MKTG: C9

1. A marketing decision support system is an interactive, flexible computerized information system that bypasses information-processing specialists and gives managers access to useful information from their own desks.
T
2. The characteristics of a true DSS are interactive, flexible, discovery-oriented, and accessible.
T
3. The three roles of marketing research are persuasive, reminder, and informative.
ANS: F
The three roles are descriptive, diagnostic, and predictive.
4. A decision support system (DSS) involves the planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to management.
ANS: F
This defines marketing research.
5. Marketing research provides decision makers with data on the effectiveness of the current marketing mix and also with insights for necessary changes.
T
6. To save money on marketing research, a marketing manager suggests the company use the results of a survey conducted last year because similar questions were asked then. The manager is suggesting use of primary data.
ANS: F
This is describing secondary data, which are data previously collected for any purpose other than the one at hand.
7. The first step in the marketing research process is to plan the research design and gather primary data.
ANS: F
The first step in the marketing research process is identifying and formulating the problem/opportunity.
8. The last step in the marketing research process is to prepare and present the report.
ANS: F
The last step is follow up.
9. The quality of secondary data should never be questioned.
ANS: F
The quality of secondary data may pose a problem, so researchers should ask: Who gathered the data? Why were the data obtained? What methodology was used? and so on.
10. Stuart Marketing Research is gathering information on the way people wrap gifts specifically for a large manufacturer of gift wrap paper that is considering introducing reusable wrapping paper with Velcro fasteners. The information gathered would be an example of primary data.
T
11. The most popular technique for gathering primary data is by observation.
ANS: F
The most popular technique for gathering primary data is survey research.
12. Questionnaires include three basic types of questions: open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response.
T
13. Fisher-Price employees were engaged in experimental research when they observed, from behind a mirror, children playing with soap bubbles and decided to build a toy lawn mover that spewed soap bubbles.
ANS: F
Experimental research occurs when the researchers alters one or more variables. This is an example of observational research.
14. Ethnographic research is a form of experiment research because it is conducted without any preconceptions.
ANS: F
Ethnographic research is the study of human behavior in its natural contexts and is a form of observation research.
15. The best experiments are those in which one factor is held constant and the other factors of interest are deliberately manipulated.
ANS: F
In experiments the goal is to hold all variables constant except the variable of interest.
16. A simple random sample is a carefully developed probability sample set up to ensure that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as part of the sample.
T
17. Martina was interested in how students perceive the health service provided by her university. To collect data on this issue, she interviewed the students in her evening class. Martina has used a random sampling procedure.
ANS: F
This describes a convenience sample.
18. A snowball sample is a type of probability sample.
ANS: F
It is a nonprobability sample and involves selecting additional respondents on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents.
19. Measurement error occurs when a sample somehow does not represent the target population.
ANS: F
This is the definition of sampling error. Measurement error occurs when there is a difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process.
20. Once adequate amounts of data have been collected, the researcher should present the report.
ANS: F
The data must be analyzed and interpreted before a meaningful report can be prepared.
21. One advantage of Internet surveys is dramatically reduced costs.
T
22. Because online surveys are still in their infancy, there are limited methods of conducting online surveys.
ANS: F
There are several basic methods for conducting online surveys: Web survey systems, survey design Web sites, and Web hosting.
23. The difference between a traditional focus group and an online focus group is that there is no moderator in the online group like there is in a traditional group.
ANS: F
A moderator runs the group by typing questions online for all to see and respondents “on the fly.”
24. One advantage of an online focus group is that respondents tend to talk more freely about issues that might create inhibitions in a face-to-face group.
T
25. An online focus group is a selected group of consumers who agree to participate in an ongoing dialogue with a particular corporation.
ANS: F
This is a Web community.
26. Scanner-based research is a system of gathering information from a group of respondents by continuously monitoring the promotions panel members are exposed to and their subsequent purchase behavior.
T
27. Los Hermanos Cafe has successfully operated seven restaurants in the same community for 20 years. Management plans to introduce an egg and cheese breakfast burrito to three restaurants after having success with this product in its other four diners. Since management knows this market so well, Los Hermanos Cafe doesn’t need to conduct research before introducing the new product in its remaining restaurants.
ANS: T
When the market is known to such a degree that the benefits of additional research do not out-weigh the cost of that research, then there is no need for research.
28. Competitive intelligence allows managers to predict changes in business relationships, identify marketplace opportunities, and discover new or potential competitors.
T
29. Government agencies, periodicals, and trade shows are good sources of competitive intelligence.
T
1. Everyday information about developments in the marketing environment that managers use to prepare and adjust marketing plans is referred to as:
a. competitive intelligence
b. marketing information
c. decision support information
d. marketing research
e. observation
ANS: B
This describes marketing information, and accurate and timely information is the lifeblood of marketing decision making.
2. A(n) _____ is an interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables managers to obtain and manipulate information as they are making decisions.
a. expert system
b. marketing information system
c. artificial intelligence system
d. marketing decision support system
e. database marketing system
ANS: D
A marketing decision support system is defined as an interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables managers to obtain and manipulate information as they are making decisions.
3. According to the text, a true marketing decision support system should be interactive, which means:
a. managers can probe for trends, isolate problems, and ask “what if” questions
b. managers that aren’t skilled with computers can easily learn to use the system
c. managers are able to sort, regroup, total, average, and manipulate data in various ways
d. managers can give simple instructions and see immediate results
e. managers can find optimum solutions to marketing problems
ANS: D
In the textbook interactive is described as allowing managers to give simple instructions and see immediate results.
4. A true marketing decision support systems (DSS) possesses all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a. flexible
b. discovery-oriented
c. interactive
d. accessible
e. synergistic
ANS: E
The characteristics of a true DSS are interactive, flexible, discovery-oriented, and accessible.
5. _____ is the creation of a large computerized file of customers’ and potential customers’ names, profiles, and purchase patterns.
a. Electronic targeting
b. Sampling procedure specification
c. Database marketing
d. Competitive data mining
e. Consumer behavior marketing
ANS: C
This is the definition of database marketing.
6. _____ is the process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to marketing decision making. The results of this analysis are then communicated to management.
a. Data collection
b. Artificial intelligence
c. Decision support
d. Marketing research
e. Single-source research
ANS: D
This is the definition of marketing research.
7. A bowling alley operator could use _____ to determine why customers do not seem to like his bowling alley’s new location.
a. transactional marketing
b. public relations
c. an EDI system
d. market synergy
e. marketing research
ANS: E
Marketing research can be used by management to trace problems and their causes.
8. Soon after the Chenault Military Museum expanded its hours and began charging a small fee to pay for the extra help needed to keep it open longer, attendance decreased. To determine why this decrease in attendance occurred, the museum staff could rely on:
a. a production audit
b. database marketing
c. marketing research
d. an internal marketing audit
e. secondary data
ANS: C
Marketing research could be used to find out why attendance declined.
