MIS Management Information Systems Chapters 1,2,3

The most common personal digital assistant (PDA) is a smartphone.
True
Twitter is an example of a management information system.
False
Twitter (www.twitter.com) is a social networking and short-message service.
Information systems are broader in scope than information technologies.
True
Skill in using word processing software is an example of information literacy.
False
Skill in using word processing software is an example of computer literacy.
Business Intelligence (BI) provides historical and predictive views of business operations.
True
Computers can be used in transaction-processing operations that involve enormous volumes of data.
true
The software components of a management information system (MIS) include input, output, and memory devices.
false
The hardware components of the management information system (MIS) include input, output, and memory devices and vary depending on the application and the organization.
In a management information system (MIS) application, processes are usually methods for performing a task.
True
In designing a management information system (MIS), the first task is to clearly define the system’s objectives.
True
The data component of an information system is considered the output to the system.
False
The data component of an information system is considered the input to the system
Irrespective of organizational objectives, an information system should collect data from either an internal or an external source.
False
An information system should collect data from both sources, although organizational objectives and the type of application also determine what sources to use.
Customers, competitors, and suppliers are examples of internal data sources.
False
Customers, competitors, and suppliers are examples of external data sources.
A database management system (DBMS) is used to create, organize, and manage databases.
True
The quality of information is determined by its usefulness to management information system (MIS) users.
True
To be useful, information must have the quality of being fragmented from other data and information.
False
To be useful, information must have the ability to integrate with other data and information.
Most information systems avoid using graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
False
A factor affecting the usefulness of information is the information system’s user interface. Because this interface must be flexible and easy to use, most information systems make use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), with features such as menus and buttons.
When solving problems, the users of an information system must avoid using informal information—such as rumors, unconfirmed reports, and stories.
False
: In addition to the formal information that an information system generates, users need to be able to make use of informal information—such as rumors, unconfirmed reports, and stories—when solving problems.
Timely, relevant, and accurate information is a critical tool for enhancing a company’s competitive position in the marketplace.
True
Intranets are often used to provide basic HR functions, such as employees checking how much vacation time they have left.
True
Human resource is the second most important resource after information in any organization.
False
Information is the second most important resource (after the human element) in any organization.
A personnel information system (PIS) helps in choosing the best job candidate.
True
A logistics information system (LIS) provides reports and statistics on employee demographics.
False
A personnel information system (PIS) provides reports and statistics on employee demographics.
An effective financial information system (FIS) should provide timely, accurate, and integrated information about the marketing mix.
False
An effective marketing information system (MKIS) should provide timely, accurate, and integrated information about the marketing mix- 4Ps: price, promotion, place, and product.
The focus of a top-line strategy for successfully competing in a marketplace is improving efficiency by reducing overall costs.
False
The focus of a bottom-line strategy for successfully competing in a marketplace is improving efficiency by reducing overall costs. A top-line strategy focuses on generating new revenue by offering new products and services to customers or increasing revenue by selling existing products and services to new customers.
Buyer power is high when customers have few choices and low when they have many choices.
False
Buyer power is high when customers have many choices and low when they have few choices.
Rivalry among existing competitors is high when many competitors occupy the same marketplace position.
true
The threat of new entrants into the marketplace is high when duplicating a company’s product or service is difficult.
false
The threat of new entrants into the marketplace is low when duplicating a company’s product or service is difficult.
In the context of an information systems job, a chief technology officer (CTO) oversees long-range planning and keeps an eye on new developments in the field that can affect a company’s success.
True
In the context of an information systems job, a database administrator is responsible for developing the entire information system by writing computer programs.
false
A computer programmer writes computer programs or software segments that allow the information system to perform a specific task. A database administrator (DBA) is responsible for database design and implementation
It has been predicted that hardware and software costs will continue to increase in the future, so processing information will be more expensive.
false
It has been predicted that hardware and software costs will continue to decline, so processing information will be less expensive.
1. A typical personal digital assistant (PDA) includes a(n) _____.
a. external monitor
c. mouse
b. calendar
d. external keyboard
b
2. _____ sites help a person connect with friends, family, and colleagues online and meet people with similar interests and hobbies.
a. Tender portal c. Archive
b. Social networking d. Classified ads
b
3. _____ is a social networking Web site.
a. Twitter
c. Bing
b. Google chrome
d. Android
a
4. Social networking sites can reduce organizations’ costs by _____.
a. giving customers more access to all sorts of data c. providing an inexpensive medium for targeting a large customer base
b. limiting buyers’ choices by offering services that make it difficult for customers to switch
d. customizing the organization’s Web site and offering many options to customers
c
5. _____ is skill in using productivity software, such as word processors, spreadsheets, database management systems, and presentation software.
a. Network literacy
c. Information literacy
b. Data literacy
d. Computer literacy
d
6. _____ refers to understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence.
a. Computer literacy c. Information security
b. Information literacy d. Computer security
b
7. To be competitive in a workplace, a knowledge worker should:
a. know how and why data is collected.
c. avoid the use of informal information.
b. be able to develop one’s own information system.
d. refrain from using business intelligence (BI) tools.
a
8. Which of the following statements is true of transaction-processing systems?
a. They focus on data encapsulation.
c. They can automate repetitive operations.
b. They pass on additional costs to organizations. d. They require maximum human involvement.
c
9. In designing a management information system (MIS), after defining the system’s objectives, the second step is to _____.
a. provide information in a useful format
c. use information for decision-making
b. collect and analyze data
d. integrate the hardware and software components
b
10. The final task in designing a management information system (MIS) is:
a. collecting and analyzing internal and external data for accuracy and relevancy.
c. clearly defining the system’s objectives.
b. providing information in a useful format for decision-making purposes.
d. integrating hardware and software components.
b
11. _____ consists of raw facts and is a major component of information systems.
a. Cache c. Data
b. Kernel d. Process
c
12. _____ are an internal data source for an information system.
a. Personnel records c. Economic conditions
b. Population statistics d. Competitors
a
13. _____ are an external data source for an information system.
a. Transaction reports c. Labor statistics
b. Personnel records d. Sales records
c
14. Which of the following statements is true of data?
a. Current data is collected for performance reports.
c. Aggregated data enables decision makers to focus on specific factors.
b. Disaggregated data reports overall performance during a particular sales quarter.
d. Future data is predicted for budgets or cash flow reports.
d
15. Structuring a data component to define what type of data is collected and in what form is typically easy if an organization:
a. has defined its strategic goals.
c. has been uninformed of critical success factors.
b. has defined ambiguous objectives.
d. has conflicting vision and mission statements.
a
16. Microsoft Access is a(n) _____, which is used to create and manage a series of integrated files.
a. information system
c. database management system
b. enterprise resource planning system
d. knowledge base management system
c
17. The purpose of an information system’s _____ component is generating the most useful type of information for making decisions.
a. process
c. external data
b. internal data
d. database
a
18. Identify an output of an information system.
a. Data c. Processes
b. Databases d. Analyzed facts
d
19. _____ consists of facts that have been analyzed by the process component and are therefore more useful to the MIS user.
a. Information c. Database
b. Data d. Package
a
20. To be useful, information must have the quality of _____.
a. randomness c. erroneousness
b. timeliness d. abstractness
b
21. To be useful, information systems should:
a. use command line user interfaces.
c. produce information in different formats.
b. generate raw data, which can be used for decision making.
d. avoid rumors, unconfirmed reports, and stories.
c
22. The four Ms of resources are _____.
a. management, motivation, manpower, and monitoring
b. materials, money, modeling, and monitoring
c. manpower, machinery, materials, and money
d. manpower, monitoring, movement, and modeling
c
23. Decisions related to scheduling and assigning employees can be supported by a _____.
a. personnel information system (PIS)
c. financial information system (FIS)
b. manufacturing information system (MFIS)
d. logistics information system (LIS)
a
24. A _____ provides reports and statistics on employee demographics.
a. manufacturing information system (MFIS)
c. logistics information system (LIS)
b. marketing information systems (MKIS)
d. personnel information system (PIS)
d
25. Which of the following decisions is supported by a logistics information system (LIS)?
a. Predicting an organization’s future personnel needs
c. Determining portfolio structures
b. Minimizing capital investment risks
d. Selecting the best modes of transportation
d
26. Which of the following decisions is supported by a manufacturing information system (MFIS)?
a. Determination of portfolio structures
c. Improvement of routing and delivery schedules
b. Analysis of price changes and discounts
d. Monitoring of cost trends
b
27. Which of the following decisions is supported by a financial information system (FIS)?
a. Determining portfolio structures
c. Improving routing and delivery schedules
b. Choosing the best job candidate
d. Analyzing sales personnel
a
28. A _____ is used for sales forecasting.
a. logistics information system (LIS)
c. marketing information system (MKIS)
b. personnel information system (PIS)
d. financial information system (FIS)
c
29. _____ strategies were identified by Michael Porter for successfully competing in the marketplace.
a. Groupthink
c. Simulation
b. Brainstorming
d. Focus
d
30. Which of the following strategies is identified by Michael Porter for successfully competing in the marketplace?
a. Transformational leadership strategy
c. Groupthink strategy
b. Differentiation strategy
d. Simulation strategy
b
31. Which of the following strategies identified by Michael Porter helps organizations make their products and services distinct from their competitors?
a. Simulation strategy
c. Focus strategy
b. Overall cost leadership strategy
d. Differentiation strategy
d
32. Which of the following strategies identified by Michael Porter helps organizations concentrate on a specific market segment to achieve a cost advantage?
a. Simulation strategy
c. Focus strategy
b. Overall cost leadership strategy
d. Differentiation strategy
c
33. Which of the following is one of the forces of the Five Forces Model identified by Michael Porter?
a. Rivalry among customers
c. Threat of new entrants
b. Government regulations
d. Consumer groups
c
34. In accordance with Porter’s Five Forces Model, _____ power is high when customers have fewer options.
a. buyer c. user
b. debtor d. supplier
d
35. In the context of IT jobs, a _____ must have knowledge and understanding of data warehouse and data-mining tools.
a. systems mining analyst
c. webmaster
b. data design officer
d. database administrator
d
1. _____ means having a basic knowledge of hardware and software, the Internet, and collaboration tools and technologies.
Computer literacy
2. A(n) _____ is an organized integration of hardware and software technologies, data, processes, and human elements designed to produce timely, integrated, relevant, accurate, and useful information for decision-making purposes.
management information system (MIS)
3. The _____ component of an information system is considered the input to the system.
Data
4. A(n) _____, the heart of an information system, is a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files..
Database
5. The ultimate goal of an information system is to generate _____.
business intelligence (BI)
6. Computer networks, database systems, POS systems, etc. are few examples of _____, which support information systems in decision making.
information technologies
7. A(n) _____ information system is designed to reduce the cost of transporting materials while maintaining safe and reliable delivery.
logistics
8. A(n) _____ information system is typically used to support decisions in managing an organization’s cash flows.
financial
9. The Five Forces Model was created by _____.
Michael Porter
10. According to Porter’s Five Forces Model, the _____ power is low when customers have more options.
supplier
11. According to Porter’s Five Forces Model, the threat of _____ into the marketplace is low when duplicating a company’s product or service is difficult.
new entrants
12. The top information systems job belongs to the _____.
chief technology officer (CTO) or the chief information officer (CIO)
13. In the context of information technology (IT) jobs in the information systems field, a(n) _____ is typically responsible for providing network and cybersecurity.
network administrator
14. In the context of information technology (IT) jobs in the information systems field, a(n) _____ is responsible for database design and implementation.
database administrator (DBA)
15.In the context of the information technology(IT) jobs in the information systems field, a(n) _____ designs and maintains the organization’s Web site.
Webmaster
SHORT ANSWER

