Mkg ch 3

The WML, WMA, and WNBA have _____.
been a response to the changing role of women in American society
The percentage of U.S. women who watch sports on TV every week is _____.
50 percent
____ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
cultural values
Which of the following is true regarding changes in American cultural values?
There is substantial variance in values across individuals and groups
Which of the following provides an accurate description of the organic food market?
foods which meet USDA standards so that they are certified organic enhance consumer trust
Which of the following has NOT been found to be a top motive for organic purchases?
lower cost
Mitch buys organic food and does not eat any foods containing pesticides, herbicides or antibiotics. He based this lifestyle decision on his belief that food grown without the use of chemicals keeps them out of our bodies directly (we don’t consume them in our food) and indirectly (they don’t end up in our drinking water through run-off). On which motive did Mitch base his decision?
A. economics
B. health and environment factors
C. governmental policy
D. religious reasons
E. all of the above are motives on which Mitch based his decision
health and environment factors
When did Americans begin to place increased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification?
after the end of world war II
Leigh is working on a research project for her marketing class, and her assignment is to study how Americans’ values with respect to consumer behavior have changed in the past 50 years. Which of the following would give her the best insight into these changes?
advertising
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the religious/secular value in American society?
America is basically a religious society
Which of the following is a self-oriented value?
material/nonmaterial
Which of the following is NOT an environment-oriented value?
A. cleanliness
B. performance/status
C. tradition/change
D. risk taking/security
E. all of the above are environment-oriented values
all of the above are environment-oriented values
Which of the following is NOT an other-oriented value?
A. diversity/uniformity
B. masculine/feminine
C. limited family/extended family
D. tradition/change
E. individual/collective
tradition/change
Which of the following is a current American value?
A. uniformity
B. active
C. religious
D. youth
E. overcome natur
active
Which of the following is a traditional American value?
A. youth
B. competition
C. active
D. hard work
E. all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following is an emerging American value?
A. materialistic
B. individual**
C. admiring nature
D. masculine
E. postponed gratification
admiring nature
Which changing American value has been blamed for the fact that people aged 18 to 40 are most likely to admit that they are spending beyond their comfort range?
the shift toward immediate gratification
A shift from a focus on sensual gratification to abstinence in America would most likely affect _____.
the types of advertising themes used
A shift back to an emphasis on postponed gratification in American would most likely _____.
decrease the use of credit
Which is NOT a reason why Americans work long hours?
A. minimum wage is higher the more hours worked
B. because of their material orientation
C. because they may lack skills or job opportunities to provide even a moderate lifestyle without doing so
D. work is meaningful and valuable to them
E. all of the above are reasons why Americans work long hours
minimum wage is higher the more hours worked
_____ is consumers’ efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions.
voluntary simplicity
The voluntary simplicity movement in America represents a shift in which value?
material/nonmaterial
Erica and her family decided that it was just too much strain on them for Erica to work outside the home. Even though she was a successful attorney and they enjoyed the good things in life, her family made a conscious decision to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions. This behavior has been termed _____.
A. downsizing
B. dematerialization
C. voluntary withdrawal
D. voluntary simplicity
E. demarketing
voluntary simplicity
What percentage of American adults exercise regularly?
less than 50%
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding Americans’ environment-oriented values?
A. Americans have long valued cleanliness.
B. Americans traditionally have not been very receptive to change.
C. American’s risk-taking orientation seems to be moving more toward taking risks.
D. Traditionally, nature was viewed as an obstacle.
E. Americans are shifting back to a focus on performance rather than status.
americans traditionally have not been very receptive change
Those who work in such professions as architecture, science, engineering, and health care and business who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving are referred to as _____.
the creative class
Lakeisha is an architect, and her husband, Timothy, is an engineer. Both are in their early 30s. They represent a growing percentage of the workforce along with others who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving. Lakeisha and Timothy are part of the _____.
creative class
Which of the following factors had a significant impact on Americans’ emphasis on security?
A. the Depression
B. World War II
C. the Cold War
D. a and b
E. a, b, and c
a, b, and c
Which of the following is a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism?
New Green Mainstream
Which of the following is NOT a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism?