9. The publisher of a Canadian business magazine wanted to make several major changes in the magazine’s content and format. To determine what changes would be supported by its subscribers and what changes would not be welcomed, the publisher should engage in:
a. advertising
b. database marketing
c. marketing research
d. a data retrieval system
e. secondary data
ANS: C
Marketing research would be appropriate to use to determine how the publisher could provide greater customer satisfaction.
10. Marketing research has three functional roles. These roles are:
a. normative, descriptive, and explanatory
b. predictive, normative, and persuasive
c. descriptive, diagnostic, and predictive
d. flexible, interactive, and discovery-oriented
e. descriptive, explanatory, and predictive
ANS: C
The three roles are descriptive, diagnostic, and predictive.
11. Volkswagen developed an 18-month-long project to gain a better understanding of the American culture so it could develop cars more appealing to this market. The research project was called Moonraker. Moonraker was intended to play a(n) _____ role in Volkswagen’s marketing research.
a. diagnostic
b. descriptive
c. predictive
d. heuristical
e. demonstrative
ANS: B
One of the roles of marketing research is the gathering of descriptive data, which includes reporting consumers’ attitude toward products.
12. To help understand why sales of Keebler Sweet Spot shortbread cookies had dropped off, the company used marketing research to gather factual information to help understand the problem. The gathering of factual statements is an example of marketing research in its _____ role.
a. historical
b. descriptive
c. predictive
d. normative
e. objective
ANS: B
The descriptive role of marketing research includes gathering and presenting factual statements.
13. Phillip Morris USA, the manufacturer of Marlboro Ultra Smooth cigarette targeted to people who want to smoke a potentially safer cigarette has asked for marketing research to explain the reasons for the recent failure of the new cigarette. This type of research is described as:
a. descriptive
b. predictive
c. diagnostic
d. normative
e. historical
ANS: C
One of the roles of marketing research is to be diagnostic and to explain what happened.
14. Through marketing research, the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) learned it has an older market and is not attracting younger concertgoers. It next conducted marketing research to determine if an integrated advertising campaign targeted to the younger market would be successful. In its second use of research, BSO employed _____ marketing research.
a. historical
b. descriptive
c. predictive
d. normative
e. objective
ANS: C
The three roles of marketing research are descriptive, diagnostic, and predictive. The predictive function is to address “what if” questions.
15. After listening to a group of middle-aged women discuss there biggest concerns about the jeans they wore, a company designed a new line of comfortable women’s jeans and touted them as “not your daughter’s jeans.” This is an example of research conducted to:
a. improve the quality of their decision making
b. find out why a marketing plan failed
c. learn how to more efficiently retain customers
d. understand the ever-changing marketplace
e. do all of these
ANS: A
Management used this information to improve their decision making in marketing jeans to women.
16. The first step in the marketing research process is to:
a. specify the sampling plan
b. collect the data
c. analyze the marketplace
d. plan the research design
e. identify and formulate the problem/opportunity to be studied
ANS: E
When Eurasia restaurant, serving Eurasian cuisine, first opened along Chicago’s Michigan Avenue, its novelty brought many diners. However, it turned off the important business lunch crowd, and sales went into decline. Before conducting any marketing research to explain the declining sales management needs to:
a. determine who will be most likely to respond to a survey
b. select a market sample from everyone in the population
c. define the problem to be researched
d. develop a survey to find out exactly what’s wrong
e. enumerate the decision factors
ANS: C
To respond to a symptom, one should find out what the underlying problem is.
A small brewery has noticed a 20 percent decrease in the sale of its dark beer over the last three years. The company’s owner wants to determine why the decline has occurred and how to reverse the trend. Once the owner has identified the problem as a consumer perception that dark beer is bitter and calorie-laden, its next step in the marketing research process should be to:
a. collect the data
b. recognize the marketing problem
c. analyze the marketplace
d. plan the research design
e. specify the sampling plan
ANS: D
Once the problem is identified and formulated, the next step is to plan the research design and gather primary data. See Exhibit 9.1.
The marketing research problem:
a. is information oriented
b. involves determining what resources will be used in research efforts
c. is action driven
d. does not rely on managerial experience
e. is accurately described by none of these choices
ANS: A
One characteristic of the marketing research problem is that it is information-oriented and involves determining what information is needed and how that information can be obtained efficiently and effectively.
20. A recent survey reported 65 percent of the people responding said they were willing to spend more money for environmentally-friendly goods. Marketing research on how to best use this information will begin with the:
a. collection of the data
b. specification of the sampling plan
c. definition of the problem
d. research design
e. recognition of the marketing opportunity
ANS: E
Marketing research can hone in and clarify where the best opportunities lie.
21. In contrast to marketing research problems, management decision problems are:
a. action oriented
b. pervasive
c. narrower in scope
d. synergistic
e. information oriented
ANS: A
The marketing research problem is information-oriented, but the management decision problem is action-oriented.
22. Managers must combine specific pieces of information needed to identify the marketing research problem. Their _____ is to provide insightful decision-making information.
a. company-correlated goal
b. autonomous task
c. dichotomous goal
d. marketing research objective
e. field service objective
ANS: D
This is the objective of the marketing research.
23. Data previously collected for purposes other than the one at hand are an important source of information as the researcher defines the problem. These data are called _____ data.
a. single-source
b. secondary
c. primary
d. consensual
e. convenience
ANS: B
This is the definition of secondary data.
24. Post Properties is a company that manages apartments in various communities. It is concerned with a glut of apartments in Atlanta, Orlando, and Dallas Its market researcher begins by examining the rental markets in the Southeast, the history of apartment buildings, local economies, competitive rents, and ownership–all information that was on hand and did not require any new research to locate. The market researcher looked at:
a. a closed study
b. secondary data
c. primary data
d. a statistical analysis
e. priority databases
ANS: B
Secondary data are data previously collected for any purpose other than the one at hand.
25. Trade groups, commercial publications, and government data can be used as sources of:
a. secondary data
b. consensual information
c. primary data
d. artificial intelligence
e. marketing audits
ANS: A
Data previously collected for purposes other than the one at hand are an important source of information known as secondary data.
26. Research indicates that Americans today are concerned enough about sustaining the environment that they are willing to spend more. In fact, 65 percent of the people who responded to the survey said they were willing to spend more money for environmentally-friendly goods and 65 percent also expected to increase spending this year on eco-friendly products, despite the current downward trend in retail. Companies that use the results of this study in their product development efforts are using _____ data.
a. primary
b. convenience
c. dichotomous
d. observation
e. secondary
ANS: E
It is secondary data, which have been previously collected for some other purpose and may not fit the current research problem.
27. While many economic indicators have been negative during the first half of 2009, the Wall Street Journal recently reported that U.S. retail sales were actually up in April. In fact, the performance of 61% of the retailers in the study topped analysts’ expectations. If Costco used this report as factor in their expansion plans they would be using _____ data.
a. secondary
b. primary
c. dichotomous
d. convenience
e. observation
ANS: A
Data previously collected for purposes other than the one at hand are an important source of information known as secondary data.
