MKG 310 Exam 1

Why is China very attractive to marketers around the world?
because of its massive population, rising income, and emerging youth market
____ is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.
Consumer behavior
One primary function of Harriet’s job is to study individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of her company’s products and services to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society. Harriet works in the field of ____
Consumer behavior
Which of the following is NOT true regarding consumer behavior?
The overall model of consumer behavior presented int he text is accurate in predicting consumer behavior.
Which of the following is a key aspect regarding consumer behavior?
Organizations are applying theories and information about consumer behavior on a daily basis
It is often necessary to conduct research
Consumer behavior is a complex, multidimensional process
Marketing Practices designed to influence consumer behavior involve ethical issues that affect the firm, the individual, and society
(All of the Above)
Which of the following is NOT an application of consumer behavior?
Human Resource Management
Thomas wants to gain a usable understanding of consumer behavior in order to help him become a more effective marketing manager. Which application of consumer behavior does this represent?
Marketing strategy
______ is the application of marketing strategies and tactics to alter or create behaviors that have a positive effect on the targeted individuals or society as a whole.
Social marketing
Mia is concerned how her marketing activities will affect individual consumers as well as society at large. Mia is implementing ____.
Social marketing
Most economically developed societies are legitimately referred to as ____ societies.
Consumption
Which of the following is used by firms to influence customers?
Ads
Packages
Store environments
Sales pitches
(All of the Above)
To survive in a competitive environment, an organization must provide its target customers more ____ than is provided to them by its competition.
Value
The difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the cost of acquiring those benefits is known as ___.
Customer value
Laurie saved for six months to have enough money to buy a new designer outfit to wear to a special party. She had to travel to a larger city to purchase this outfit, but it was worth it to her because it made her feel beautiful and confident. The difference between the benefits Laurie perceived from this purchase and the cost to her to acquire these benefits describes her _____.
Customer value
It is critical that a firm consider value from which perspective?
The customer’s
How can an organization provide superior customer value to customers?
By doing a better job of anticipating and reacting to customer needs than the competition does
Marketing strategy begins with ____.
Conducting a market analysis
Harold is tasked with developing the marketing strategy for his family’s business. What should he do first?
Conduct a market analysis
Marketing strategy is formulated in terms of the marketing mix; that is, it involves determining the product, features, price, communications, distribution, and services that will provide customers with superior value. This entire set of characteristics is often referred to as the _____.
Total value
Disney World in Orlando, FL has several theme parks, resorts, restaurants, and stores. Each is intentionally created to offer a memorable event for visitors. For example, the Wilderness Lodge is a large resort hotel on the grounds, and everything within is made to look like log cabins and pioneer days. Even the casual restaurant has the wait staff dressed in pioneer costumers, and they put on funny little skits when they are waiting on customers. Which of the following best describes what Disney is selling?
An experience
_____ are small, convenient, open-air retailing complexes laid out to evoke the small-town shopping districts of previous generations.
Lifestyle centers
Which of the following is a component of a market analysis?
Conditions
Darren is conducting a market analysis for his business, and he has asked your advice on what he should be analyzing. Which of the following should he consider at this step of marketing strategy development?
The company’s own ability to meed customer needs
Competitors’ capabilities and strategies
Consumers’ needs
Conditions of the market
(All of the Above)
Jamie is developing a thorough understanding of his company’s own capabilities, the capabilities of current and future competitors, the consumption process of potential customers, and the economic, physical, and technological environment in which these elements interact. Which step in the marketing strategy process is Jamie performing?
Conducting a market analysis
Which of the following aspects is evaluated when determining a firm’s ability to meet customer needs?
Financial condition
General managerial skills
Production capabilities
Technological sophistication
(All of the Above)
Which of the following is NOT evaluated when analyzing a company’s own ability to meet customer needs?
Competitors
As part of developing a company’s marketing strategy, you are tasked with analyzing the new-product capabilities, channel strength, advertising abilities, service capabilities, marketing research abilities, and market and consumer knowledge. Which aspect of your company’s capabilities are you assessing?
Marketing skills
A portion of a larger market whose needs differ somewhat from the larger market is referred to as a(n) ______.
Market segment
Smaller women like to purchase fashionable clothes just as much as any women. However, most clothes are not proportioned for their smaller size and do not fit well. As a result, several manufacturers offer “petite” sizes of clothing for this group of consumers. Women who comprise this group have needs that differ somewhat from the total market and represent a ____.
