Midterm FNH123: Control Notes

Having a moderate amount of excess body weight.
overweight
25-29.9kg/m2 BMI is for what standard of body weight?
overweight
To determine a _________________….
– Is it appropriate for your age?
– Can you maintain it without constant dieting?
– Is it acceptable to you?
– Is it based on family history of body shape or weight?
– Promotes good eating habits and allows for regular physical activity.
healthy body weight
Having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health
obese
Body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications… or sometimes referred to by 100lbs above IBW
morbid obesity
Being ______ increases your risks for high blood pressure, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep disorders, osteoarthritis, gallstones
overweight
Obesity is defined with a BMI of…
30-39.9 kg/m2
To find the IBW (ideal body weight) of a female…
5′ = 100lbs [add 5;bs/inch] +-10%
To find the IBW (ideal body weight) of a male…
5′ = 106lbs [add 6;bs/inch] +-10%
Morbid obesity exceeds ___% of normal
100
Extreme obesity is defined with a BMI of…
40
5 out of 9 leading causes of death in the US are associated with…?
obesity
Most unhealthy state in the US.. Closely followed by West Virginia.
Mississippi
Chronic diseases linked to…
– Hypertension
– Cardiovascular disease (#1 killer in the US)
– Type 2 diabetes
– Heart Disease
– Stroke
– Osteoarthritis (OA)
– Sleep apnea
– Certain cancers
obesity
Determining is a person’s body weight is ______ should include…
– Determining BMI
– Measuring body composition
– Assessing the pattern of fat distribution
healthful
BMI values below ____ have increased risks of health problems.
18.5
BMI values above ___ have increased risks of health problems.
30
1 meter = ?
39.37 inches
2.2kg = ?
1lb
BMI = ? / ?
weight/height
BMI should be in the units of weight (___) and height (___)
kg and m
BMI results are distorted in people with high muscle mass such as: …
athletes and lactating women
When measuring body composition (body fat and lean muscle mass), what is the best method?
underwater weighing
Body composition measures what?
body fat and lean muscle mass
Measuring by ___________ is recently considered the most beneficial in assessing weight.
waist circumference
Holding weight in the upper body.
– Increased risk for chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension).
apple-shaped fat patterning
Holding weight in the lower body.
– No significant increased risk for chronic diseases.
pear-shaped fat patterning
Occurs when energy intake equals energy expenditure
energy balance
Kcal from food
energy intake
– Energy expended at rest (basal metabolic rate)
– Physical activity
– Thermic effect of food
energy expenditure
BMR stands for…
basal metabolic rate
__-__% of total energy expenditure is put towards resting functions of the body (aka basal).
60-75
____ decreases with age, 3-5% per decade after age 30.
BMR
To calculate the BMR of a man you take their…
weight (in kg) x 24
To calculate the BMR of a woman you take their…
weight (in kg) x 23
– Leaner you are, the higher this is.
– Aging decreases this.
– Muscle mass increases it.
– Females when pregnant increases it.
– Being female decreases it.
– Sleep increases it.
– Illness increases it.
– Dieting decreases it.
factors that influence BMR
____ ____ is the most variable of the components in energy balance.
physical activity
Physical activity acounts for __-__% of daily energy expenditure
15-35
The more muscle groups used, the greater the energy expenditure, consider the following:
– ?
– ?
– ?
intensity, duration, body size
Energy expanded to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize and store food.
(In plain English: how much time a day it takes to eat something til you poop it out)
thermic effect of food
TEF stands for…
thermic effect of food
Thermic effect of food accounts for _-_% of total energy expenditure.
5-10
– BMR 60-75%
– Physical activity energy cost 15-25%
– Thermic Effect of Food 5-10%
total caloric allowance
How many calories do you need in a day?
It takes more energy to digest, absorb, transport, and metabolize…
protein and carb
Genetic factors account for about __% of a persons body fat.
25
Proposes a gene (or genes) cause a person to be energetically thrifty.
– Proposes that people with this gene expend less energy than other people and therefore gain weight.
– Has not been identified.
thrifty gene theory
The body compensates for changes in energy balance and keeps a person’s weight at their …
– Proposes that each person’s weight stays within a small range.
– Can change with time as diet and activity levels vary over a long period of time.
– Can be readjusted
set-point theory
Proposes that fat cells increase earlier in life as a result of overfeeding.
– Starts with introduction of food too soon.
– This theory proposes that you develop a greater number of fat cells early in life from overfeeding.
fat cell theory
Based on the principle that the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promotes fat storage in both fat and muscle cells.
– Thus, if you have more of this enzyme, you’ll be more likely to gain/retain weight for the rest of your life.
lpl enzyme theory
Other risk factors for ____ _____ include:
– Family history
– Large birth weight
– In-utero exposure to diabetes.
– Rapid weight gain during the first 6 months of life.
later obesity
Factors that ______ ____ for childhood obsity…
– Eat dinner with the family >3x per week
– Family income > $60,000 per year
– Living in an urban area
– Physical education classes in schools
– Have kids eat a breakfast (data shows kids who don’t eat breakfast with obesity rates at 27% as compared to breakfast eaters at 9%)
reduce risk
Is a hormone produced by fat cells that causes reduced food intake, reduced weight, decreased body fat in mice.