28. All of the following are examples of secondary data EXCEPT:
a. a physical count of the number of cars passing through an intersection to determine the need for a traffic signal
b. a census report on the number of people who are native to a community
c. the creation of a customer database
d. a collection of trade journal articles about the future of a particular industry
e. a newspaper story describing the lifestyle of the average Internet user
ANS: A
Of the choices, only a physical count is primary data. Creating customer databases is not even marketing research.
29. When assessing the quality of secondary data, it is:
a. not necessary to know why the data were collected in the first place
b. important to be able to have easy access to the data
c. important to know the purpose for which the data were originally collected
d. not important to know when the data were collected
e. imperative to use the same methods and procedures when primary data are collected
ANS: C
To assess the quality of the data, it is important to know when, where, why, and how the data were originally collected.
30. Radio One is the largest U. S. radio broadcasting company targeting Black Americans today. Radio One staffers are constantly reviewing secondary information looking for any emerging trends in their target market. Potential disadvantages of this research approach include:
a. the questionable quality of the data
b. the high cost of collecting secondary data
c. he length of time it takes to collect secondary data
d. interviewer bias during the collection process
e. the potential for sampling error
ANS: A
The quality of secondary data can be a problem. Often secondary data sources do not give detailed information that would enable a researcher to assess their quality or relevance.
31. A(n) _____ is a company that acquires, catalogs, reformats, segments, and resells reports already published by marketing research firms.
a. syndicated vendor
b. research directory
c. marketing research aggregator
d. secondary data provider
e. marketing research compiler
ANS: C
This is the definition of a marketing research aggregator
32. _____ specifies the research questions to be answered, how and when the data will be gathered, and how the data will be analyzed.
a. A secondary data use plan
b. The research collaborative plan
c. An autonomous director
d. The research design
e. The sampling plan
ANS: D
This is the function of the research design, and once approved, the project budget is finalized.
33. The research design specifies:
a. follow-up procedures for the research
b. the information that will be found
c. how the final report will be written
d. how the information gathered will be used to predict external environmental changes
e. the research questions to be answered
ANS: E
The research design specifies which research questions must be answered, how and when the data will be gathered, and how the data will be analyzed.
34. Information collected for the first time for the purpose of solving a particular problem under investigation is called _____ data.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. dichotomous
d. observation
e. convenience
ANS: A
This is the definition of primary data.
35. When a university began thinking about offering more online degrees it used primary data to get potential students’ attitudes and intentions. What is the most likely reason for using primary data?
a. this information was already freely available to all interested parties
b. the value of the research is unrelated to sample size
c. the information can be collected quickly and at low cost
d. the information will fit the university’s needs exactly since it will be collected specifically for this study
e. it will benchmark consumers’ interest in grading equipment
ANS: D
Primary data are information collected for the first time for the purpose of solving a particular problem under investigation.
36. Community Trust Bank management decided to design a new product and promotion to appeal to small to medium-sized businesses. A researcher conducted a series of focus groups with business owners to find out more about what they wanted in bank services. With the focus groups Community Trust was collecting _____ data.
a. primary
b. ethnographic
c. consensual
d. secondary
e. collaborative
ANS: A
Primary data is information collected for the first time.
37. Caterpillar has been experimenting with replacing the traditional steering mechanism on its graders with a joy-stick based steering mechanism. As a part of their research they built graders that included both a steering wheel and joy-stick steering mechanisms, then asked operators to use the machines for a few days. After two days of testing, several of the operators like the joysticks so well that they suggested that the steering wheel be removed to provide better visibility. This would be an example of _____ research.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. dichotomous
d. ethnographic
e. collaborative
ANS: A
Information that is collected for the first time for the purpose of solving a particular problem under investigation is called primary data.
38. Levi Strauss & Co. recently introduced its new Totally Slimming jeans. The idea for the jeans came from a group session conducted last August in which a group of moms made it clear they were tired of low-rise styles. Instead they wanted jeans that were comfortable while covering-up problem areas, and showing off their figures. Levi’s used this _____ data as the basis for designing this new line of jeans.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. dichotomous
d. convenience
e. ethnographic
ANS: A
Primary data are information that is gathered for the first time for solving a particular problem.
39. When Wilson, a manufacturer of tennis racquets, sent a team of researchers, designers, and tennis pros out to visit with 40 women tennis players of various abilities in locations from California to Florida to find out what women players want in a racquet, what kind of research were they conducting?
a. heuristic
b. primary
c. cohesive
d. random
e. secondary
ANS: B
Primary data are information that is gathered for the first time for solving a particular problem.
40. What is the chief advantage of primary data?
a. low cost compared to secondary data
b. relevance to the problem at hand
c. availability to any interested party for use
d. accessibility through computerized databases
e. avoiding interviewer biases
ANS: B
Primary data are information collected for the first time for the purpose of solving a particular problem under investigation.
41. Your supervisor has instructed you to conduct a marketing research effort that will determine how your company’s business customer demographics have changed. You have also been instructed to use primary data. You will:
a. gather data from Standard & Poor’s General Information File
b. develop a mail survey to study your primary market
c. employ studies done by the Federal Trade Commission
d. make sure you locate Internet information by using a search engine
e. ask the National Industrial Conference Board for its latest study
ANS: B
Primary data are information collected for the first time and are used to gain a better understanding of a particular problem.
42. _____ studies collect data on two different projects using one questionnaire.
a. Piggyback
b. Single-source
c. Synergistic
d. Multi-tiered
e. Dual-coding
ANS: A
A piggyback study gathers data on two different projects using one questionnaire and is a cost-saving technique.
43. Research done by ShopLocal.com found that Americans today are concerned enough about sustaining the environment that they are willing to spend more. Suppose, to cut the cost of the research, ShopLocal.com included a second study asking consumers about their preferences in the upcoming presidential elections. This research would be an example of:
a. a dual-purpose analysis
b. a piggyback study
c. a Siamese twin project
d. a two-for-one integrative study
e. dual experimentation
ANS: B
Piggyback studies collect data on two different projects using one questionnaire.
44. The most popular method for gathering primary data is _____, in which a researcher interacts with people to obtain facts, opinions, and attitudes.
a. heuristic oriented
b. survey research
c. experiments
d. observation research
e. single-source research
ANS: B
Survey research takes several forms and is the most popular method for gathering primary data.
45. In-home personal interviews:
a. offer high-quality data at high cost
b. offer the ability to obtain high-quality data at low cost
c. are becoming increasingly more popular
d. are less expensive than mall intercepts
e. offer information of moderate quality, but at a low cost
ANS: A
The cost of interviewer time and mileage is high, but these interviews yield high-quality information.
46. Which type of survey research method involves interviewing people in the common areas of shopping malls?
a. telephone interviews
b. panel surveys
c. mall intercept
d. centralized interviews
e. interactive research
ANS: C
This is the definition of a mall intercept interview.