A. True Naturals
B. New Green Mainstream
C. Affluent Healers
D. Concerned
E. Overwhelmed
concerned
Which segment of environmental activists are concerned about the environment but alter their actions and purchases only when it is convenient?
New Green Mainstream
Gertrude expresses deeply felt environmental concerns and tailors everything she does and purchases on these beliefs. Which segment of environmental activism best describes Gertrude?
True Naturals
Mickey is concerned about the environment, but he is most concerned about issues that relate to his personal health. That’s why he protested when the city was considering placing a landfill near his home. Other than that, though, Mickey really does not consider environmental issues when he is shopping for products. To which environmental activism segment would Mickey belong?
Affluent Healers
Heather is married and has three children. While she and her family are concerned about the environment, they only alter their actions and purchases when it is convenient for them. Which environmental activism segment best describes Heather and her family?
New Green Mainstream
Which of the following is one of the defining characteristics of American society?
A. aversion to change
B. collectivism
C. individualism
D. extended family
E. status
individualism
Individualism affects which of the following?
A. incentive systems for salespeople
B. advertising themes
C. product design
D. customer complaining behavior
E. all of the above
all of the above
Consumers higher in individualism are more likely to _____ when faced with poor service performance.
A. complain
B. switch
C. engage in negative word-of-mouth
D. a and b
E. a, b, and c
a, b, and c
Laurie purchased an entertainment armoire from a national chain furniture retailer. Unfortunately, one of the doors did not operate properly, so she called the retailer to complain. A service representative was sent out to adjust the door, but just a few weeks later, the problem reoccurred, so Laurie called again and asked for a new armoire. The store manager said that another service rep would have to come out to determine if it was due to a manufacturer’s defect before it could be replaced. Because the service representative failed to show up, the manager decided to offer Laurie a new armoire. Unfortunately the replacement had the same problem and Laurie demanded her money back. Now she tells everyone she knows the problems she’s had with this retailer. Which value most likely underlies Laurie’s complaining behavior?
individualism
According to the authors, American culture increasingly values _____.
uniformity
Which of the following statements is true regarding Americans’ other-oriented values?
since world war II, americans have increasingly valued diversity
The value that Americans place on youth has _____.
shown a slow reversal toward more value being placed on age in recent years
A shift away from a competition oriented society would most likely affect _____.
A. sales force compensation
B. the types of decision rules used
C. the use of comparative advertising
D. the use of price as a competitive weapon
E. all of the above
all of the above
Marketers have responded to Americans’ increasing concern for the environment with an approach called _____.
green marketing
Which of the following is NOT generally involved in green marketing?
A. developing products whose production, use or disposal is less harmful to the environment than the traditional versions of the product
B. developing products that have a positive impact on the environment
C. pricing products lower than the competition**
D. tying the purchase of a product to an environmental organization or event
E. all of the above are involved in green marketing
all of the above are involved in green marketing
Health Valley is a brand of food, such as breakfast cereals, that uses all natural and organic ingredients. Moreover, they only purchase grain from organic farms. They state on their packages that “organic farming helps keep our food pure and protects our land and water from harmful substances. By supporting dozens of small organic farms, Health Valley helps protect a way of life for these family farmers, and helps ensure a safer and healthier Earth for you and your children.” This is an example of _____.
green marketing
As green claims increased in number and scope, the FTC developed the _____ to help alleviate concern over the potential for marketers to mislead consumers.
Green Guides
. The “Green Guides” provide examples of acceptable and unacceptable practices dealing with advertising and package claims relating to such areas as the environment, in general, as well those relating specifically to
A. ozone friendly
B. biodegradable
C. recyclable
D. recycled content
E. all of the above
all of the above
Green marketing methods that are profitable for the farmer, environmentally sound, and socially responsible are said to be _____.
sustainable
Several coffee manufacturers are informing consumers of their fair trade practices in which farmers in less developed countries are paid a living wage for their crops. The philosophy behind this movement is to be profitable for the farmer, be environmentally sound, and to be socially responsible. This movement has been referred to as the _____.
sustainability movement
Which term is used to refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology, or an activity?