1. What are some ways in which students come into contact with information systems?

Answer: Students use computers and office suite software and might take online classes. Computers are often used to grade exam answers and generate detailed reports comparing the performance of each student in a class. Computers and information systems also calculate grades and GPAs and can deliver this information to the students.
SHORT ANSWER
2. How can banks use computers and information systems?
Answer: Banks use computers and information systems for generating a customer’s monthly statement, running ATM machines, and for many banking activities.
SHORT ANSWER
3. How do organizations use social networking sites?
Answer: Organizations use social networking sites to give customers up-to-date information and even how-to support via videos. These sites can reduce organizations’ costs by providing an inexpensive medium for targeting a large customer base.
SHORT ANSWER
4. Compare information systems and information technologies.
Answer: Information systems are broader in scope than information technologies, but the two overlap in many areas. Both are used to help organizations be more competitive and to improve their overall efficiency and effectiveness. Information technologies offer many advantages for improving decision making but involve some challenges, too, such as security and privacy issues.
SHORT ANSWER
5. Give an example of how a management information system (MIS) can be used in the public sector.
Answer: In the public sector, an MIS for a police department, for example, could provide information such as crime statistics, crime forecasts, and allocation of police units. Management can examine these statistics to spot increases and decreases in crime rates or types of crimes and analyze this data to determine future deployment of law enforcement personnel.
6. List the four qualities that information must have to make it useful.
Answer: To be useful, information must have the following qualities:

a. Timeliness
b. Integration with other data and information
c. Consistency and accuracy
d. Relevance

SHORT ANSWER
7. Describe how a personnel information system (PIS) helps decision makers.
Answer: A personnel information system (PIS) or human resource information system (HRIS) is designed to provide information that helps decision makers in personnel carry out their tasks more effectively.