47. A major limitation of the mall intercept interview is:
a. the difficulty of measuring attitudes and opinions
b. the need to interview people standing up
c. its high cost relative to in-home interviews
d. the difficulty of demonstrating new products
e. the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample of the population of interest
ANS: E
A mall intercept sample is basically a convenience sample and not necessarily representative of the population as a whole.
48. A furniture manufacturer wants to test how consumers will respond to furniture upholstered in fabric made from recycled plastic by having consumers feel and respond to the fabric. Which form of survey would allow it to do this?
a. telephone interview
b. mail questionnaire
c. mall intercept
d. observation study
e. laboratory test
ANS: C
A mall intercept allows demonstration of the product, and the others do not. A laboratory test is not a type of survey.
49. Computer-assisted personal interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing are computerized techniques for conducting:
a. CLT interviews
b. mall intercept interviews
c. e-mail interviews
d. in-home interviews
e. focus groups
ANS: B
Marketing researchers are applying computer technology in mall interviewing in several ways.
You must conduct research to find out a great deal of information about the motives and desires of potential customers for a home delivery grocery service. You need a sample of at least 300 people who spend at least $100 weekly at the supermarket, and you don’t have a lot of money to conduct the research. You should use:
a. a marketing experiment
b. in-home personal interviews
c. focus group interviews
d. mail surveys
e. observation research
ANS: D
Mail surveys are the least expensive method of data collection for a sample of this size when a lengthy survey is required.
When the Boston Symphony Orchestra wanted to determine how to make classical music appeal to younger concertgoers, it hired AMN to conduct a survey. It was important that the survey have a relatively low cost and offer anonymity to respondents to ensure candid answers. Which form of survey research should AMN have used?
a. mail survey
b. focus group
c. in-home personal interview
d. mall intercept interviews
e. CLT interviews
ANS: A
Relatively low cost and respondent anonymity are two of the benefits of mail surveys.
A company wanted to collect data on consumers’ perceptions of its new brand. The marketing research director has recommended using a mail panel operated by Synovate. What can the company expect from a mail panel?
a. a very high response rate
b. the response rate will be low, as it is for all self-administered surveys
c. the participants are not usually compensated for their assistance, so it will be inexpensive
d. data collection is more rapid than telephone interviews
e. the panel of consumers will meet monthly to discuss products that were sent to them to try
ANS: A
Mail panel members are recruited to be used as a sample several times, and return rates of 70 percent are not uncommon.
59. Which of the following is a type of survey that involves interviewing businesspeople at their offices concerning individual products or services?
a. place-based interviews
b. CLT interviews
c. business panel surveys
d. executive interviews
e. professional interviews
ANS: D
Marketing researchers use executive interviews to conduct the industrial equivalent of door-to-door interviewing.
_____ require the best interviewers because they are often interviewing on topics about which they know very little.
a. Mall intercept interviews
b. CLT interviews
c. Mail panel surveys
d. Executive interviews
e. Focus groups
ANS: D
Executive interviews are expensive and time-consuming, and the interviewers frequently must talk about topics with which they are unfamiliar.
In which of the following situations would a marketing researcher be most likely to use executive interviews?
a. a manufacturer of extruded plastic wants to determine where there are other markets for its products
b. a manufacturer of frozen dinners wants to research the eating habits of its target market
c. the producers of children’s programming on public television want to learn more about the viewing habits of an audience composed of 5- to 12-year-old males
d. a shampoo manufacturer wants to test which smells consumers perceive as relaxing and exhilarating
e. an aluminum can manufacturer wants to research how people are disposing of cans
ANS: A
Only the extruded plastic manufacturer would be selling exclusively in the business-to-business market.
Health providers have voiced concerns about the use of pesticides and the negative effects they possibly have on our health. A large insurance company is willing to sponsor a meeting of the nation’s largest organic growers, pesticide producers, and retailers of organic foods if there is an interest in a cooperative effort to improve customers’ perception of eating healthy. What type of survey technique would be most appropriate for determining if there is any real interest in such a meeting?
a. cyber focus groups
b. executive interviews
c. mall intercept interviews
d. CLT interviews
e. in-home interviews
ANS: B
Since this is a topic where the respondent should be a product user as opposed to a consumer, executive interviews are most appropriate.
A _____ is a form of personal interviewing that uses a group of seven to ten people who have been recruited because of certain desired consumer characteristics.
a. passive people meter
b. primary data group
c. cross-tab set
d. CLT interview
e. focus group
ANS: E
This is the definition of a focus group.
A regional airport manager conducted research to get a better understanding for the types of concessionaires to include in the planned terminal remodeling. She conducted two sets of group interviews, one with 10 leisure flyers and another with 10 business flyers. In each group, participants discussed what types of food, retail, and other services they wanted in the new terminal. These discussions are examples of:
a. extended interviews
b. focus groups
c. observation
d. ethnographic research
e. secondary research
ANS: B
A focus groups consists of seven to ten people who participate in a group discussion led by a moderator.
British Columbia’s Sun-Rype Products wanted to find out if Canadians were having trouble getting their required servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Marketers conducted focus groups, a type of _____, which revealed that participants were having particular trouble getting their required servings of vegetables.
a. mail survey
b. mall intercept
c. ethnographic research
d. personal interviewing
e. experiment
ANS: D
A focus group is a type of personal interviewing in which seven to ten people participate in a group discussion led by a moderator.
66. Which type of interview question encourages an answer phrased in the respondent’s own words?
a. scaled-response question
b. Likert item
c. closed-ended question
d. open-ended question
e. free-form question
ANS: D
This describes an open-ended question.
67. Representatives of the Tourism Board of Arkansas visited state welcome centers and asked visitors to the state, “What is your reason for coming to Arkansas?” This would be an example of a(n) _____ question.
a. scaled-response
b. Likert scale
c. open-ended
d. dichotomous
e. multiple choice
ANS: C
The question encouraged an answer phrased in the customer’s own words.
68. Suppose the American Red Cross sent out a questionnaire that included the question “Why are so many people reluctant to donate blood?” This would be an example of a(n):
a. dichotomous response
b. sampling frame question
c. scaled-response question
d. closed-ended question
e. open-ended question
PTS: 1 REF: 141 OBJ: 09-3 TYPE: App
ANS: E
Open-ended questions encourage unlimited answer choices phrased in the respondent’s own words.
You have been given the task of creating a questionnaire that requires each respondent to provide a rich array of information based on his/her own frame of reference. Which of the following types of questions would best deliver such information?
a. true-false questions
b. mix-and-match questions
c. open-ended questions
d. scaled-response questions
e. closed-ended questions
ANS: C
Open-ended questions encourage unlimited answer choices phrased in the respondent’s own words.
70. Which type of survey question is a closed-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondent’s answer?
a. semantic differential
b. scaled-response question
c. interval-based question
d. sampling frame question
e. bounded-frame question
ANS: B
This is the definition of a scaled-response question.
