MKG 310 Ch3

Men are more involved than ever in the grocery shopping task because of _____:
E. all of the above *1
The percentage of U.S. men who are the primary grocery shopper for their home is _____.
C. 51 percent
____ are widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable.
B. Cultural values
Which of the following is true regarding changes in American cultural values?
D. There is substantial variance in values across individuals and groups.
Which of the following provides an accurate description of the organic food market?
A. foods which meet USDA standards so that they are certified organic enhance consumer trust
Which of the following has NOT been found to be a top motive for organic purchases?
A. lower cost
Mitch buys organic food and does not eat any foods containing pesticides, herbicides or antibiotics. He based this lifestyle decision on his belief that food grown without the use of chemicals keeps them out of our bodies directly (we don’t consume them in our food) and indirectly (they don’t end up in our drinking water through run-off). On which motive did Mitch base his decision?
B. health and environment factors
When did Americans begin to place increased emphasis on leisure, immediate gratification, and sensual gratification?
D. after the end of World War II
Leigh is working on a research project for her marketing class, and her assignment is to study how Americans’ values with respect to sensual gratification and abstinence have changed in the past 50 years. Which of the following would give her the best insight into these changes?
E. a, b, and c *9
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the religious/secular value in American society?
C. America is basically a religious society.
Which of the following is a self-oriented value?
D. material/nonmaterial
Which of the following is NOT an environment-oriented value?
E. all of the above are environment-oriented values
Which of the following is NOT an other-oriented value?
D. tradition/change
Which of the following is a current American value?
B. active
Which of the following is a traditional American value?
E. all of the above *15
Which of the following is an emerging American value?
C. admiring nature
Which changing American value has been blamed for the fact that people age 18 to 40 are most likely to admit that they are spending beyond their comfort range?
A. the shift toward immediate gratification
A shift from a focus on sensual gratification to abstinence in America would most likely affect _____.
B. the types of advertising themes used
A shift back to an emphasis on postponed gratification in America would most likely _____.
B. decrease the use of credit
Which is NOT a reason why Americans work long hours?
A. minimum wage is higher the more hours worked
_____ is consumers’ efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions.
C. Voluntary simplicity
The voluntary simplicity movement in America represents a shift in which value?
D. material/nonmaterial
Erica and her family decided that it was just too much strain on them for Erica to work outside the home. Even though she was a successful attorney and they enjoyed the good things in life, her family made a conscious decision to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions. This behavior has been termed _____.
D. voluntary simplicity
What percentage of American adults exercise regularly?
A. less than 50%
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding Americans’ environment-oriented values?
B. Americans traditionally have not been very receptive to change.
Those who work in such professions as architecture, science, engineering, and health care and business who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving are referred to as _____.
A. the creative class
Lakeisha is an architect, and her husband, Timothy, is an engineer. Both are in their early 30s. They represent a growing percentage of the workforce along with others who generate new ideas and technologies for a living or engage in complex problem solving. Lakeisha and Timothy are part of the _____.
C. creative class
Which of the following factors had a significant impact on Americans’ emphasis on security?
E. a, b, and c *28
Which of the following is a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism?
B. Eco-Centrists
Which of the following is NOT a segment used to describe consumers with respect to their environmental activism?
B. New Green Mainstream
Which segment of environmental activists is highly dismissive of environmental concerns and doesn’t believe global warming exists?
B. Eco-Villains
Gertrude expresses deeply felt environmental concerns and tailors everything she does and purchases to these beliefs. Which segment of environmental activism best describes Gertrude?
A. Eco-Centrists
Mickey is not concerned about the environment. He has no problem with the pollution coming from his 1965 Chevy, and he refuses to recycle. To which environmental activism segment would Mickey belong?
B. Eco-Villains
Heather and Jeff live on a farm in Iowa with their three children. They are concerned about the environment because of the high cost of heating their home in winter. Which environmental activism segment best describes Heather and her family?
D. Proud Traditionalists
Which of the following is one of the defining characteristics of American society?
C. individualism
Individualism affects which of the following?
E. all of the above *36
Consumers higher in individualism are more likely to _____ when faced with poor service performance.
E. a, b, and c *37
Laurie purchased an entertainment armoire from a national chain furniture retailer. Unfortunately, one of the doors did not operate properly, so she called the retailer to complain. A service representative was sent out to adjust the door, but just a few weeks later, the problem reoccurred, so Laurie called again and asked for a new armoire. The store manager said that another service rep would have to come out to determine if it was due to a manufacturer’s defect before it could be replaced. Because the service representative failed to show up, the manager decided to offer Laurie a new armoire. Unfortunately the replacement had the same problem and Laurie demanded her money back. Now she tells everyone she knows the problems she’s had with this retailer. Which value most likely underlies Laurie’s complaining behavior?
D. individualism
According to the authors, American culture increasingly values _____.
A. diversity
Which of the following statements is true regarding Americans’ other-oriented values?
B. Since World War II, Americans have increasingly valued diversity.
The value that Americans place on youth has _____.
B. shown a slow reversal toward more value being placed on age in recent years
A shift away from a competition oriented society would most likely affect _____.