A PIS/HRIS supports the following actions, among others:
a. Choosing the best job candidate
b. Scheduling and assigning employees
c. Predicting the organization’s future personnel needs
d. Providing reports and statistics on employee demographics
e. Allocating human and financial resources

8. Explain the main difference between an intranet and the Internet.
Answer: The main difference between an intranet and the Internet is that an intranet is private and the Internet is public.
9. Define and describe a manufacturing information system (MFIS).
Answer: A manufacturing information system (MFIS) is used to manage manufacturing resources so that companies can reduce manufacturing costs, increase product quality, and make better inventory decisions. MFISs can perform many types of analysis with a high degree of timeliness and accuracy.
10. Explain the difference in focus for a bottom-line strategy and a top-line strategy.
Answer: The focus of a bottom-line strategy is improving efficiency by reducing overall costs. A top-line strategy focuses on generating new revenue by offering new products and services to customers or increasing revenue by selling existing products and services to new customers.
11. How can an organization combat the threat of new entrants?
Answer: The threat of new entrants into the marketplace is low when duplicating a company’s product or service is difficult. Organizations often use focus strategies to ensure that threat of new entrants remains low. In addition, organizations use information technologies to increase customer loyalty, as mentioned previously, which reduces the threat of new entrants.
12. Describe the role of a chief privacy officer (CPO).
Answer: The chief privacy officer is an executive position that includes responsibility for managing the risks and business impacts of privacy laws and policies.
13. Describe the role of a systems analyst and the knowledge required for the position.
Answer: A systems analyst is responsible for the design and implementation of information systems. In addition to computer knowledge and an information systems background, this position requires a thorough understanding of business systems and functional areas within a business organization.
14. Describe how networking technology will improve in the future.
Answer: Networking technology will improve, so connecting computers will be easier, and sending information from one location to another will be faster. Compatibility issues between networks will become more manageable, and integrating voice, data, and images on the same transmission medium will improve communication quality and information delivery.
15. Describe the impact of Internet growth in the future.
Answer: Internet growth will continue, which will put small and large organizations on the same footing, regardless of their financial status. Internet growth will also make e-collaboration easier, despite geographical distances.
1. Explain personal digital assistants (PDAs).
Answer: Many workers are now telecommuters who perform their jobs at home, and others often use their personal digital assistants (PDAs) to conduct business while on the go. The most common PDA is a smartphone (such as an iPhone, Droid, or a Blackberry). A typical PDA includes a calendar, address book, and task-list programs; more advanced PDAs often allow for wireless connection to the Internet and have built-in MP3 players.
2. Explain what a knowledge worker should know in understanding the role of information in generating and using business intelligence.
Answer: Knowledge workers should know the following:

a. Internal and external sources of data
b. How data is collected
c. Why data is collected
d. What type of data should be collected
e. How data is converted to information and eventually to business intelligence
f. How data should be indexed and updated
g. How data and information should be used to gain a competitive advantage

3. What is a database? What role does a database play in an information system?
Answer: A database, the heart of an information system, is a collection of all relevant data organized in a series of integrated files. A comprehensive database is essential for the success of any information system. To create, organize, and manage databases, a database management system (DBMS) is used, such as Microsoft Access or FileMaker Pro for home or small-office use. In a large organization, a DBMS, such as Oracle or IBM DB2, might be used.

Databases are also important for reducing personnel time needed to gather, process, and interpret data manually. With a computerized database and a DBMS, data can be treated as a common resource that’s easy to access and use.

4. Describe the factors affecting the usefulness of information.
Answer: To be useful, information must have the following qualities:
a. Timeliness
b. Integration with other data and information
c. Consistency and accuracy
d. Relevance
If information lacks any of these qualities, the results are incorrect decisions, misallocation of resources, and overlooked windows of opportunity. If the system cannot give users a minimum level of confidence in its reliability, it will not be used or users might dismiss the reports it generates. Information must provide either a base for users to explore different options or insight into tasks.

Another factor affecting the usefulness of information is the information system’s user interface. Because this interface must be flexible and easy to use, most information systems make use of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), with features such as menus and buttons. To be useful, information systems should also produce information in different formats, including graphics (e.g., pie charts and bar graphs), tables, and exception reports, which highlight information that is outside a specified range. Supplying information in a variety of formats increases the likelihood of users understanding and being able to use the information.