Market segment
Tracking consumers’ online activity and delivering specific banner ads based on that activity is known as ______.
Behavioral targeting
Tacoda Systems tracks consumers’ online activity and delivers specific banners based on that activity. This tracking and ad delivery system has been installed on almost 3,000 web sites, and advertisers pay on a pay-for-performance basis, which means that advertisers pay Tacoda Systems only when a consumer clicks on their ad. The tracking of online activity and delivery of ads based on that activity is called ____.
Behavioral targeting
What is the fist step in market segmentation?
Identify product-related need sets
What is the LAST step in marketing segmentation?
Selecting an attractive segment(s) to serve
Which of the following is NOT a step in market segmentation?
Set budget
Carlos is attempting to segment the market for his company’s products. Where should he begin?
Identify product-related needs sets
Which term reflects the fact that most products in developed economies satisfy more than one need?
Need set
Barry is looking for a car that is dependable yet is stylish enough to let others know that he has achieved a respectable status in his life and career. He also wants it to be high performance automobile. Dependability, status, and performance represent Barry’s ____.
Need set
Which of the following is used to describe a group of consumers with similar need sets?
Lifestyles
Talbot’s is a women’s clothing store that offers classic fashions at a slightly premium price (ie wool skirt typically costs over $100). During the process of market segmentation, Talbot’s identified a group of consumers who are larger than average but still want stylish clothing. Further research in this segment revealed that these women tend to be between the ages of 35 and 50, are career-oriented, have a household income over $50,000, and are married with children under the age of 18 living at home. This group is also heavy users of magazines and newspaper as well as prime-time television. Which step of market segmentation does this describe?
Describing each group
The segment(s) within the larger market on which an organization will focus its marketing effort is referred to as the ___.
Target market
J&J Produce is a distributor of fresh produce. They conducted a thorough analysis of its market and identified groups of consumers that had similar product-related needs. One particular market identified wanted fresh and unique produce, such as Swiss chard, radicchio, and exotic fruits, and they were willing to pay higher prices for these choices. J&J Produce decided to focus its marketing effort on this segment of the total market. This segment is J&J’s ____.
Target market
Which of the following is used to evaluate the attractiveness of various market segments?
Segment size
Distribution available
Fit with company image
Cost to serve
(All of the Above)
Juan has segmented the market for boats and is currently analyzing each with respect several factors, such as size, growth rate, competitor strength, fir with company image, distribution available, cost to serve, and risk before deciding which segment to target. Which step of market segmentation Juan conducting?
Grouping customer with similar need sets
The product, price, communications, distribution, and services provided to target market is referred to as the _____.
Marketing mix
Which of the following is part of the marketing mix?
Product
Price
Communications
Distribution
(All of the Above)
A(n) ____ is anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a perceived need.
Product
To be successful, a product must ____.
meet the needs of the target market better than the competition does
_____ include(s) advertising, the sales force, public relations, packaging, and any other signal that the firm provides about itself and its products.
Marketing communications.
Which of the following is included in marketing communications?
Advertising
Sales force
Public relations
Packaging
(All of the above)
Which of the following is NOT a critical question for developing marking communications?
Who do we want to communicate with?
What effect do we want to have?
What message will achieve the desired result?
what media should we use?
(All of the above are critical questions)
____ is the amount of money one must pay to obtain the right to use the product.
Price
Amy purchased a new 32″ LCD high-definition television and paid $1,999 for it. this amount of money Amy had to pay to obtain this product is known as the ____.
Price
____ is everything the consumer must surrender in order to receive the benefits of owning/using the product.
Consumer cost
Timothy and his wife are considering the purchase of a new car. In addition to the price, they are also considering the cost of insurance, gasoline, maintenance, finance charges, and license fees. All of these factors combined represent the ____.
Consumer cost
Which element of the marketing mix is concerned with having the product available where target customers can buy it?
Distribution
Tony’s job entails making sure his company’s products get to retailers so that the target customers can buy them. Which element of the marking mix is Tony involved with?
Distribution
Auxiliary or peripheral activities that are performed to enhance the primary product or primary service is referred to as ____.
Service
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the firm’s outcomes of the marketing strategy and consumer behavior process?
Service
An image of the product or brand in the consumer’s mind relative to competing products and brands is referred to as the product’s ____.
Position
A product’s position refers to ____.
An image of the product in the consumer’s mind relative to competing products.
