One application of data warehouses is:
Older systems that often contain data of poor quality are called ________ systems.
A database is an organized collection of ________ related data.
Voice, Letters, Numbers
Which of the following types of data can be stored in a database?
Data processed in a way that increases a user’s knowledge is:
none of the above.
Data that describe the properties of other data are:
All of the following are properties of metadata EXCEPT:
limited data sharing.
One disadvantage of file processing systems is:
file descriptors being stored in each application.
Program-data dependence is caused by:
unplanned duplicate data files are the rule rather than the exception.
Because applications are often developed independently in file processing systems:
Organizations that utilize the file processing approach spend as much as ________ of their IS development budget on maintenance.
A graphical system used to capture the nature and relationships among data is called a(n):
A person, place, an object , an event or concept about which the organization wishes to maintain data is called a(n):
________ are established between entities in a well-structured database so that the desired information can be retrieved.
Relational databases establish the relationships between entities by means of common fields included in a file called a(n):
providing an integrated development environment.
All of the following are primary purposes of a database management system (DBMS) EXCEPT:
A(n) ________ is often developed by identifying a form or report that a user needs on a regular basis.
With the database approach, data descriptions are stored in a central location known as a(n):
a logical description of some portion of the database.
A user view is:
None of the above
Which organizational function should set database standards?
Structured query language
________ is a tool even non-programmers can use to access information from a database.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of database systems?
failure to implement a strong database administration function.
The most common source of database failures in organizations is:
A rule that CANNOT be violated by database users is called a:
In a file processing environment, descriptions for data and the logic for accessing the data are built into:
all of the above.
Databases may be more expensive to maintain than files because of:
Which of the following is NOT a cost and/or risk of the database approach?
The need for consensus on data definitions is an example of which type of risk in the database environment?
A knowledge base of information on facts about an enterprise is called a(n):
Database management system (DBMS)
Which of the following is software used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to databases?
A centralized knowledge base of all data definitions, data relationships, screen and report formats, and other system components is called a(n):
automates the design of databases and application programs.
CASE is a class of tools that:
Languages, menus, and other facilities by which users interact with the database are collectively called a(n):
enterprise data modeling
Database development begins with ________, which establishes the range and general contents of organizational databases.
Systems Development Life Cycle.
The traditional methodology used to develop, maintain and replace information systems is called the:
The SDLC phase in which every data attribute is defined, every category of data is listed and every business relationship between data entities is defined is called the ________ phase.
The SDLC phase in which database processing programs are created is the ________ phase.
The SDLC phase in which the detailed conceptual data model is created is the ________ phase.
Organizing the database in computer disk storage is done in the ________ phase.
An iterative methodology that rapidly repeats the analysis, design, and implementation phases of the SDLC is called:
One of the most popular RAD methods is:
The three-schema approach includes which of the following schemas?
________ analyze the business situation and identify the need for information and information services to meet the problems or opportunities of the business.
________ concentrate on determining the requirements for the database component of an information system.
E. F. Codd developed the relational model in the:
The desire to require programmers to write all file handling functionality
Which of the following is NOT an objective that drove the development and evolution of database technology?
The period that can be considered a “proof of concept” time was the:
A relatively small team of people who collaborate on the same project is called a(n):
A workgroup database is stored on a central device called a(n):
Which of the following is an integrated decision support database with content derived from various operational databases?
Various operational data sources.
A data warehouse derives its data from:
Unstructured and unpredictable use of data
Which of the following will interfere with access to operational databases?
Information is processed data.
In practice, databases today may contain either data or information.
Metadata are data that describe the properties of other data.
Databases were developed as the first application of computers to data processing.
File processing systems have been replaced by database systems in most critical business applications today.
Unplanned duplicate data files are the rule rather than the exception in file processing systems.
With the traditional file processing approach, each application shares data files, thus enabling much data sharing.
Development starts from scratch with the traditional file processing approach because new file formats, descriptions, and file access logic must be designed for each new program.
Organizations that utilize the file processing approach spend only 20 percent of development time on maintenance.
Many of the disadvantages of file processing systems can also be limitations of databases.
A data model is a graphical system used to capture the nature and relationships among data.
A well-structured database establishes the entities between relationships in order to derive the desired information.
A person is an example of an entity.
The data that you are interested in capturing about an entity is called an instance.
A relational database establishes the relationships between entities by means of a common field.
Separation of metadata from application programs that use the data is called data independence.
Data redundancy is used to establish relationships between data but is never used to improve database performance.
Redundancy increases the risk of inconsistent data.
A user view is how the user sees the data when it is produced.
One reason for improved application development productivity with the database approach is that file design and low-level implementation details do not need to be handled by the application programmer.
The data repository assists database administrators in enforcing standards.
The failure to implement a strong database administrative function is the most common source of database failures in organizations.
A constraint is a rule in a database system that can be violated by users.
End users can often retrieve and display data easily with a relational database.
Reduced program maintenance is an advantage of file processing systems.
Cost and complexity are just two of the disadvantages of database processing.
The term legacy system refers to a newly installed database management system.
A modern database management system automates more of the backup and recovery tasks than a file system.
Organizational commitment to a database project is not necessary for its success.
Repositories are always used in file processing systems.
The user interface includes languages, menus, and other facilities by which users interact with various system components.
Personal databases are designed to support a small group of individuals working together on a project.
Database development begins with the design of the database.
An enterprise data model describes the scope of data for only one information system.
Database development projects are never done in a bottom-up fashion.
The systems development life cycle is the traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems.
The steps of the systems development life cycle can only be viewed as a linear process.
Enterprise modeling sets the range and general contents of organizational databases.
All projects move from the planning-enterprise modeling step to the planning-conceptual data modeling step of the systems development life cycle.
The repository is populated during the analysis phase of the systems development life cycle.
The physical structure and storage organization of the database is decided upon during the implementation phase of the systems development life cycle.
Database processing programs are coded and tested during the design stage of the systems development life cycle.
Data from prior systems is converted to the new system during the implementation phase of the systems development life cycle.
Database maintenance is typically the longest step of the database development process.
Characteristics of the structure of the database are generally changed during the implementation phase of the database development process.
Prototyping is a type of rapid application development.
In prototyping, implementation and maintenance activities are repeated as necessary until the product is correct.
Visual programming tools such as Visual Basic have made prototyping more difficult.
In 1998, ANSI/SPARC published an import document describing the three-schema architecture.
The conceptual schema is always technology specific.
The external schema contains a subset of the conceptual schema relevant to a particular group of users.
A physical schema contains the specifications for how data from a conceptual schema are stored in a computer’s secondary memory.
The internal schema consists of the physical schema and the enterprise data model.
Systems analysts work directly with both management and users to analyze the business situation and develop detailed project specifications.
Database architects establish standards for data in business units.
E. F. Codd developed the relational data model during the 1970s.
The relational data model is no longer popular in the 21st century.
Although personal databases improve productivity, one risk is that data cannot be shared with other users.
The most common way to support a group of individuals who work together on a project or group of similar projects is with a two-tier client/server database.
Each member of a workgroup accesses data located on a database server.
In two-tier database architectures, little functionality needs to be programmed into the client application.
Applications built with a multitier architecture are meant to support departments.
Multitier client/server database applications contain a business logic layer.
The scope of an enterprise application is one workgroup or department.
An enterprise resource planning system integrates all functions of the enterprise.
A data warehouse contains summarized and historical information.
An intranet utilizes Web-based technology to improve communication with parties outside of the organization.
An extranet uses Internet protocols to establish limited access to company data by the company’s customers and suppliers.