5. Describe the threat of substitute products or services and how organizations fight this threat.
Answer: The threat of customers choosing substitute products or services is high when many alternatives to an organization’s products or services are available. Some organizations add services—such as Amazon.com’s personalized recommendations—to make their positions in the marketplace more distinctive. Other organizations use fees to discourage customers from switching to a competitor, such as cell phone companies adding charges for switching to another provider before the customer contract is up.
An object code must be translated into source code in order for a computer to be able to read and execute
FALSE
A source code must be translated into object code—consisting of 0s and 1s, which can be understood by a computer.
The hardware components of a computer system consist of programs written in computer languages
FALSE
It is the software components of a computer system that consist of programs written in computer languages.
Both the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit are part of the Basic Input/Output System
FALSE
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit are part of the central processing unit (CPU). A Basic Input/Output System is located on the motherboard
A bus can be internal or external.
TRUE
A computer with a 32-bit processor can perform calculations with larger numbers and be more efficient with smaller numbers than a 64-bit system.
FALSE
A computer with a 64-bit processor can perform calculations with larger numbers and be more efficient with smaller numbers; it also has better overall performance than a 32-bit system.
A serial port is a communication interface through which information is transferred one bit at a time.
TRUE
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits were introduced in the fifth-generation computers.
FALSE
Very-large-scale integration circuits were introduced in the fourth-generation computers, which continued several trends that further improved speed and ease of use.
ENIAC is an example of a first-generation computer.
TRUE
A byte is a single value of 0 or 1.
FALSE
1 bit is a single value of 0 or 1, whereas 1 byte is formed by 8 bits.
A petabyte is 230 bytes.
FALSE
A petabyte is 250 bytes, whereas a gigabyte is 230 bytes.
An Extended ASCII data code allows representation of 1024 characters
FALSE
Extended ASCII code is an 8-bit code that also allows representation of 256 characters
The split keyboard has been developed for better ergonomics.
TRUE
Light pen is an output device
FALSE
A light pen is an input device particularly useful for engineers and graphic designers who need to make modifications to technical drawings.
Trackballs are ideal for notebook computers because they occupy less space than a mouse
TRUE
A disadvantage of trackball is that positioning is sometimes less precise than with a mouse.
TRUE
Inkjet printers produce characters by projecting electrically charged droplets of ink onto paper that create an image
TRUE
Data can be read from and written to random access memory (RAM).
TRUE
The contents of programmable read-only memory (PROM) can be erased and reprogrammed
FALSE
The contents of programmable read-only memory (PROM) cannot be erased, whereas erasable programmable read-only memory, which is similar to PROM, can be erased and reprogrammed
A magnetic disk is a type of secondary memory device
TRUE
A magnetic tape stores data randomly
FALSE
Magnetic tape, made of a plastic material, resembles a cassette tape and stores data sequentially.
An advantage of a write once, read many (WORM) disc is that it can be easily duplicated
FALSE
A major drawback is that a WORM disc cannot be duplicated. It is used mainly to store information that must be kept permanently but not altered.
Flash memory is used in memory cards for storing and transferring data between computers and other devices
TRUE
A redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance and improved performance
TRUE
A storage area network (SAN) is essentially a network-connected computer dedicated to providing file-based data storage services to other network devices
FALSE
: A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated high-speed network consisting of both hardware and software used to connect and manage shared storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical storage devices.
Network-attached storage (NAS) increases management costs and is fault prone
FALSE
NAS is popular for Web servers and e-mail servers because it lowers management costs and helps make these servers more fault tolerant.
A network-attached storage (NAS) system offers only storage; a storage area network (SAN) offers both storage and file services
FALSE
A SAN offers only storage; a NAS system offers both storage and file services
In a network-attached storage (NAS), as the number of users increase, the performance increases
FALSE
The biggest issue with NAS is that, as the number of users increases, its performance deteriorates.
A server is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.
FALSE
A server is a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network
A personal computer can perform a variety of tasks by using application software, which can be commercial software or software developed in house
TRUE
Sometimes, fourth-generation languages (4GLs) are called procedural languages
FALSE
Sometimes 4GLs are called nonprocedural languages, which means you do not need to follow rigorous command syntax to use them.
A(n) _____ is a step-by-step direction for performing a specific task, which is written in a language the computer can understand. a. array c. cache
b. server d. program
D – PROGRAM
A _____ is a peripheral device for recording, storing, and retrieving information
a. disk drive c. control unit
b. motherboard d. multiprocessor
A – DISK DRIVE
A(n) _____ is an interface between a computer and a printer that enables the computer to transfer multiple bits of information to the printer simultaneously.
a.parallel port c. expansion slot
b. serial port d. control unit
A- PARALLEL PORT
Beginning in the 1940s, first-generation computers used _____.
a. transistors c. integrated circuits
b. vacuum tube technology d. laser technology
B- VACUUM TUBE TECHNOLOGY
Transistors were the major technology used during the _____ generation of computers
a. first c. third
b. second d. fourth
B- SECOND
Remote data entry and telecommunications were introduced during the _____ generation of computers
a. second c. fourth
b. third d. fifth
B- THIRD
One of the disadvantages of silicon is that:
a. it cannot be used for mass production of silicon devices.
c. it is very soft and fragile.
b. it cannot emit light. d. it is very expensive.
B- IT CANNOT EMIT LIGHT
An advantage of silicon over gallium arsenide is that: a.it is less fragile than gallium arsenide. c. it withstands higher temperatures than gallium arsenide.
b. it survives much higher doses of radiation than gallium arsenide. d. it emits light, whereas gallium arsenide does not.
A- IT IS LESS FRAGILE THAN GALLIUM ARSENIDE
_____ is 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second
a. Millisecond c. Nanosecond
b. Microsecond d. Picosecond
D- PICOSECOND
In the context of the power of computers, _____ means saving data in computer memory
a. speed c. retrieval
b. accuracy d. storage
D- STORAGE
The word “memory” consists of 48 bits, which is equivalent to _____ bytes
a. 6 c. 64
b. 24 d. 384
A – 6
A _____ is the size of a character
a. nibble c. byte
b. bit d. word
C – BYTE
Computers and communication systems use _____ to represent and transfer information between computers and network systems
a. intranets c. data codes
b. light pens d. prototypes
C – DATE CODES
In a(n) _____ file, each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7-bit binary number.
a. EBCDIC c. ASCII
b. Unicode d. extended ASCII
C – ASCII
Extended ASCII data code allows representation of _____ characters.
a. 1042 c. 256
b. 265 d. 1024
C- 256
ASCII defines up to _____ characters
a. 8 c. 258
b. 128 d. 1024
B- 128
A _____ is a pointing device that moves the cursor on the screen, allowing fast, precise cursor positioning.
a. motherboard c. mouse
b. keyboard d. kernel
C- MOUSE
Which of the following is an input device?
a. Touch screen c. Liquid crystal display
b. Cathode ray tube d. Inkjet printer
A- TOUCH SCREEN
_____ is the most common output device for soft copy.
a. Liquid crystal display c. Laser printer
b. Inkjet printer d. Touch screen
A- LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY
_____, which is nonvolatile, holds data when the computer is off or during the course of a program’s operation, and it is also used to store large volumes of data for long periods.
a. Random access memory c. Secondary memory
b. Read-only memory d. Programmable read-only memory
C- SECONDARY MEMORY
The Clipboard’s contents are typically stored on ____.
a. read-only memory (ROM) c. magnetic disks
b. random access memory (RAM) d. magnetic tapes
B- RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
Read-only memory (ROM) is different from random access memory (RAM) in that:
a. it is volatile memory. c. it is nonvolatile memory.
b. it is a secondary memory. d. it is a read-write memory.
C- IT IS NONVOLATILE MEMORY
Which of the following is true about magnetic tapes?
a. It is made of metal. c. It resembles a compact disc.
b. It stores data sequentially. d. It is a main memory device.