When marketing researchers for a local fitness club wanted to know consumers’ intention to start a fitness program for a New Year’s resolution, they used a(n) _____ with five possible answers ranging from “Most Likely” to “Least Likely” and asked that the respondent choose one. This is an example of a(n):
a. open-ended question
b. action-based question
c. sampling frame question
d. scaled-response question
e. dichotomous response
ANS: D
A scaled-response question is a closed-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondent’s answer.
ANS: D
A scaled-response question is a closed-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondent’s answer.
In the survey used by an organization of mothers who swap toys, respondents were asked, “Would you be willing to pay a small fee in order to take advantage of this service? Circle YES or NO.” This is a(n) _____ question.
a. open-ended
b. sampling frame
c. scaled-response
d. double-barreled
e. dichotomous
ANS: E
Dichotomous questions ask questions that can be answered with “yes” or “no” or their equivalent.
73. PetsMart, a large chain of pet shops, surveyed consumers and asked, “Do you ever buy holiday gifts for your pets?” Respondents checked “Yes” or “No” to answer this question. This is an example of a(n) _____ survey question.
a. scaled-response
b. Likert scale
c. open-ended
d. dichotomous
e. multiple choice
ANS: D
There are only two possible answers–yes or no.
A survey by RoperASW asked consumers to check where they were most likely to look for information about a new book. Possible answers were book club catalogs, book reviews in newspapers, book reviews in magazines, television programs, friends, radio programs, local reading groups, or the Internet. What type of question was used in this survey?
a. multiple choice
b. dichotomous
c. scaled-response
d. open-ended
e. sampling frame
ANS: A
Many-item type of closed questions are called multiple choice questions.
XWhich of the following is the BEST example of an effective question on a mail survey?
a. Do you believe the synergy of the indigenous population has created a precursor to ecological disaster?
b. Why do you think dogs make good pets and cats make poor pets?
c. Have you ever put food out for wild birds?
d. What is the economy of scale achieved by the transference of heat through solar cells?
e. Will you be buying a new car soon and will it be a foreign car?
ANS: C
The correct alternative is the only question that is not ambiguous, does not use difficult terminology, and asks only one question.
76. _____ research depends on watching what people do.
a. Anonymous viewership
b. Observation
c. Interactive
d. Personal scanner
e. Survey
ANS: B
Observation research is a method that relies on four types of observation: people watching people, people watching an activity, machines watching people, and machines watching an activity.
77. When people are hired to record traffic patterns in a shopping mall, they are engaging in _____ research.
a. focus group
b. observation
c. experimental
d. survey sampling
e. sample framing
ANS: B
Research that does not rely on direct interaction with people is observation research.
Dryel is a Procter & Gamble product that allows consumers to dry-clean their clothes in a dryer. Before launching the product, P&G researchers visited consumers’ homes and watched as people they sorted laundry, creating piles of darks, whites, delicates, and items that would go to the dry cleaner because the people were unsure how to clean them. This was an example of _____ research.
a. observation
b. mall intercept
c. visualization
d. action-based
e. experiment
ANS: A
Observation research is a method that relies on four types of observation: people watching people, people watching an activity, machines watching people, and machines watching an activity.
Stan’s job is to walk the streets of Japan and locate fads. According to Stan, “Japan is advanced. What will happen 10 years from now is already happening in Japan.” What kind of research is Stan conducting?
a. experiment
b. dichotomous
c. observation
d. survey
e. open-ended
ANS: C
He is watching what people do.
A retailer of sporting goods equipment is interested in learning what peoples’ attitudes, motivations, and feelings are about its product lines. All of the following are potential sources for this information EXCEPT:
a. observation study
b. mail questionnaire
c. in-store interview
d. telephone survey
e. focus-group interviews
ANS: A
Observation research focuses on what people do, not on their attitudes and feelings.
Mystery shoppers engage in a form of:
a. mall intercept study
b. experiential study
c. marketing audit
d. observation research
e. market audit
ANS: D
This form of observational research is an example of people watching people or an activity.
First Southern Community Bank has long tried to differentiate itself as, “your friendly, hometown bank.” However, the bank president has been concerned about a number of recent customer service complaints. Which of the following approaches would probably be best to get a feel for how friendly her employees really are to customers?
a. employee focus-group interview
b. mail questionnaire of a sample of current customers
c. mystery shopper
d. experiential research
e. an Internet based community study
ANS: C
Mystery shoppers are researchers posing as customers who gather observational data about a store.
83. _____ research is the study of human behavior in its natural condition. It often proves that consumers do not do what they say they do, such as how they use a computer or what they watch on television.
a. Ethnographic
b. Action-based
c. Experiment
d. Survey
e. Visualization
ANS: A
This is the definition of ethnographic research.
Kimberly-Clark has outfitted consumers with mini video cameras mounted to visors to watch consumers doing chores and shopping. Using this research approach, known as _____ research, Kimberly-Clark learned that mothers had trouble using Huggies Baby Wash to bathe their infants. The problem was that the women liked to keep one hand on their infant at all times while the Baby Wash bottle required two hands to open dispense.
a. ethnographic
b. dichotomous
c. experiment
d. survey
e. open-ended
ANS: A
Ethnography, which is a form of observation research, is the study of human behavior in its natural context.
A(n) _____ is characterized by the researcher’s altering one or more variables—such as price or package design–while observing the effects of those alterations on another variable (usually sales).
a. observation research project
b. research problem
c. experiment
d. sampling frame
e. correlation of facts study
ANS: C
An experiment is a method a researcher can use to gather primary data and entails the researchers altering one or more variables while observing the effects of those alterations on another variable.
The best experiments are those in which:
a. all variables are allowed to act freely
b. all variables are held constant except the ones manipulated
c. all factors provide the desired results
d. the subjects are unpaid volunteers
e. two variables are held constant while all of the others are manipulated
ANS: B
An experiment is characterized by the researcher changing one or more variables while observing the effects of those changes on another variable.
The population from which a sample in a marketing research study will be drawn is referred to as the:
a. universe
b. market
c. test market
d. focus group
e. control group
ANS: A
A sample is a subset of a larger population, also known as the universe.
In a study whose purpose is to determine the market for a vitamin that is to be chewed like bubble gum, what is the first question to be answered before a sampling plan is selected?
a. Must the sample be representative of the population?
b. Who can perform the actual sampling?
c. What is the population or universe of interest?
d. How often should the sample be redesigned?
e. How large should the sample be in terms of its measurement costs?
ANS: C
The first step is the definition of the group from which the sample will be drawn.
A(n) _____ sample is characterized by every element in the population having a known statistical likelihood of being selected.
a. irregular
b. probability
c. nonprobability
d. convenience
e. piggyback
ANS: B
This is the definition of a probability sample.
Which of the following is a type of probability sample?
a. judgment
b. convenience
c. simple random
d. quota
e. primary
ANS: C
A simple random sample is a type of probability sample in which every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection. The other types of samples are nonprobability samples. See Exhibit 9.4
All of the following are types of probability samples EXCEPT:
a. systematic sample
b. quota sample
c. cluster sample
d. stratified sample
e. simple random sample
ANS: B
A quota sample is a nonprobability sample. See Exhibit 9.4.
