MRKT – Ch 3

consumer behavior
actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services
step 1 in purchase decision process:
problem recognition: perceiving a need
step 1
when a person realizes that a difference b/w what they have and what they would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it
step 2 in purchase decision process:
information search: seeking value
step 2
clarifies the problem for the consumer
internal search
scan their memory for knowledge of or previous experiences
external search
if lack experiences use personal and public sources
using mobile devices in store to check online competitive product reviews and prices, resulting in online purchase of cheaper product
step 3 in purchase decision process:
evaluation of alternatives: assessing value
step 3
information search can suggest evaluative criteria for purchase. results in evoked set
evoked set
group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable
features, attributes
status, feelings
step 4 in purchase decision process:
purchase decision: buying value
step 4
examined the alternatives in the evoked set, 3 choices remain: what brand, who to buy, when to buy
step 5 in purchase decision process:
post purchase behavior: value in consumption or use
step 5
after buying a product the consumer compares it to their expectations
cognitive dissonance
post purchase psychological tension or anxiety
personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer
high level involvement
1) expensive
2) bought infrequently
3) reflects on one’s social image
routine problem solving
typically the case for low-priced, frequently purchased products
routine problem solving (2)
marketers strive to attract and maintain habitual buying behavior by creating strong brand relationships with the consumer
limited problem solving
characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived differences among brands
limited problem solving (2)
consumers rely on past experience more than external information but may pay attention to new varieties shown in advertising and point of purchase displays
limited problem solving (3)
marketers of leading brands should focus on getting consumers to shift to routine problem-solving behavior by dominating shelf space and running advertisements that remind consumers
extended problem solving
involves important situational, psychological, and socio-cultural influences
situational influences
1) purchase task
2) social surroundings
3) physical surroundings
4) temporal effects (time)
5) antecedent states (mood cash available)
psychological influences
motivation, and personality, perception, learning, lifestyle
energizing foce that stimulates beavior to satisfy a need (maslow)
person’s character trails that influence behavioral responses
self concept: actual
how people actually see themselves
self concept: ideal
how people would like to see themselves
process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world
selective perception
filters information
selective exposure
occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent
selective comprehension
involves interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs
selective retention
consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure, remember what you choose to remember
perceived risk
beliefs about potential negative consequences
behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning; continual process
behavioral learning
cue, drive, response, reinforcement
stimulus or symbol that one perceives
need, such as hunger, moves an individual to action
action taken to satisfy drive
the reward, can be positive resulting in brand loyalty, or negative causing avoidance response
stimulus generalization
occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus
stimulus discrimination
refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products
cognitive learning
through connection two or more ideas or simply observing
brand loyalty
favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand
socially preferable modes of conduct or state of existence that tend to persist over time
ones perception of how a product or brand performs
tendency to respond to something that is consistently favorable or unfavorable; leads to behavior
attitude formation
learned predisposition to respond
attitude change
lead to a behavior change
attitude change (2)
marketers look at adding new attributes to the product, change the perceived importance of attributes, change beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes
way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities), what they consider important in their environment (interests), and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions)
analysis of consumer lifestyles, offers insight into consumer behaviors
opinion leaders
important for products that provide a form of self expression
word of mouth
perhaps the most powerful information source; friends or family who are viewed as trustworthy
product seeding
hiring people to talk up a brand
viral marketing
online word of mouth can be positive or negative effect
reference group
group of people who influence a person’s attitudes, values, and behaviors; influence the aspiration levels that help set a consumers standards
membership group
actually groups
aspiration group
wishes to be a member
dissociative group
wishes to maintain a distance from
consumer socialization
process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers
family life cycle
distinct phases from formation to retirement
family decision making
context of the relationship dynamic: spouse-dominant and joint decision-making, and family roles
spouse dominant
wives tend to have most to say when purchasing
set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are learned and shared among the members of a group
subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes
cross-cultural analysis
study of similarities and differences among consumers