Rod is surveying consumers to gain a better understanding of his restaurants image relative to competing restaurants. rod is concerned with is restaurant’s ____.
Position
Which outcome of marketing strategy produces the revenue necessary for the firm to continue in business?
Sales and profits
John purchases and is satisfied with his SUV because he believes that it provides greater crash safety than a sedan even though this is not technically true. John’s satisfaction is based on the distinction between ___.
actual need fulfillment and perceived need fulfillment
___ occurs when individuals or groups make consumption decisions that have negative consequence for their long-run well-being.
Injurious consumption
Bob and his friends go out every weekend and drink until they get drunk. Then they drive home in that condition. Which type of consumption does this represent?
Injurious consumption
Which of the following is a societal outcome of marketing strategy and consumer behavior?
Social welfare
Which of the following is NOT a societal outcome of marketing strategy and consumer behavior?
Customer satisfaction
Which is NOT a step in the consumer’s decision process?
Self-concept analysis
Which of the following is an internal influence on consumer behavior?
Attitudes
Which is NOT an external influence on consumer behavior?
Perception
Teresa is tring to understand her customers better. She is examining the external influences that shape her customers’ self-conception and lifestyles. Which of the following is a possible external influence Teresa could examine?
Culture
Liz Claiborne is a brand of clothing, accessories, and home products. Brand managers at this company are trying to learn which internal influences impact their customers’ needs and desires most. Which of the following is a possible internal influence these managers should examine?
Personality
What is the first step in the consumer decision process?
Problem recognition
Which of the following statements is true regarding the overall model of consumer behavior?
It is sufficiently detailed so as to predict particular behaviors.
The totality of an individual’s thoughts and feelings about him- or herself is known as ___.
Self-concept
___ represents how one lives, including the products one buts, how one uses them, what one thinks about them, and how one feels about them.
Lifestyle
Which type of decisions involve very little effort or thought on the part of the consumer?
Low-involvement decisions
Karen was at the checkout at the grocery store and remembered that she was out of chewing gum that she normally likes to keep in her purse. Without much thought, she grabbed two packages of the gum she likes. What type of consumer decision does this illustrate?
Love-involvement decision
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the working poor?
They spend a larger portion of their relatively small incomes on meals away from home
What does the consumption of a product like Nikes mean to Andre, the working poor consumer discussed in “Consumer Insight?”
They serve as a visible symbol that he is back as a successful member of society
What are the major challenges facing Wal-Mart, Carrefour, and Tesco in the Chapter 2 opener?
The superstore and hypermarket formats do not always work in Latin America and Asia
Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy?
Demographics
Values
Language
Nonverbal Communications
(All of the above)
Howard Industries is a computer manufacturer located in Laurel, MS. This company is interested in expanding internationally. Which of the following is a cultural factor that affects consumer behavior and marketing strategy that Howard Industries needs to be aware of?
Nonverbal communications
Which of the following statements if FALSE regarding cross-cultural marketing?
There are both subtle and direct ethical issues involved in international marketing
Which of the four segments of world citizens feels positively about international brands, value their symbolic aspect, and are less concerned about corporate responsibility?
Global dreamers
Which one of the four segments of world citizens feels positively about international brands because they view them as a signal of higher quality?
Global citizens
___ is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.
Culture
Which of the following statements is true regarding culture?
Culture often provides detailed prescription for appropriate behavior
In the United States, promptness is considered a virtue. Americans are expected to be on time to an event, and expected others to do as well. Which aspect of culture best explains this behavior?
Culture is acquired, that is, it is learned.
The boundaries that culture sets on behavior are called ___.
Norms
___ are rules that specify or prohibit certain behavior in specific situations.
Norms
Karen’s father is an executive for a major international corporation and has been transferred to various countries over the years. With each move, Karen is enrolled in a new school. Even though English is spoken in the schools she attends, there are students from all over world who’s parents have jobs similar to Karen’s father. With each new school, Karen spends the first few weeks merely observing the other students to learn which behaviors are appropriate in specific situations because she’s learned that at each school the kids behave differently. Karen is attempting to learn that body’s specific ___ regarding behaviors.
Norms
Norms are derived from ___.
Cultural values
___ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable
Cultural values
Marketers that wish to expand internationally need to understand a culture’s widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. To do this, marketers should study ___.
Cultural values
Violation of cultural norms results in ___, or penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group.