– Causes lethargy and greater food consumption.
– Controlled by the OB (obesity) gene.
leptin
– Protein synthesized in the stomach
– Stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamus
– Levels rise in dieters who lose weight… so the dieter wants to eat more.
ghrelin
Bariatric surgery patients do have lower…
ghrelin levels
– Hormone made in the gut in response to food
– Circulates to hypothalamus where it “switches” off the urge to eat.
– Obese people have lower levels when fasting.
peptide yy
In studies, when given _______ and offered food two hours later the study participants ate… 33% fewer calories.
peptide yy
You should be getting how many hours of sleep a night minimum?
6-8
During out _th stage of sleep (deepest sleep) this hormone is produced.
4, 4th, REM
Growth hormone drops naturally with aging but will be accelerated with…
lack of sleep
If the ______ _____ drops… lean tissue or muscle mass will drop, thus influencing our metabolism.
growth hormone
The hormone produced by the pineal gland regulated our sleep cycle.
melatonin
– Melatonin is released at ______ – to make us feel sleepy
sunset
If melatonin secretion falls so does the ability to make the ….
growth hormone
Known as “the stress hormone” because it’s secreted in response to stressful situations.
cortisol
Regulates hypertension, heart function, carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
cortisol
If chronically elevated (which occurs with sleep deprivation) the result = loss of…
muscle mass and increase in body fat
AMDR is….?
acceptable macronutrient distribution range
Physiologic drive or need to eat
hunger
A psychological desire to eat often in the absence of hunger… Perhaps this is more of a societal concern.
appetite
45-65% for AMDR for…
carbohydrate, CHO
10-35% for AMDR for…
protein
20-25% for AMDR for…
fat
A 14.5% increase in ghrelin and a 15.5% decrease in leptin will occur when you get below _ hours a sleep/day, and leads to increased appetite and cravings for high fat/sugar foods.
5
Evidence is overwhelming that _____ (or lack of) does affect our tendency to gain weight.
sleep
The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep…
73% risk for ______ hours/day
less than 4
The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep…
50% risk for _ hours/day
5
The risk of obesity vs. hours of sleep…
23% risk for _ hours/day
6
1.) Avoid beverages, foods that may impair sleep before going to bed.
2.) Don’t exercise too close to bedtime
3.) Get regular exercise
4.) Develop a “bed time” ritual
5.) Try to get to bed roughly the same time daily
6.) Improve your sleep environment which includes…
– comfort
– temperature (cooler the better)
– darkness level
7. Try to avoid working shift work (or at least get interrupted sleep) to get into “deep sleep”
improving the sleep cycle
Always sleep in ____ and DO NOT BREAK IT UP.
one block
People with ________ are 4x likely to suffer depression than those who sleep well.
– Contributes to other illnesses such as: heart disease, high blood pressure.
– People with insomnia often miss more work, and receive fewer promotions (They do not perform as well).
insomnia
– Cultural or family traditions
– Holidays and celebrations
– Easy access to high-fat foods
– Less physically active lifestyles
– Societal expectations of the “perfect” body
social factors influencing our diet
– Application of behavior modification techniques so as to make these lifelong lifestyle changes.
– Diet = FAIL
healthful weight change requirements
– Step 1: Get into a regular, adequate sleep pattern…
– Step 2: Gradual change into appropriate physical exercise.
– Step 3: Gradual change to improve nutritional choices.
steps to healthful weight gain changes
Be sure ______ know the benefit to them.. you must remember that physical activity is critical for long term weight management.
– Make small changes to ______ diets one step at a time.
patients
Physical activity is the best way to fight off the…
aging process
– Eat only at set times in one location
– Keep a log of food consumed
– Avoid buying problem foods
– Serve food on smaller plates
– Eat small, regular meals throughout the day.
– Chew slowly and stop eating when you feel full.
– Share food with others.
– Do not purchase foods from vending machines… prepare healthy snacks at home to go.
– Don’t shop when you are starved.
behavior modifications for weight loss
BMI below 18.5 is considered to be….
– Increases teh risk of infections and illness and can even be fatal.
underweight
– Eating 500-1000 extra kcals/day
– Eating frequently throughout the day
– Maintaining a balanced diet, limiting fat intake to 15-30% of total energy intake
– Avoiding tobacco products which depress appetite and increase BMR.
– Regular exercise which includes resistance training.
effective weight gain tips
– Gastroplasty
– Gastric bypass
– Gastric banding
surgical treatments for obesity
BMI means…
body mass index
For every pound there are how many kcals?
3500
Less than or equal to 1200 kcals/day for dieting is considered…
safe
1-2lbs a week is considered…
safe weight loss
Colorado is the _____ state
skinniest
What of the following things will help you be healthy as you age?
education
Target heartrate formula is…
220-age. Then multiply by .64 and .95 to find target heart rate.