Which of the following is a type of nonprobability sample?
a. stratified sample
b. systematic sample
c. cluster sample
d. simple random sample
e. judgment sample
ANS: E
Nonprobability samples are any samples in which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross-section of the population. A judgment sample is based on the researcher’s personal judgment that the elements (persons) chosen will likely give accurate informality.
All of the following are types of nonprobabilty samples EXCEPT:
a. systematic sample
b. quota sample
c. snowball sample
d. convenience sample
e. judgment sample
ANS: A
Systematic sample is a type of probability sample. See Exhibit 9.4.
A research manager decides to pick households for interviews by selecting street intersections at random, and then using a given route for the interviewers to follow–such as every fifth house on the right side of the road until the end of the street and then turn east and interview every fifth house on the left. This is a:
a. convenience sample
b. stratified sample
c. nonprobability sample
d. sampling error
e. probability sample
ANS: E
A probability sample is characterized by every element in the population having a known statistical likelihood of being selected, allowing an estimate of the accuracy of the sample.
While discussing an upcoming marketing research study of how the home decorating industry is affected by the teenage consumer, you emphasize the necessity of having a sample that is representative of the population. What type of sample must be used?
a. a nonprobability sample
b. a quota sample
c. a convenience sample
d. a probability sample
e. a field service sample
ANS: D
A probability sample is characterized by every element in the population having a known statistical likelihood of being selected, allowing an estimate of the accuracy of the sample.
A university hospital is interested in getting a cross section of patients’ opinions on proposed changes that will make the hospital stay more like a motel stay in terms of amenities. The cost of the new amenities will be reflected in higher rates. The university hospital used a random number table to select participants from the list of patients who are currently in the hospital. This is an example of a(n) _____ sample.
a. representational
b. convenience
c. nonprobability
d. synergistic
e. simple random
ANS: E
When using a simple random sample, every member of the population has a known and equal chance of selection.
97. A _____ sample is any sample in which little or no attempt is made to obtain a representative cross section of the population.
a. frame
b. random
c. probability
d. nonprobability
e. representational
ANS: D
This is the definition of a nonprobability sample.
Nonprobability samples:
a. require more expensive marketing research than probability sampling
b. include any sample in which little is done to obtain a representative cross section of the population
c. by definition must be representative of the population
d. often start out with random numbers to ensure selection of subjects is truly random
e. offer an easy method for determining sampling error
ANS: B
A nonprobability sample is any sample in which there is little or no attempt to obtain a representative cross section of the population.
Dr. Neuman is a marketing professor and uses her students in research studies because they are convenient and readily accessible. She is using a _____ sample.
a. single-source
b. random
c. probability
d. representational
e. convenience
ANS: E
A convenience sample uses respondents who are readily accessible.
Five hundred women were surveyed about their feelings about female physicians. The majority responded that they felt more relaxed with a female physician. The survey was an example of a(n) _____ sample because it used local hospital patents as survey participants.
a. random
b. representational
c. probability
d. convenience
e. framing
ANS: D
Convenience samples use respondents who are convenient or readily accessible.
Which type of error occurs when there is a difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process?
a. sampling error
b. research error
c. nonresponse error
d. measurement error
e. random error
ANS: D
This is the definition of measurement error.
Many people surveyed say they are environmentally-conscious and favor green products even if they are more expensive than traditional products. Some marketers are worried that many people may not actually purchase green products. This concern is about the potential for what kind of sampling error?
a. nonresponse
b. frame
c. random
d. measurement
e. none of the choices
ANS: D
Measurement error occurs when there is a difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process.
_____ occurs when a sample, in some ways, is not representative of the target population.
a. Sampling error
b. Measurement error
c. Cross-tabulation
d. Diagnostic error
e. Single-source research
ANS: A
This is the definition of sampling error.
One type of sampling error is _____, which is created when the sample actually interviewed differs from the sample drawn.
a. random error
b. diagnostic error
c. nonresponse error
d. nonprobability error
e. measurement error
ANS: C
This error happens because the original people selected to be interviewed either refused to cooperate or were inaccessible.
A _____ error arises if the sample drawn from a population differs from the target population.
a. field
b. frame
c. measurement
d. random
e. nonresponse
ANS: B
This could happen if using a telephone directory to draw sample, but it would not include households without landline phones or those with unlisted numbers.
A researcher wants to determine what percentage of the population in the southeastern United States would use a mass transit system if it were well-maintained. He gets telephone books from every city with over 200,000 people in those states and selects the fifteenth name in the middle column on every hundredth page as his sample. He has made a _____ error.
a. targeting
b. random
c. nonprobability
d. frame
e. reliability
ANS: D
He has made a frame error because not everyone has a listed telephone number.
A _____ error occurs because the selected sample is an imperfect representation of the overall population.
a. frame
b. field
c. measurement
d. random
e. representational
ANS: D
Random error represents how accurately the chosen sample’s true average values reflect the population’s true average.
In a survey for her marketing class, Allicia interviewed 80 randomly selected men and asked them their opinions of women with tans. Her initial results showed that the men overwhelmingly believed tans were a health risk. When she conducted the same survey again using the same methodology, she discovered that 50 percent of the surveyed population in the second group found women with tans sexy. This is most likely an example of a _____ error.
a. representational
b. random
c. nonprobability
d. frame
e. reliability
ANS: B
A random error occurs when the results of two surveys conducted in the same manner differ.
109. _____ specialize in arranging interviews for data collection on a subcontract basis. They also conduct focus groups, mall intercepts, retail audits, and other data-collection services.
a. Research diagnostic firms
b. Single-source researchers
c. Marketing information organization companies
d. Decision support companies
e. Field service firms
ANS: E
Marketing research field service firms collect most primary data.
When the Boston Symphony Orchestra wanted to determine how to make classical music appeal to younger concertgoers, it hired AMN to conduct a survey. AMN is most likely an example of a:
a. decision support company
b. data-mining company
c. field service firm
d. knowledge portal
e. marketing research diagnostics firm
ANS: C
Field service firms specialize in interviewing respondents on a subcontracted basis.
Several types of analysis are common to marketing research. Which one is the simplest?
a. one-way frequency counts
b. statistical analyses
c. cross-tabulations
d. passive people meters
e. scaled responses
ANS: A
One-way frequency counts note how many respondents answered a question a certain way. This provides a general picture of the results of the study.
Kent has gathered data concerning people’s preferences for traditional breakfast foods. He has learned that 30 percent of the population prefer eggs in the morning, 50 percent of the population prefers something sweet for breakfast like a doughnut, and an overwhelming 86 percent prefer food that they can eat while they drive to work. What method of analyzing the data has Kent used?
a. cross-tabulation
b. standard deviation
c. one-way frequency count
d. single correlation
e. linear regression
ANS: C
One-way frequency tables record the responses to a question.