Sanctions
Robert is fifteen years old and has recently moved to a new town and therefor, a new high school. He was trying to get accepted by a group of kids that he wanted to be friends with. When they asked him to attend a party over the weekend, he said he’d have to ask his parents for permission. this group of students laughed at him and called him a “momma’s boy” and told him he can’t be one of them because they don’t ask parents for permission, they just do what they want. This social disapproval of Robert’s behavior is an example of a(n) ___.
Santion
Which of the following is NOT a broad form of cultural values?
Object-oriented
___ values reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society.
Other-oriented
Asian societies (ie Japan) value collective activity. That is, consumers look toward others for guidance in purchase decisions and do not respond favorably to promotional appeals focusing on individualism. Which category of cultural values does this represent?
Other-oriented
___ values prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technological as well as its physical environment.
Environment-oriented.
Sam has learned that a country to which his company desires to expand places a high value on cleanliness and admires nature immensely. Which category of cultural values does this represent?
Environment-oriented
___ values reflect the objectives and approaches to live that the individual members of society find desirable.
Self-oriented
Which of the following is an example of an other-oriented value?
Individual/collective
Which of the following is NOT an example of an other-oriented value?
Tradition/change
Which of the following is an example of an environment-oriented value?
Tradition/change
Which of the following is NOT an example of an environmental-oriented value?
Competitive/cooperative
Which of the following is an example of a self-oriented value?
Religious/secular
Which of the following country tends to value individualism over collectivism?
United States
Jake is in the market for a new car. He’s looking at brands such as Mercedes, Lexus, and BMW because he feels they tell other people that he’s successful in life. This is an illustration of which value?
Collectivism
Which culture has traditionally valued the wisdom that comes with age?
Asian
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding youth and age?
Children in all countries have a significant influence on purchases.
What is the basis for virtually all societies?
Family unit
Which of the following statements regarding masculine/feminine value is FALSE?
Women in South Korea frequently participate more in sports and exercise than men.
The United States is comprised of a culture that accepts a wide array of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services. Thus, the United States values ___.
Diversity
___ refers to the degree to which people can accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society.
Power distance
Which value relates to tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance?
Risk taking/security
Which value has a strong influence on entrepreneurship and economic development as well as new-product acceptance?
Risk taking/security
___ tend to feel they don’t have control over the outcome of events.
Fatalists
Marie has purchased a brand that she has purchased before. However, the first time she used this brand, the product fails and she was dissatisfied. Unfortunately, the second time she purchased this brand, the same thing happened. She’s frustrated and wants her money back, but she doesn’t feel as though she has any control over the situation. She’s decided that she just needs to accept this poor quality and not expect so much from the next product she purchases. Marie can be described as a(n) ___.
Fatalist
The fact that Americans are prone to engage in physical activities and to take an action-oriented approach to problems can be explained thought which self-oriented value dichotomy?
Active/passive
What are two types of materialism?
Instrumental and terminal
Which type of materialism is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something?
Instrumental
James used his birthday money to buy a skateboard so that he can be our with his friends at the park skateboarding. Which type of materialism does this represent?
Instrumental
Which type of materialism is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item in itself?
Terminal
John and his wife love art and travel the world to purchase artwork that is representative of a country’s culture. Which type of materialism does this represent?
Terminal
In Germany, one concern retailers have is ensuring that cash drawers have enough money to make change when consumers make purchases. One company went so far as to use a computerized model that monitored the weight of the cast drawer and signaled a need for replenishment. This is such a concern because consumers typically use cash to make purchases, which differs from other countries, such as the US, where credit card use is much more common. which cultural value does this illustrate?
Postponed gratification/immediate gratification
Which of the following is most closely related to verbal communications?
Language
Which of the following is NOT a factor that creates problems in literal translations and slang expressions?
Differences in the direction in which written words are read
Symbolic meanings associated with words
Absence of some words from various languages
Difficulty of pronouncing certain words
All of the above are factors that create problems in literal translations and slang expressions
Which of the following is a factor influencing nonverbal communications?
Things
Relationships
Space
Symbols
(All of the Above)
Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing nonverbal communications?
Values
Nicholas is examining how people in India perceive time, space symbols, relationships, agreements, things, and etiquette. He is interested in these factors because they influence ___.
Nonverbal communications
___ are the arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions, events, and things other than words.
Nonverbal communication systems
What are the two major ways time varies between cultures?