A. cause marketing
B. social marketing
C. personal marketing
D. a and b
E. a, b, and c
a and b (cause marketing and social marketing)
_____ is done to enhance the welfare of individuals or society without direct benefit to a firm.
social marketing
Which type of marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause?
cause-related marketing
Target stores give one percent of a customer’s purchase to a school of their choice if they use a Target Visa credit card to pay for their purchases. Target will also donate one-half percent of all other purchases made on that card. This is an example of _____.
cause-related marketing
Which of the following is an example of cause-related marketing (CRM)?
a company donates $1 to Diabetes research for every purchase of its product by consumers
Which of the following is a challenge facing marketers who implement cause-related marketing programs?
consumer skepticism and apathy
Which group of consumers doubts the sincerity or effectiveness of cause-related marketing programs?
skeptic
John doubts the sincerity of marketers who claim that they will donate to a cause if he purchases their product. He doesn’t believe that they will make a difference because he thinks that marketers are only concerned with profits and probably only donate a small portion of their profits to the stated cause. John is best described as belonging to which group of consumers?
skeptic
Karen believes in cause-related programs, but she doesn’t always act accordingly. That is, she likes to patronize retailers that claim to donate a portion of her purchases to charity, but she only shops there when it is convenient for her to do so. Which consumer group would Karen belong?
balancer
Carl likes to support marketers that support causes or charities that are important to him. However, he is concerned about a marketer’s motive behind cause-related marketing programs and uses good judgment on which ones to support. Carl is best described as belonging to which group of consumers?
attribution-oriented
Which consumer group is driven by a desire to help with respect to cause-related marketing programs?
socially concerned
Maria will go out of her way to purchase a brand or patronage a store that claims to support a charity if she purchases their brand or shops in their store. Even though she knows that marketers develop these programs to help themselves as well as the cause, she doesn’t really care about that. She’s just driven by the desire to help. To which group of consumers does Maria belong?
socially concerned
What has been found to improve the results of cause-related marketing programs?
the fit between the company and the cause
Gay consumers, like heterosexuals, vary in terms of _____.
A. ethnicity
B. geographic region
C. occupations
D. age
E. all of the above
all of the above
The gay market has been estimated to comprise _____ of the adult U.S. population.
7 percent
What is typically absolutely necessary of any firm that desires to capture the loyalty of the gay community?
must have internal policies that do not discriminate against gay employees
Which index is published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation and measures how equitably a company treats its GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender) employees, customers, and investors?
corporate equality index (CEI)
Which is a product or service that often needs modification when targeting gay consumers?
financial services
Which term is used to refer to whether a person is biologically a male or female?
gender
_____ refers to the traits of femininity and masculinity.
gender identity
The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society are known as _____.
gender roles
While women are vital members of the workforce in the U.S., they are still considered the primary care givers of the children in a family. This represents women’s _____ in American society.
gender role
A(n) _____ is based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control.
ascribed role
_____ are based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control.
achievement roles
A woman that is married with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children would be classified as _____.
traditional
Catherine is married and a mother of two children. She has decided to forego her own career to stay home with her children until they are grown and on their own. Both she and her husband have decided that it is best for their family for him to assume the responsibility for providing financial security for them while she takes care of the home and family. Catherine would be classified as which type of woman?
traditional
A woman that is married where both she and her husband work and share homemaking and child care responsibilities is classified as _____ with respect to gender orientation.
modern
Rayna is married and a mother of four children. Both she and her husband share homemaking and child-rearing responsibilities. Rayna would be classified as a _____ gender orientation.
modern
Which of the following is a segment of female consumers?
A. Traditional housewife
B. Trapped housewife
C. Trapped working woman
D. Career working woman
E. all of the above
all of the above
Lisa is a single mother of two and works two jobs to provide for her family and derives little or no satisfaction from employment. To which market segment would Lisa belong?
Trapped working woman
Which of the following is a reason why women are an important target market?
more women work more hours outside the home today than any time in our history
Since women are quite diverse as a group, what other factors must marketers also consider when designing marketing communications?
A. ethnicity
B. age
C. life stage
D. employment status
E. all of the above
all of the above