MKTG Marketing Research

The first step in the marketing research process is to…
define the problem
is data that was originally collected for some other purpose, i.e. not for your study in particular.
secondary data
advantages of …
is relatively less expensive than comparable
For example, you can buy data from the US Census Bureau relatively inexpensively, while trying to collect that kind of data on your own would be prohibitively expensive.
is usually readily available, and so it takes less time and effort to compile.
secondary data
… data sources including internal records, government agencies, industry trade groups, trade publications, commercial data from marketing research firms etc.
secondary
One of the most commonly used sources of secondary data are the … of the marketer’s own firm. For example, your sales department, your purchasing department, your accountants, your branch offices etc are all great sources of information.
internal records
Claritas has found that there are approximately … neighborhood types (i.e. clusters) in the US. For example, the Villa Park neighborhood (not too far from the Chapman cam
67
… is data that is collected specifically for the purpose of the project that the marketer is working on.
primary data
The distinction between secondary and primary data is not based of who collects the data, but rather the … for which it was collected.
purpose
three types of primary data:
surveys focus groups and experiments
… are the most commonly used data collection technique.
surveys
Surveys administered by mail (postal) are considered to be poor in “..”. Why? If the survey respondent (the one who is answering or responding to the questions) does not understand a question then s/he cannot ask for clarifications. If the respondent’s answer is unclear then the interviewer does not get a chance to ask for an elaboration.
flexibility
Phone surveys are rated as poor on “…” People do not like to be kept on the phone for long answering questions. So even after a person has agreed to answer questions, s/he may be unwilling to spend more than 5 minutes answering questions. On the other hand, the same individual may be willing to spend 15 minutes answering questions in a face to face interview! Why is there this difference? It is much harder for us to say “No More” to an interviewer
amount of data per respondent.
Face to face surveys are rated as poor on “….” What are interviewer effects? Imagine a middle aged man who is a couch potato, walking around in a mall. He is approached by an attractive looking young lady who asks him whether he is willing to answer a few questions for a survey that she is doing
control of interviewer effects
“…” is not too good for web and mail (postal) based surveys. It refers to the idea of whether the researcher is collecting data from the people (sample) that s/he wants to actually collect data from.
Control of sample
Mail surveys are very slow and thus rated poor on “….”
speed of data collection
Mail, email and web based surveys typically have poor “…,” meaning that only a small percentage of the people who were contacted by the interviewer will actually provide data.
response rates
Face to face interviews are the most expensive (poor on “…”)
inexpensive
which type of survey has excellent flexibility
personal
which type of survey has excellent amount of data/respondent
personal
which type of survey has excellent control of interviewer effects
mail internet email
which type of survey has excellent control of sample
phone
which type of survey has excellent speed of data collectiuon
phone internet email
which type of survey has excellent response rate
personal
which type of survey is inexpensive
internet email
Focus groups and Observations are two techniques that are part of a broad category of research techniques known as …
Exploratory Research techniques
focus groups begin with a very … scope
broad
When one does not necessarily know what questions to ask, or when the researcher does not want answers to specific questions but wants to get a broad understanding about a subject, the researcher may use …
focus group
… are the only good way to test causality – cause and effect relationships.
Experiments
to be… correlated when an increasing (or decreasing) trend in one is associated with an increasing (or decreasing) trend in the other. Thus high temperatures and ice cream sales are positively correlated.
positively
A … correlation is said to exist if the two trends move in opposite directions.
negative
in other words, … does not prove …
correlation causation
A well designed experiment can control all … factors (i.e., eliminate or balance out their effects) and isolate the effect of just one factor on the outcome.
external
A simple example of a … is a blind taste test
Within Subjects Design
A within-subjects test as described above is the very best type of…. However it is not always possible to do such an experimental design.
experimental design
In this type of experimental design the test subjects are randomly assigned to the two experimental conditions, such that any test subject is exposed to only one test condition.
full factorial design
… questions include multiple choice questions (What is your standing at Chapman University? Select one: Freshman / Sophomore / Junior / Senior / Graduate student), questions with scales (One a scale of 1 to 10 where 1 represents “Very Bad” and 10 being “Very Good”, what is your evaluation of the cafeteria in Beckman Hall?) etc. The key being that the respondent is choosing from a limited set of pre-specified options.