Monochronic and polychronic
A culture’s overall orientation toward time is known as its ___.
Time perspective
Before a marketer can successfully launch a brand in a foreign, several nonverbal communication factors need to be understood. One of these factors is time, and international marketers must understand a culture’s overall orientation toward time. This is known as a culture’s ___.
Time perspective
Which time perspective views time almost as a physical object believing that a person does one thing at a time?
Monochronic time perspective
Ralph is very prompt. If he says he will be there at 10am, he will be there exactly at that time. Furthermore, he will not begin another task until he is completely done with the one he is currently working on. Which time perspective does Ralph have?
Monochronic
A culture that tends to view time as being less discrete and less subjective to scheduling, views simultaneous involvement in many activities as natural, allows activities to occur at their own pace rather than according to a predetermined timetable is adhering to a ___ time perspective.
Polychronic
Jose is from Brazil and is currently enrolled in an MBA program at a US university. He routinely comes to class 30-60 minutes late and does not turn in assignments by the deadline. One of his professors and pulled him aside and asked him why he’s always late for class and turns in his work late. Jose was surprised that his professor was bothered by this behavior as this is entirely acceptable in Brazil. In fact, it’s expected. Which of the following best describes Jose’s time perspective?
Polychronic
The nearness that others can come to you in carious situations without your feeling uncomfortable is known as ___.
Personal space
Which of the following is considered a symbol that has varying meaning across cultures?
Colors
Animals
Numbers
Music
(All of the above)
In which country is the concept of guanxi, which involves personal relationships, an important consideration?
China
___ represents generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations.
Etiquette
Charmaine is a member of a junior miss organization that teaches young women how to behave in various social situations. She is learning manners, how to carry herself, and appropriate attire for specific situations. Charmaine is learning ___
Ettiquette
In Japan, the exchange of meishi is the most basic of social rituals in a nation where social ritual matters very much. The act of exchanging meishi is weighted with meaning. One the social minuet is completed, the two know where they stand in relation to each other and their respective statures within the hierarchy of corporate or government bureaucracy. What is “meishi”?
Exchange of business cards
Which of the following is enabling the growth of a global culture?
Mass media
Work
Education
Travel
(All of the above)
What is the largest single influence on the movement toward uniformity int he global youth market?
Mass media
Which of the following is FALSE regarding trends in the global youth market?
US brands are currently the leader among global teens
Which country is the leading movie producer and consumer in the world?
India
___ describe a population in terms of its size, structure and distribution.
Demographics
Dale has to write a research paper about Poland in his International Marketing class. One aspect he must learn about the country is its size, structure, and distribution. what does this represent?
Distribution
With respect to demographics, which of the following refers to the numbers of individuals in a society?
Size
The population of the United States is almost 300 million people. With respect to demographics, this number represents ___.
Size
With respects to demographics, which of the following describes the society in terms of age, income, education, and occupation?
Structure
___ refers to the physical location of individuals in terms of geographic region and rural, suburban, and urban location.
Distribution
___ is based on the cost of a standard market basked of products bought in each country.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Which country has the largest percentage of its citizens older than 60 years of age?
Japan
Using one marketing strategy across various cultures is referred to as ___.
Standardization
Which of the following is a key consideration for each geographic market that a firm is contemplating?
Is the geographic area homogeneous or heterogeneous with respect to culture?
What needs can this product or a version of it pull in this culture?
what are the distribution, political, and legal structures for the product?
In what ways can we communicate about the product?
(All of the above)
The WML, WMA, and WNBA have ___.
None of the above
The percentage of US women who watch sports on TV every week is ___.
50%
___ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
Cultural values
Which of the following is true regarding changes in American cultural values?
There is substantial variance in values across individuals and groups.
Which of the following provides an accurate description of the organic food market?
foods which meed USDA standards so that they are certified organic enhance consumer trust
Which of the following has NOT been found to be a top motive for organic purchases?
Lower cost
Mitch buys organic food and does not eat any food containing pesticides, herbicides, or antibiotics. He based this lifestyle decision on his belief that food grown without the use of chemicals keeps them out of our bodies directly and indirectly. On which motive did Mitch base his decision?
Health and environmental factors
When did Americans begin to place increased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification?
After the end of WWII
Leigh is working on a research project for her marking class, and her assignment is to study how Americans’ values with respect to consumer behavior have changed in the past 50 years. Which of the following would give her the best insight to these changes?
Government documents