B – IT STORES DATE SEQUENTIALLY
A write once, read many (WORM) disc is a common type of _____.
a. magnetic storage c. random access memory (RAM)
b. optical storage d. read-only memory (ROM)
B- OPTICAL STORAGE
CD-ROMs and DVDs are examples of _____.
a. magnetic tapes c. optical discs
b. magnetic disks d. main memory devices
C – OPTICAL DICS
A _____ allows data to be stored in multiple places to improve a system’s reliability
a. remote access server
b. read-only memory
c. random access memory
d. redundant array of independent disks
D – REDUNDAT ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT DISKS
_____ storage, which is used for online storage and backup, involves multiple virtual servers that are usually hosted by third parties.
a. Kernel c. Cache
b. Buffer d. Cloud
D – CLOUD
_____ allow off-site users to connect to network resources, such as network file storage, printers, and databases
a. Remote access servers c. Application servers
b. Web servers d. Disk servers
A- REMOTE ACCESS SERVERS
Which of the following best defines an operating system?
a. It is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software.
c. It is a collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance, typically in large network systems.
b. It is a computer and all the software for managing network resources and offering services to a network.
d. It is the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards.
A- It is a set of programs for controlling and managing computer hardware and software
The control programs managing computer hardware and software perform the _____ function to control and prioritize tasks performed by the CPU.
a. application management c. data management
b. resource allocation d. job management
D- JOB MANAGEMENT
The supervisor program in an operating system (OS) is called the ____.
a. kernel c. applet
b. metadata d. cache
A- KERNEL
UNIX is a type of _____.
a. storage area network c. remote access server
b. application software d. operating system
D- OPERATING SYSTEM
_____ computer languages are machine independent and are called high-level languages.
a. First-generation c. Third-generation
b. Second-generation d. Fourth-generation
C- THRID-GENERATION
Java and C++ are _____ languages.
a. assembly c. machine
b. high-level d. second-generation computer
B- HIGH-LEVEL
Which of the following computer languages is the easiest to use?
a. Assembly language c. Fourth-generation language
b. First-generation language d. Machine language
C- FOURTH- GENERATION LANGUAGE
A(n) _____ is a machine that accepts data as input, processes data without human intervention by using stored instructions, and outputs information
COMPUTER
The _____ is the heart of a computer
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
The _____ tells the computer what to do, such as instructing the computer which device to read or send output to
CONTROL UNIT
A(n) _____ is the enclosure containing a computer’s main components
CENTRAL PROCESSING (CPU) CASE
The _____ computers include parallel processing, gallium arsenide chips that run at higher speeds and consume less power than silicon chips, and optical technologies
FIFTH-GENERATION
_____ bits equal 1 byte
EIGHT
The most common data code for text files, PC applications, and the Internet is _____, developed by the American National Standards Institute
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
_____ is a light-sensitive stylus connected to the monitor with a cable. When it is placed on an on-screen location, the data in that spot is sent to the computer.
LIGHT PEN
The most common type of main memory is a semiconductor memory chip made of _____.
SILICON
A(n) _____, made of Mylar or metal, is used for random-access processing
MAGNETIC DISK
_____ use laser beams to access and store data
OPTICAL DISCS
_____ computers are usually compatible with the IBM System/360 line introduced in 1965
MAINFRAME
_____ servers store computer software, which users can access from their workstations.
APPLICATION
Microsoft PowerPoint is the most commonly used _____ software
PRESENTATION
_____ software, which is extensively used in architecture and engineering firms, is used for drafting and design and has replaced traditional tools, such as T-squares, triangles, paper, and pencils.
COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD)
Provide a general description of how to write a computer program
To write a computer program, first a user must know what needs to be done, and then he or she must plan a method to achieve this goal, including selecting the right language for the task. Many computer languages are available; the language the user selects depends on the problem being solved and the type of computer he or she is using
What is a bus?
A bus is a link between devices connected to the computer. It can be parallel or serial, internal (local) or external.
Write a short note on single processor and multiprocessor systems
Some computers have a single processor; other computers, called multiprocessors, contain multiple processors. Multiprocessing is the use of two or more CPUs in a single computer system. Generally, a multiprocessor computer has better performance than a single-processor computer in the same way that a team would have better performance than an individual on a large, time-consuming project.
What is a motherboard
A motherboard is the main circuit board containing connectors for attaching additional boards. In addition, it usually contains the CPU, Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), memory, storage, interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers for standard peripheral devices, such as the display monitor, disk drive, and keyboard.
Describe how computer speed is measured
Typically, computer speed is measured as the number of instructions performed during the following fractions of a second:
a. Millisecond: 1/1,000 of a second
b. Microsecond: 1/1,000,000 of a second
c. Nanosecond: 1/1,000,000,000 of a second
d. Picosecond: 1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second
Describe a binary system.
Every character, number, or symbol on the keyboard is represented as a binary number in computer memory. A binary system consists of 0s and 1s, with a 1 representing “on” and a 0 representing “off,” similar to a light switch.
Describe touch screens
Touch screens, which usually work with menus, are a combination of input devices. Some touch screens rely on light detection to determine which menu item has been selected, and others are pressure sensitive. Touch screens are often easier to use than keyboards, but they might not be as accurate because selections can be misread.
What are the most common output devices for soft copy?
The most common output devices for soft copy are cathode ray tube (CRT), plasma display, and liquid crystal display (LCD).
What are the three main types of secondary memory devices?
There are three main types of secondary memory devices: magnetic disks, magnetic tape, and optical discs
What is the reason for the popularity of memory sticks?
Memory sticks have become popular because of their small size, high storage capacity, and decreasing cost
Explain how redundant array of independent disks (RAID) provides fault tolerance and improved performance.
With RAID, data can be stored in multiple places to improve the system’s reliability. In other words, if one disk in the array fails, data is not lost. In some RAID configurations, sequences of data can be read from multiple disks simultaneously, which improves performance
What are fax servers?
Fax servers contain software and hardware components that enable users to send and receive faxes
What are print servers?
Print servers enable users to send print jobs to network printers
Describe desktop publishing software.
Desktop publishing software is used to produce professional-quality documents without expensive hardware and software. This software works on a “what-you-see-is-what-you-get” concept, so the high-quality screen display gives a user a good idea of what he or she will see in the printed output.
What is assembly language?
Assembly language is the second generation of computer languages. It is a higher-level language than machine language but is also machine dependent. It uses a series of short codes, or mnemonics, to represent data or instructions. For example, ADD and SUBTRACT are typical commands in assembly language. Writing programs in assembly language is easier than in machine language
Describe the use of gallium arsenide as a replacement for silicon
Because silicon cannot emit light and has speed limitations, computer designers have concentrated on technology using gallium arsenide, in which electrons move almost five times faster than in silicon. Devices made with this synthetic compound can emit light, withstand higher temperatures, and survive much higher doses of radiation than silicon devices. The major problems with gallium arsenide are difficulties in mass production. This material is softer and more fragile than silicon, so it breaks more easily during slicing and polishing. Because of the high costs and difficulty of production, the military is currently the major user of this technology. However, research continues to eliminate some shortcomings of this technology.
Discuss the three basic tasks performed by computers
Computers can perform three basic tasks: arithmetic operations, logical operations, and storage and retrieval operations.