_____ permit the analyst to relate the responses to one question to the responses to one or more other questions when assessing marketing research data.
a. One-way regression analysis
b. Two-way regression analysis
c. One-way frequency counts
d. Cross-tabulations
e. Content analysis
ANS: D
For example, with cross-tabulation the researcher can compare how males and females answered a question.
If a researcher wanted to look at responses to vacation home ownership questions as they relate to age and occupation of the respondent, the analysis approach he or she would use is:
a. one-way frequency tables
b. standard deviation measures
c. cross-tabulations
d. passive people meters
e. scaled responses
ANS: C
Cross-tabulations permit the analyst to relate the responses to one question to the responses to one or more other questions.
What is the last step of the marketing research process?
a. selecting sampling procedures
b. bill the client
c. analyze data
d. follow-up
e. prepare and present the report
ANS: D
The final step is to follow up to determine why management did or did not carry out the recommendations in the report.
All of the following are advantages associated with the use of Internet surveys EXCEPT:
a. decreased costs
b. ability to contact hard-to-reach respondents
c. reduced measurement error
d. ability to get survey results much more rapidly
e. ability to personalize the survey
ANS: C
Measurement error occurs when there is a difference between the information desired by the researcher and the information provided by the measurement process, so it can still occur when using the Internet to deliver the survey.
What is the moderator’s role in online focus groups?
a. to limit discussion to closed-ended questions
b. to provide freestyle screen dialogue including text, instructions, and probes
c. to make sure costs remain relatively low
d. to act as a data-mining engineer
e. to let respondents control the discussion
ANS: B
One of the most difficult jobs of the moderator is to control the discussion.
The two types of online focus groups are:
a. field and laboratory
b. diagnostic and predictive
c. real-time and time-extended
d. primary and secondary
e. individual and panel
ANS: C
Real-time online focus groups are live, interactive sessions, whereas time-extended online focus groups follow a message board format.
All of the following are advantages associated with online focus groups EXCEPT:
a. good participation rates
b. cost-effectiveness
c. narrow geographic scope
d. accessibility
e. honesty of respondents
ANS: C
Online focus groups offer a broad geographic scope.
A carefully selected group of consumers who agree to participate in an ongoing online dialogue with a particular corporation is known as a(n):
a. Web community
b. focus blog
c. online focus group
d. Webinar
e. Web-based ethnographic group
ANS: A
This describes a Web community.
A(n) _____ gathers its information from one group of respondents by continuously monitoring the advertising, promotion, and pricing they are exposed to and what is subsequently purchased. This creates a huge database of marketing efforts and resultant consumer behavior.
a. one-way mirror observation study
b. television meter investigation
c. laser scanner experiment
d. CLT interview
e. scanner-based research system
ANS: E
This is the definition of scanner-based research.
A regional supermarket chain gathers monthly information from the same consumers. It continuously monitors the in-store promotions the consumers are exposed to and records their purchases. It uses the mail to send different promotions to different areas, and consumers complete diaries recording grocery purchases in return for a small fee. This is an example of:
a. the use of a people meter
b. a scanner-based research system
c. an EDI study
d. a CLT interview
e. machinated observation
ANS: B
Scanner-based research systems gather information over time from a single panel of respondents using UPC scanner information gathered over a period of time. This is an attempt to develop an accurate picture of the direct causal relationship between marketing efforts and actual sales.
IRI panel members shop with an ID card, which is presented at checkout in scanner-equipped grocery and drugstores, allowing IRI to electronically track each household’s purchasing over time. This information on the household members is a product called:
a. InfoScan
b. VideOCart
c. BehaviorScan
d. Nielsen Data
e. Scanner Plus
ANS: C
This is IRI’s first product. It also offers InfoScan, which is a scanner-tracking service for the consumer packaged-good industry.
124. _____ is a scanner-based, sales-tracking service for the consumer packaged-goods industry. It tracks retail sales, consumer purchasing information, and promotional activity for all bar-coded products.
a. BehaviorScan
b. Nielsen Data
c. Scanner Plus
d. InfoScan
e. VideOCart
ANS: D
This is IRI’s most successful product.
Marketing research should not be undertaken when:
a. the perceived costs are greater than the projected benefits
b. there are no secondary data in existence to guide the project definition
c. it will take a long time to complete
d. the actual costs are less than the forecasted benefits
e. the perceived costs are the same as the forecasted benefits
ANS: A
The future benefits of the research must outweigh the cost of performing the research.
Because some companies have been conducting market research for many years on particular markets they are interested in, they understand the characteristics of target customers. For this reason, marketing research should not be undertaken when:
a. the actual costs are less than the forecasted benefits
b. there are no secondary data in existence to guide the project definition
c. it will take a long time to complete
d. the research would be redundant and a waste of money
e. the perceived costs are the same as the forecasted benefits
ANS: D
The future benefits of the research must outweigh the cost of performing the research.
Competitive intelligence allows managers to do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. predict changes in business relationships
b. forecast a competitor’s strategy
c. become more efficient and effective competitors
d. guard against threats
e. eliminate the need for marketing research
ANS: E
Competitive intelligence is an important tool for helping a firm overcome a competitor’s advantage, but it will not eliminate the need for marketing research.
An intelligence system that helps managers assess their competition and vendors in order to become more efficient and effective competitors is called:
a. competitive research
b. competitive intelligence
c. industrial espionage
d. an audit
e. differential competitive advantage
ANS: B
This is the definition of competitive intelligence.
Which of the following is a source of competitive intelligence?
a. a company’s salespeople
b. government agencies
c. the Yellow Pages
d. periodicals
e. all of these choices
ANS: E
All of these are sources of competitive intelligence, and the Yellow Pages are a good first source for competitive intelligence, especially for a local marketplace.
NARRBEGIN: Sav-More Supermarkets
Sav-More Supermarkets

Observers of the supermarket industry see no letup in the use of checkout-counter-based target marketing. Sav-More supermarkets have installed an electronic marketing system in their stores. The system allows the stores to do more direct mail promotions by combining the current Sav-More’s check cashing cards with the new Sav-More’s Bonus Club frequent-shopper cards. The new system uses bar-code scanners and magnetic cards issued to shoppers to track all purchases. As with most customer databases, demographic information is gathered for subsequent offers to frequent-shopper club members, and psychographic information is tracked whenever customers use the magnetic strip cards to make purchases. Generally, marketing to these consumers achieves better results than free- standing insert (FSI) coupons.
NARREND

130. Refer to Sav-More Supermarkets. The Sav-More management is continually provided with information to make better marketing decisions. These data are easily accessed and manipulated. This type of system is called a:
a. marketing decision support system
b. competitive intelligence system
c. single-source system
d. marketing information system
e. marketing research system

ANS: A
An interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables a manager to obtain and manipulate information is a marketing decision support system.
Refer to Sav-More Supermarkets. The creation of a large computerized file of customers’ demographic and psychographic characteristics through the new Sav-More system is called:
a. survey research
b. situation analysis
c. database marketing
d. observation research
e. secondary data
ANS: C
Database marketing is the creation of a large computerized file of customers’ and potential customers’ profiles and purchase patterns.