Closed ended
… questions can have an unlimited number of potential answers. Examples of open ended questions include ‘What is your opinion of the cafeteria in Beckman Hall?’ or ‘What is the first thing that comes to your mind when I say “Text books”?’
open ended
Closed ended questions provide responses that are easy to … and analyze. You can easily collate the responses and make statements such as
10
“68% of the respondents rated our product as ‘Good’ or higher.”
quantify
Closed ended questions are easier for a respondent to … and so respondents are more likely to answer closed ended questions compared to open ended questions. Think about the course evaluation surveys. Only a small percentage of students answer all the open ended questions, while nearly all answer all closed ended questions.
complete
Open ended questions permit respondents to answer in their own words, and as such the responses are likely to provide …
richer information.
Open ended questions are more likely to yield ….
unexpected information
specific category of open ended questions called ….
Projective Techniques
these methods have the ability to get respondents to reveal their deep rooted feelings far more effectively than if the researcher had asked direct questions.
Projective Techniques
This method has been found to be especially effective at getting people to reveal their true feelings about sensitive topics – topics which respondents may not wish to freely discuss with researchers.
picture completion technique.
… requires subjects to write a story about a picture that is presented to them.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The third projective technique (called … – a rather unimaginative name, I must admit) is where researchers give the respondents a topic or a situation and ask respondents to draw a picture illustrating the given subject.
Drawing
In the context of marketing research, … refers to the practice of collecting data from a small sub-set of respondents instead of from everyone in the relevant population, since the latter would be very time consuming and expensive.
sampling
Examples of these include convenience sampling (where a sample is selected just because it is conveniently available to the researcher) or judgment sampling (where a sample is selected because in the judgment of the researcher the sample is similar to the population being studied, even though the researcher has no statistical basis for this conclusion.)
non probability sampling
… uses statistics to select the sample. The simplest example of this is simple random sampling. This is where everyone in the population has exactly the same likelihood of being included in the sample.
probability sampling
This leads us to …sampling which is the second type of probability sampling. Here the researcher divides the population into groups or stratas, and then does random sampling within each group.
stratified
… is the error caused by the inadequate size of the sample.
Sampling error
Increasing the sample size will … the sampling error. However the reduction in sampling error is … proportional to the increase in sample size.
reduce NOT
to cut s.e. in half one would have to increase n … times!
4
refers to errors that are not mathematically related to sample size. Examples of this include interviewer and data entry operator errors caused by fatigue and misconduct.
non sampling error
Though non-sampling error is not mathematically related to sample size, non-sampling error has a tendency to … as sample size increases. The more surveys an interviewer has to conduct, the more rushed they are going to be, and the more likely they are to make mistakes. This is another reason why researchers do not use very large sample sizes.
increase
first step in the marketing research is to … the problem being faced by decision maker and to … the research objective
define clarify
even though these neighborhoods are separated by long distances they share similar … and purchasing characteristics
socio economic
most flexible survey
personal
least flexible survey
mail
most amount of data per respondent
personal
least amount of data per respondent
phone
best control of interviewer effects
Mail (Internet, Email)
worst control of interviewer effects
personal
best control of sample
phone
worst control of sample
internet
In evaluating surveys, ‘…’ refers to whether the right people are responding
control of the sample
In evaluating surveys, ‘…’ refers to Whether respondents are influenced by the
presence of the interviewer
control of interviewer effects
In evaluating surveys, ‘…’ refers to Whether enough respondents are being questioned
response rates
best speed of data collection
Phone (web and email)
worst speed of data collection
mail
best responce rates
personal
worst response rates
mail (internet, email)
excellent on inexpensive
internet (email)
poor on inexpensive
personal
these techniques are good for exploring new product categories, new consumer segments, or any other subject matter that the researcher may not know about
expiatory research
what type of experiment has tester evaluate both products
Within Subjects Design
true or false
In ‘within-subjects’ design, each subject is exposed to only one experimental treatment.
false
True / False : The full factorial design is where each subject is exposed to all experimental conditions
False
True / False : Within Subjects Design is where each subject is exposed to all experimental conditions
true
True / False : The full factorial design is where subjects are typically randomly assigned to different conditions
true
True / False : In ‘full factorial’ design, each subject will be subject to only one experimental treatment.
true
True / False : Projective techniques are so named because they are used to project future demand.
false
these methods have the ability to get respondents to reveal their deep rooted feelings far more effectively than if research did it directly
projective technique
Sampling error tends to … as sample size increases
decrease
True / False : In ‘full factorial’ design, each subject will be subject to only one experimental treatment.
true
True / False : Non-sampling error happens where the marketer does not do any sampling.
false
True / False : The full factorial design is where subjects are typically randomly assigned to different conditions
true
True / False : Primary data is usually more customized to the researcher’s needs
true
Secondary data is … expensive than comparable primary data
less