Computers can add, subtract, multiply, divide, and raise numbers to a power (exponentiation), as shown in these examples:
A + B (addition) 5 + 7 = 12
A − B (subtraction) 5 − 2 = 3
A * B (multiplication) 5 * 2 = 10
A / B (division) 5 / 2 = 2.5
A ^ B (exponentiation) 5 ^ 2 = 25

What is the most common type of main memory? Describe the purpose of cache RAM.
The most common type of main memory is a semiconductor memory chip made of silicon. A semiconductor memory device can be volatile or nonvolatile. Volatile memory is called random access memory (RAM), although you could think of it as “read-write memory.” In other words, data can be read from and written to RAM. Some examples of the type of information stored in RAM include open files, the Clipboard’s contents, running programs, and so forth
Describe the data management function of an operating system.
The data management function of an operating system controls data integrity by generating checksums to verify that data has not been corrupted or changed. Briefly, when the OS writes data to storage, it generates a value (the checksum) along with the data. The next time this data is retrieved, the checksum is recalculated and compared with the original checksum. If they match, the integrity is intact. If they do not, the data has been corrupted somehow.
Describe fifth-generation languages (5GLs) and some of their features
Fifth-generation languages (5GLs) use some of the artificial intelligence technologies, such as knowledge-based systems, natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming. Codes are automatically generated and designed to make the computer solve a given problem without a programmer or with minimum programming effort. These languages are designed to facilitate natural conversations between a user and the computer. Imagine that the user could ask his or her computer, “What product generated the most sales last year?” The computer, equipped with a voice synthesizer, could respond, “Product X.” Dragon NaturallySpeaking Solutions is an example of NLP. Research continues in this field because of the promising results so far
1. Although a database can consist of only a single file, it is usually a group of files.
true
2. A database is a critical component of information systems because any type of analysis that is done is based on data available in the database.
true
3. Data redundancy is eliminated or minimized in a flat file system.
false
The problem with a flat file organization was that the same data could be stored in more than one file, creating data redundancy.
4. Updating a flat file system is efficient and consumes less time.
false
Updating a flat file system can be time consuming and inefficient. Data might not be updated in all files consistently, resulting in conflicting reports generated from these files.
5. An advantage that a database has over a flat file system is that more information can be generated from the same data.
True
6. The database component of an information system can generate sufficient business intelligence by accessing just the internal data of an organization.
false
To generate business intelligence, the database component of an information system needs access to two types of data: internal and external
7. Labor and population statistics are sources of internal data that are accessed by a database.
false
Labor and population statistics are sources of external data that are accessed by a database.
8. The sequential access file structure method is effective when a large number of records are processed less frequently, perhaps on a quarterly or yearly basis.
true
9. Disks are sequential access devices, whereas tapes are random access devices.
false
Disks are random access devices, whereas tapes are sequential access devices.
10. The indexed sequential access method (ISAM) is slow and becomes increasingly useful as the number of records becomes larger.
false
Because every record needs to be indexed, if the file contains a huge number of records, the index is also quite large. Therefore, an index is more useful when the number of records is small. Access speed with this method is fast, so it is recommended when records must be accessed frequently.
11. With the indexed sequential access method (ISAM), records cannot be accessed randomly.
false
With the ISAM, records can be accessed sequentially or randomly, depending on the number being used.
12. For each database, there can be more than one physical view of data.
false
For each database, there is only one physical view of data.
13. The integrity rules component of a data model defines the boundaries of a database, constraints, and access methods.
true
14. In a hierarchical data model, nodes with the same parents are called siblings.
true
15. The network data model is similar to the hierarchical data model because records are organized in the same way
false
The network data model is similar to the hierarchical data model but records are organized differently.
16. In a relational model, the rows are called attributes and the columns are called tuples.
False
In a relational data model, rows are records (also called tuples), and columns are fields (also called attributes).
17. Redundant data is eliminated by a process called normalization.
True
18. A select operation pares down a table by eliminating columns according to certain criteria
False
A select operation searches data in a table and retrieves records based on certain criteria. A project operation pares down a table by eliminating columns according to certain criteria.
19. Any changes to a database’s structure, such as adding a field, deleting a field, changing a field’s size, or changing the data type stored in a field, are made with the data manipulation component.
False
Any changes to a database’s structure, such as adding a field, deleting a field, changing a field’s size, or changing the data type stored in a field, are made with the data definition component.
20. A database engine converts logical requests from users into their physical equivalents by interacting with other components of the database management system (DBMS).
true
21. The use of OR operator means that only one of the conditions in an SQL statement must be met.
true
22. In the context of data administration component, the acronym CRUD stands for copy, revise, undo, and define
False
CRUD stands for create, read, update, and delete.
23. A database administrator is responsible for developing recovery procedures in case data is lost or corrupted.
true
24. In well-designed data-driven Web sites, changes are made to the HTML code every time a Web site’s data content changes.
False
Without the features of a data-driven Web site, Web site designers must edit the HTML code every time a Web site’s data content is changed.
25. An e-commerce site that needs frequent updates would benefit from the use of a static Web site.
False
Data-driven Web sites are useful for E-commerce sites that need frequent updates. With a data-driven Web site, users can get more current information from a variety of data sources.
26. A distributed database is not limited by the data’s physical location.
true
27. In contrast to the query languages used to interact with a relational database, interaction with an object-oriented database takes places via methods.
true
28. Data in a database is used for analytical purposes, whereas data in a data warehouse is used for capturing and managing transactions.
False
Data in a data warehouse is used for analytical purposes, whereas data in a database is used for capturing and managing transactions.
29. As compared to data warehouses, consolidating information from different departments or functional areas is easier in data marts.
False
Data marts usually have more limited scope than data warehouses, and consolidating information from different departments or functional areas is more difficult.
30. Business intelligence uses scorecards and query reports to support decision-making activities, whereas business analytics uses data mining tools and predictive modeling.
True
31. The popularity of social networks has contributed to the growth of big data.
True
1. In comparison to a flat file system, in a database, _____.
a. complex requests can be difficult to handle c. programs and data are interdependent
b. more storage space is required d. more sophisticated security measures can be seen
D
2. Which of the following is a source of internal data?
a. Tax records c. Distribution networks
b. Sales records d. Economic indicators
B
3. Which of the following is a source of external data?
a. Tax records c. Transaction records
b. Sales records d. Personnel records
a
4. The _____ view of a database involves how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media.
