Importance of the socio-technical system. The organisation within its external environment.
Contingency: No on best design of organisation. Form of structure, management, and ‘success’ of the organisation dependent upon a range of situational variables.
– HR, incl neo-human relations
However, attention is also drawn to other approaches or ideas including:
– social action
Two major ‘sub-groupings’ of the classical approach are:
1. Scientific management
He believed that workers would be motivated by obtaining the highest possible wages through working in the most efficient and productive way.
– the development of a true science for each person’s work
– the scientific selection, training and development of the workers
– co-operation with the workers to ensure work is carried out in the prescribed way
– the division of work and responsibility between management and the workers
However parts of taylors idea are still implemented today e.g. in the hotel business where maids have to clean rooms strictly according to a given flow and incentives are paid for extra cleaned rooms.
1. Planning, concerned with order of work, instruction cards,time and costing and discipline
2. Performance, concerned with gang boss, speed boss, repair boss and inspector
– There is am implied clear-cut division of labour and a high level of specialisation.
– A hierarchical authority applies to the organisation of offices and positions
– Uniformity of decisions and actions is achieved through formally established systems of rules and regulations. Together with a structure of authority, this enables the co-ordination of various activities within the organisation.
– An impersonal orientation is expected from officials in their dealings with clients and other officials. This is designed to result in rational judgements by officials in the performance of their duties.
– Employment by the organisation is based on the technical qualifications and constitutions a lifelong career for the officials.
– Hierarchy of authority makes for a sharp distinction between administrators and the administered, or between management and workers.Within the management ranks there are clearly defined levels of authority. This detailed and precise stratification is particularly marked in the armed forces and in the civil service
– Systems of rules aims to provide for an efficient and impersonal operation. The system of rules is generally stable, although some rules may be changed or modified with time. Knowledge of the rules is a requisite of holding a job in bureaucracy.
– Impersonality means that allocation of privileges and the exercise of authority should not be arbitrary, but in accordance with the laid-down system of rules. In more highly developed bureaucracies there tend to be carefully defined procedures for appealing against certain types of decisions. Steward sees the characteristic of impersonality as the features of bureaucracy which most distinguishes it form other types of organizations. A bureaucracy should not only be impersonal but be seen to be impersonal.
– the relay assembly test room
– the interviewing programme
– the bank wiring observation room
Group pressures on individual workers were stronger than financial incentives offered by management.
– The work of Maslow:
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Love needs
hygiene and maintenance factors
The idea is that any part of an organization effects all other parts.
The most appropriate structure and system of management is therefore dependent upon the contingencies of the situation for each particular organisation.