Refer to Sav-More Supermarkets. Al Edisto, Sav-More’s frozen food manager, noticed sales of orange juice have fallen, and he wanted to set up a marketing research project to determine possible reasons for the decline. He first studied the data from the database system discussed above. These data are called _____ data.
a. primary
b. single-source
c. secondary
d. conventional
e. representational
ANS: C
Secondary data are data collected for any purpose other than the one at hand.
Refer to Sav-More Supermarkets. Edisto decided the best way to determine what is causing the drop in orange juice sales was to conduct a survey among shoppers in the frozen food section of Sav-More. The data Edisto collected are called _____ data.
a. single-source
b. secondary
c. representational
d. primary
e. dichotomous
ANS: D
Information collected for the first time for the purpose of solving a particular problem under investigation is called primary data.
Refer to Sav-More Supermarkets. Edisto decided to survey each customer who stops in front of the frozen orange juice section on Saturday. The type of sample Edisto used for his research project is called a _____ sample.
a. simple random
b. piggyback
c. probability
d. stratified
e. convenience
ANS: E
The convenience sample is based on using respondents who are convenient or readily accessible to the researcher.
NARRBEGIN: University Research Study
University Research Study

A regional state university is experiencing declining enrollments. The administration is concerned with this situation and asked a marketing research class to conduct a research study and to make recommendations. One thing the administration is interested in learning is the feasibility of offering all of their degrees online as well as through the traditional on-campus degree program. They do not know what the market potential would be for online degrees and potential students’ attitudes and intentions toward getting an online degree from this university.
NARREND

135. Refer to University Research Study. Which role of marketing research is represented if the student researchers address “what if” questions, such as examining the outcomes if all the degree programs were available online?
a. predictive
b. proscriptive
c. descriptive
d. diagnostic
e. normative

ANS: A
Marketing research’s predictive function is to address “what if” questions.
Refer to University Research Study. If the students analyze census data to determine demographic trends in the primary market area for the university, they are using _____ data.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. proprietary
d. single-source
e. representational
ANS: B
Secondary data are data previously collected for any purpose other than the one at hand.
Refer to University Research Study. Because the students must finish the research project within a semester and do not have much money to conduct the research, which of the following would be the best quickest and least expensive method of collecting survey data?
a. in-home personal interviews
b. mail surveys
c. Internet surveys
d. marketing research aggregators
e. mall intercept interviews
ANS: C
Two main advantages of Internet surveys are rapid development, real-time reporting and dramatically reduced costs, so this is the best option for the students.
Refer to University Research Study. In addition to understanding potential students’ attitudes and intentions regarding online degree programs, the administration has also asked the students to gather data on another project regarding the public’s attitude toward the university overall. Gathering data on two different projects using one questionnaire is called a(n) _____ study.
a. piggyback
b. dichotomous
c. dual-purpose
d. compound
e. synergistic
ANS: A
This is describing a piggyback study.
Refer to University Research Study. When the students presented the results of their study to the university administration, they discussed the differences in responses between male and female respondents. Which data analysis technique allowed them to get these results?
a. one-way frequency counts
b. frame analysis
c. cross-tabulations
d. probability analysis
e. correlation analysis
ANS: C
A cross-tabulation, or “cross-tab,” lets the analyst look at the responses to one question in relation to the responses to one or more other questions.
NARRBEGIN: Callaway Golf Co.
Callaway Golf Co.

Callaway Golf Co. has long been a leader in women’s golf equipment, but it wanted to expand its lead in this growing sector of the market. While Callaway’s technical people knew what could be done with design, they did not know exactly what women wanted in their clubs. Callaway management decided what it needed to do was to bring the technicians and women golfer together. Beginning about three years ago Callaway sent a team of researchers, designers, and golf pros out to visit with 40 women golfers of various abilities in locations from California to Florida. In selecting the golfers to study Callaway decided to focus on women that were just beginning to play and experienced, competitive golfers that wanted to own the latest equipment. Callaway management felt that these two extreme groups of golfers had been overlooked by golf club manufacturers. Further, Callaway felt that if they could learn enough about these two groups they would also learn enough to serve the rest of the women golfer market. Basically the research team observed the women playing golf and listened to their comments and concerns. The information gathered by this research team was built into every aspect of the design of a new golf club, including the feel of the club, the length of the club shaft and size of the club head, and the weight of the club. When prototypes of the new clubs were completed they were sent to the women golfers to get their feedback. That feedback was then used to refine the club design. This process went on until the women said the new clubs worked. The entire process from original prototype to final product took a little less than one year.
NARREND

140. Refer to Callaway Golf. The type of research gathered by the Callaway Golf research team would be called:
a. secondary
b. developmental
c. descriptive
d. subjective
e. focus group

ANS: C
Marketing research that is descriptive involves the gathering and presenting of factual statements.
Refer to Callaway Golf. When Callaway researchers asked questions like “What bothers you the most about your irons?” what type of questions were they asking?
a. scaled-response
b. close-ended
c. dichotomous
d. open-ended
e. multiple-answer
ANS: D
With an open-ended question, the interviewer encourages the respondent to answer in his or her own words.
Refer to Callaway Golf. When Callaway researchers asked questions like “Now that you have played with the new club, how likely would you say you would be to buy it?” they asked golfers to respond on the following scale:

1 = would definitely not buy it
2 = would probably not buy it
3 = might or might not buy it
4 = would probably buy it
5 = would definitely buy it

What type of Question is this?
a. scaled-response
b. limited-response
c. dichotomous
d. open-ended
e. multiple-answer

ANS: A
With an scaled-response question, respondents are asked to response by selecting the appropriate response from a scale. This is a form of close-ended question designed to measure the intensity of a respondent’s answer.
Refer to Callaway Golf. An experimental approach to evaluating the quality of the new Callaway golf clubs would be to have the women golfers to play two rounds of golf, one with their own clubs and one with the new Callaway clubs. The golfers results for the two rounds could then be compared to help determine which clubs were the best. What is normally the most difficult aspect of conducting experimental research?
a. the cost of the experiment
b. controlling sampling error
c. holding variables constant
d. controlling measurement error
e. the questionnaire nature of the data
ANS: C
Holding all other factors, besides the factor of interest, is the most difficult thing about experimental research.
Refer to Callaway Golf. The Internet would be an excellent means for Callaway Golf to conduct follow-up research because of all the following reasons, EXCEPT:
a. error-free results
b. reduced costs
c. personalized questions
d. improved respondent participation
e. contact with hard-to-reach groups
ANS: A
There could still be errors with research conducted on the Internet.
Refer to Callaway Golf. Callaway used its contacts at golf courses around the country to find the 40 women for its study. The 40 women would most likely be called a _____ sample.
a. systematic
b. convenience
c. cluster
d. stratified
e. random
ANS: B
A convenience sample is one in which researchers select an easy-to-reach population.