a. physical
c. rational
b. logical
d. analytical
A
5. The first step in database design is defining a _____, which defines how data is created, represented, organized, and maintained.
a. data warehouse
c. data dictionary
b. data mart
d. data model
D
6. Which of the following components of a data model describes methods and calculations that can be performed on data, such as updating and querying data?
a. Data structure c. Integrity rules
b. Operations d. File structure
B
7. The _____ of a data model defines the boundaries of a database, such as maximum and minimum values allowed for a field.
a. data structure c. integrity rules
b. operations d. file structure
C
8. In a(n) _____ data model, each record can have multiple parent and child records.
a. network c. operations
b. hierarchical d. relational
A
9. To begin designing a relational database, one must define the _____ by defining each table and the fields in it.
a. physical structure c. primary key
b. logical structure d. foreign key
B
10. A _____ stores definitions, such as data types for fields, default values, and validation rules for data in each field.
a. data dictionary c. data warehouse
b. data mine d. data mart
A
11. In a relational model, when a primary key for one table appears in another table, it is called a _____ key.
a. secondary c. surrogate
b. foreign d. domain
B
12. _____ improves database efficiency by eliminating redundant data and ensuring that only related data is stored in a table.
a. Optimization c. Normalization
b. Fragmentation d. Encapsulation
C
13. In a relational data model, a(n) _____ operation searches data in a table and retrieves records based on certain criteria.
a. insert c. find
b. join d. select
D
14. A(n) _____ operation pares down a table by eliminating columns according to certain criteria.
a. project c. find
b. join d. insert
A
15. The _____ component is responsible for data storage, manipulation, and retrieval.
a. data definition c. application generation
b. data administration d. database engine
D
16. The _____ component of a database management system (DBMS) is used to create and maintain the data dictionary.
a. data manipulation c. data definition
b. application generation d. data administration
C
17. The _____ component of a database management system (DBMS) is used to add, delete, modify, and retrieve records from a database.
a. data manipulation c. data definition
b. application generation d. data administration
A
18. The _____ operator is used when all the conditions in a query by example (QBE) form are required to be met.
a. NOT c. OR
b. AND d. MIS
B
19. The _____ component of a database management system (DBMS) is used for tasks such as backup and recovery, security, and change management.
a. data manipulation c. data definition
b. application generation d. data administration
D
20. The _____ approach to setting up a distributed database management system (DDBMS) combines fragmentation and replication.
a. optimization c. encapsulation
b. allocation d. normalization
B
21. A _____ is a collection of data from a variety of sources used to support decision-making applications and generate business intelligence.
a. data dictionary c. data mine
b. data pattern d. data warehouse
D
22. Data warehouses are sometimes called “hypercubes” because they_____.
a. are function oriented c. capture raw transaction data
b. store multidimensional data d. manage transactions
B
23. Data in a data warehouse can be differentiated from data in a database in that the former _____.
a. captures raw transaction data c. is focused on a specific area
b. is used for capturing and managing transactions d. only keeps recent activity in memory
C
24. Which of the following data sources provides the input a data warehouse needs to perform analyses and generate reports?
a. Online analytical processing c. Enterprise resource planning systems
b. Online transaction processing d. Data mining analysis
C
25. In a data warehouse, _____ means collecting data from a variety of sources and converting it into a format that can be used in transformation processing.
a. extraction c. loading
b. transformation d. aggregation
A
26. _____ is information in its original form.
a. Summary data c. Paradata
b. Raw data d. Metadata
B
27. _____ gives users subtotals of various categories, which can be useful.
a. Summary data c. Open data
b. Raw data d. Metadata
A
28. _____ is information about data—its content, quality, condition, origin, and other characteristics.
a. Metadata c. Summary data
b. Big data d. Raw data
A
29. A _____ is usually a smaller version of a data warehouse, used by a single department or function.
a. data domain c. data dictionary
b. data mine d. data mart
D
30. Which of the following statements is true of data marts and data warehouses?
a. Consolidating information from different departments is easier in data marts than in data warehouses. c. Access to data is often slower in data marts than in data warehouses.
b. Data marts have more extended scope than data warehouses. d. Despite being smaller, data marts can usually perform the same type of analysis as data warehouses.
D
31. Business analytics uses _____ to support decision-making activities.
a. data mining tools c. query reports
b. dashboards d. OLAP
A
32. Which of the following statements is true of big data?
a. It is a consequence of geometric decay of data in data warehouses. c. Its three dimensions are value, density, and uniformity.
b. It can be efficiently processed and managed by conventional computing methods. d. It is a result of exponential growth of data in both public and private organizations.
D
33. The _____ dimension of big data refers to the sheer quantity of transactions, measured in petabytes or exabytes.
a. viscosity c. variety
b. volume d. velocity
B
34. The variety dimension of big data refers to a combination of _____.
a. data warehouse and data mart c. structured data and unstructured data
b. raw data and metadata d. data definition and data manipulation
C
35. Which of the following is a key factor that has contributed to the growth and popularity of big data?
a. Implosion in data growth c. Mobile and wireless technology
b. Brick and mortar businesses d. Exponential decay of organizational data
C
36. Which of the following factors has made big data analytics accessible to nearly all types of organizations?
a. Significant improvements in storage technology c. Significant increase in costs
b. Flat file organization of data d. Increase in the volume of business data
A
1. A(n) _____ is a collection of related data that is stored in a central location or multiple locations.
database
2. A(n) _____ is the structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files.
data hierarchy
3. A(n) _____ is software for creating, storing, maintaining, and accessing database files.
database management system (DBMS)
4. In a(n) _____ file structure, records in files are organized and processed in numerical order.
sequential access
5. In a(n) _____ file structure, records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media
random access
6. The advantage of _____ is that both sequential and random access can be used, depending on the situation and the user’s needs.
indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
7. The _____ view of a database involves how information appears to users and how it can be organized and retrieved.
logical
8. In a(n) _____ data model, the relationships among records form a treelike structure.
hierarchical
9. In a relational database, every record must be uniquely identified by a(n) _____ key.
primary
10. In large organizations, database design and management is handled by the _____.
database administrator (DBA)
11. Grouping objects along with their attributes and methods into a class is called _____.
encapsulation
12. _____ refers to new objects being created faster and more easily by entering new data in attributes.
Inheritance
13. _____ is used to facilitate and manage transaction
oriented applications, such as point-of-sale, data entry, and retrieval transaction processing.
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
14. _____ analysis is used to discover patterns and relationships.
Data-mining
15. _____ is data so voluminous that conventional computing methods are not able to efficiently process and manage it.
Big data
1. What type of files might a college database have?
A college database might have files for students, staff, faculty, and courses.
2. In the past, why was data stored in “flat files”?
In the past, data was stored in a series of files called “flat files” because they were not arranged in a hierarchy, and there was no relationship among these files.
3. What are some of the sources of external data?
Some of the sources of external data are:

Competitors, customers, and suppliers
Distribution networks
Economic indicators (for example, the consumer price index)
Government regulations
Labor and population statistics
Tax records

4. Describe how files are accessed in a random access file structure.
In a random access file structure, records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media. This method of access is fast and very effective when a small number of records need to be processed daily or weekly.
5. Explain the ways in which information in a database is observed through a physical view.
The physical view involves how data is stored on and retrieved from storage media, such as hard disks, magnetic tapes, or CDs. For each database, there is only one physical view of data.
6. What is a relational data model?
A relational model uses a two-dimensional table of rows and columns of data. Rows are records (also called tuples), and columns are fields (also referred to as attributes).
7. Describe the tasks performed in the first normal form (1NF) stage of normalization.
: The following three tasks are performed in the 1NF stage:

a. Eliminating duplicated fields from the same table
b. Creating separate tables for each group of related data
c. Identifying each record with a unique field (the primary key)

8. Describe how data stored in a relational model is retrieved from tables.
Data stored in a relational model is retrieved from tables by using operations that pick and combine data from one or more tables. There are several operations, such as select, project, join, intersect, union, and difference. The first three operations are the most commonly used.
9. What is the function of the data definition component of a database management system?
The data definition component is used to create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of files in a database.
10. What is structured query language (SQL)?
Structured query language (SQL) is a standard fourth-generation query language used by many DBMS packages, such as Oracle Database 11g and Microsoft SQL Server.
11. What is a data-driven Web site?
A data-driven Web site acts as an interface to a database, retrieving data for users and allowing users to enter data in the database.
12. What is the function of a distributed database management system (DDBMS)?
A distributed database management system (DDBMS) stores data on multiple servers throughout an organization.
13. Describe the fragmentation approach to setting up a distributed database management system.
The fragmentation approach to setting up a distributed database management system addresses how tables are divided among multiple locations. There are three variations: horizontal, vertical, and mixed.
14. Describe the loading process used in data warehouses.
Loading is the process of transferring data to the data warehouse. Depending on the organization’s needs and the data warehouse’s storage capacity, loading might overwrite existing data or add collected data to existing data.
15. What is business analytics?
Business analytics (BA) uses data and statistical methods to gain insight into the data and provide decision makers with information they can act on.
1. What are the advantages of a database over a flat file system?
: A database has the following advantages over a flat file system:

a. More information can be generated from the same data.
b. Complex requests can be handled more easily.
c. Data redundancy is eliminated or minimized.
d. Programs and data are independent, so more than one program can use the same data.
e. Data management is improved.
f. A variety of relationships among data can be easily maintained.
g. More sophisticated security measures can be used.
h. Storage space is reduced.

2. List the responsibilities of a database administrator (DBA).
A DBA’s responsibilities include:

a. Designing and setting up a database
b. Establishing security measures to determine users’ access rights
c. Developing recovery procedures in case data is lost or corrupted
d. Evaluating database performance
e. Adding and fine-tuning database functions

3. Describe the features and benefits of an object-oriented database.
Like object-oriented programming, object-oriented database represents real-world entities with database objects. An object consists of attributes (characteristics describing an entity) and methods (operations or calculations) that can be performed on the object’s data. For example, a real-world car can be represented by an object in the Vehicle class. Objects in this class have attributes of year, make, model, and license number, for example. One can then use methods to work with data in a Vehicle object, such as the AddVehicle method to add a car to the database. Thinking of classes as categories or types of objects can be helpful.
4. List and describe the features of data in a data warehouse in contrast to data in a database.
Data in a data warehouse is described as having the following characteristics in contrast to data in a database:

a. Subject oriented—Data in a data warehouse is focused on a specific area, such as the home- improvement business or a university. Data in a database is transaction/function oriented.
b. Integrated—Data in a data warehouse comes from a variety of sources, whereas data in a database usually does not.
c. Time variant— Data in a data warehouse is categorized based on time, such as historical information, whereas data in a database only keeps recent activity in memory.
d. Type of data—Data in a data warehouse captures aggregated data, whereas data in a database captures raw transaction data.
e. Purpose—Data in a data warehouse is used for analytical purposes, whereas data in a database is used for capturing and managing transactions.

5. Explain the transformation processes used in data warehouses.
The tasks of transformation processing include the following:

a. Selecting only certain columns or rows to load
b. Translating coded values, such as replacing Yes with 1 and No with 2
c. Performing select, project, and join operations on data
d. Sorting and filtering data
e. Aggregating and summarizing data before loading it in the warehouse

6. What are the advantages of a data mart over a data warehouse?
A data mart has the following advantages over a data warehouse:

a. Access to data is often faster because of their smaller size.
b. Response time for users is improved.
c. They are easier to create because they are smaller and often less complex.
d. They are less expensive.
e. Users are targeted better, because a data mart is designed for a specific department or division; identifying their requirements and the functions they need is easier. A data warehouse is designed for an entire organization’s use.

7. What are the areas in the retail industry that can benefit from big data?
The retail industry could benefit from big data analytics and gain a competitive advantage in the following areas:

a. Customer relationship management
b. Tailoring retail offerings to customer needs
c. Offering personalized service
d. Finding optimum store location and layout