C. the use of comparative advertising
Marketers have responded to Americans’ increasing concern for the environment with an approach called _____.
A. green marketing
Which of the following is NOT generally involved in green marketing?
C. pricing products lower than the competition
Health Valley is a brand of food, such as breakfast cereals, that uses all natural and organic ingredients. Moreover, they only purchase grain from organic farms. They state on their packages that “organic farming helps keep our food pure and protects our land and water from harmful substances. By supporting dozens of small organic farms, Health Valley helps protect a way of life for these family farmers, and helps ensure a safer and healthier Earth for you and your children.” This is an example of _____.
A. green marketing
As green claims increased in number and scope, the FTC developed the _____ to help alleviate concern over the potential for marketers to mislead consumers.
C. Green Guides
The “Green Guides” provide examples of acceptable and unacceptable practices dealing with advertising and package claims relating to such areas as the environment, in general, as well those relating specifically to
E. all of the above *47
The practice whereby a firm promotes environmental benefits that are unsubstantiated and on which they don’t deliver is known as ________.
C. greenwashing
Environmental concerns don’t guarantee purchase of green products. Negative perceptions are on the rise due to beliefs that green products are ___________.
E. all of the above *49
Which term is used to refer to the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause such as a charity, an ideology, or an activity?
D. a and b *50
_____ is done to enhance the welfare of individuals or society without direct benefit to a firm
B. Social marketing
Which type of marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause?
A. cause-related marketing
Target stores give one percent of a customer’s purchase to a school of their choice if they use a Target Visa credit card to pay for their purchases. Target will also donate one-half percent of all other purchases made on that card. This is an example of _____.
A. cause-related marketing
Which of the following is an example of cause-related marketing (CRM)?
C. A company donates $1 to Diabetes research for every purchase of its product by consumers.
Which of the following is a challenge facing marketers who implement cause-related marketing programs?
D. Consumer skepticism and apathy are demonstrated.
Which group of consumers doubts the sincerity or effectiveness of cause-related marketing programs?
A. Skeptic
John doubts the sincerity of marketers who claim that they will donate to a cause if he purchases their product. He doesn’t believe that they will make a difference because he thinks that marketers are only concerned with profits and probably only donate a small portion of their profits to the stated cause. John is best described as belonging to which group of consumers?
A. Skeptic
Karen believes in cause-related programs, but she doesn’t always act accordingly. That is, she likes to patronize retailers that claim to donate a portion of her purchases to charity, but she only shops there when it is convenient for her to do so. Which consumer group would Karen belong?
B. Balancer
Carl likes to support marketers that support causes or charities that are important to him. However, he is concerned about a marketer’s motive behind cause-related marketing programs and uses good judgment on which ones to support. Carl is best described as belonging to which group of consumers?
C. Attribution-oriented
Which consumer group is driven by a desire to help with respect to cause-related marketing programs?
D. Socially concerned
Maria will go out of her way to purchase a brand or patronize a store that claims to support a charity if she purchases their brand or shops in their store. Even though she knows that marketers develop these programs to help themselves as well as the cause, she doesn’t really care about that. She’s just driven by the desire to help. To which group of consumers does Maria belong?
D. Socially concerned
What has been found to improve the results of cause-related marketing programs?
B. the fit between the company and the cause
Gay consumers, like heterosexuals, vary in terms of _____.
E. all of the above *63
The gay market has been estimated to comprise _____ of the adult U.S. population.
B. 7 percent
What is typically absolutely necessary of any firm that desires to capture the loyalty of the gay community?
D. must have internal policies that do not discriminate against gay employees
Which index is published by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation and measures how equitably a company treats its GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender) employees, customers, and investors?
A. corporate equality index (CEI)
Which is a product or service that often needs modification when targeting gay consumers?
A. financial services
Which term is used to refer to whether a person is biologically a male or female?
D. a and b *68
_____ refers to the traits of femininity and masculinity.
C. Gender identity
The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society are known as _____.
D. Gender roles
While women are vital members of the workforce in the U.S., they are still considered the primary care givers of the children in a family. This represents women’s _____ in American society.
D. gender role
A(n) _____ is based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control.
C. ascribed role
_____ are based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control.
B. Achievement roles
A woman who is married with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children would be classified as _____.
C. traditional
Catherine is married and a mother of two children. She has decided to forego her own career to stay home with her children until they are grown and on their own. Both she and her husband have decided that it is best for their family for him to assume the responsibility for providing financial security for them while she takes care of the home and family. Catherine would be classified as which type of woman?
C. traditional
A woman that is married where both she and her husband work and share homemaking and child care responsibilities is classified as _____ with respect to gender orientation.
D. modern
Rayna is married and a mother of four children. Both she and her husband share homemaking and child-rearing responsibilities. Rayna would be classified as a _____ gender orientation.
D. modern
Which of the following is a segment of female consumers?
E. all of the above *78
Lisa is a single mother of two and works two jobs to provide for her family and derives little or no satisfaction from employment. To which market segment would Lisa belong?
C. Trapped working woman
Which of the following is a reason why women are an important target market?
C. A high percentage of women work outside the home.
Since women are quite diverse as a group, what other factors must marketers also consider when designing marketing communications?
E. all of the above *81