MGT 350 Final Practice Qs

CH. 8
Communities of practice often rely on information technologies as the main source of interaction. T/F?
True

Communities of practice are teams (but often informal groups) bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest. Their main purpose is to share information. They often rely on information technologies as the main source of interaction

Informal groups minimize employee stress. T/F?
True

Informal groups potentially minimize employee stress because group members provide emotional and informational social support. This stress-reducing capability of informal groups improves employee well-being, thereby improving organizational effectiveness.

In a team, a traditional supervisor monitors performance of employees more closely than the fellow team members. T/F?
False

People are more motivated in teams because they are accountable to fellow team members, who monitor performance more closely than a traditional supervisor.

The rule that a team should be formed when employees have high interdependence applies when team members have different task goals. T/F?
False

The rule that a team should be formed when employees have high interdependence applies when team members have the same task goals, such as serving the same clients or collectively assembling the same product. When team members have different goals (such as serving different clients) but must depend on other team members to achieve those unique goals, teamwork might create excessive conflict.

In the five-stage model, developing team competence includes developing habitual routines with teammates and forming shared or complementary mental models. T/F?
True

In the five-stage model, developing team competence includes developing habitual routines with teammates and forming shared or complementary mental models. Team mental models are visual or relational mental images that are shared by team members.

Which of the following is true about teams?
A) A team exists when its members perceive themselves to be a team.
B) Team members are held together by their independence.
C) Team members do not influence each other.
D) All teams are temporary.
E) Groups are teams without a unifying relationship.
A) A team exists when its members perceive themselves to be a team.

Team members influence one another, although some members may be more influential than others regarding the team’s goals and activities. A team exists when its members perceive themselves to be a team.

Teams that consist of employees who have similar or complementary skills and are located in the same unit of a functional structure are known as _____ teams.
A) leadership
B) self-directed
C) departmental
D) production
E) task force
C) departmental.

Departmental teams are teams that consist of employees who have similar or complementary skills and are located in the same unit of a functional structure. They usually have minimal task interdependence because each person works with employees in other departments

Which of the following refer to multiskilled teams that are usually located away from the organization and are relatively free of its hierarchy?
A) Leadership teams
B) Skunkworks
C) Departmental teams
D) Self-directed teams
E) Communities of practice
B) Skunkworks.

Skunkworks refer to multiskilled teams that are usually located away from the organization and are relatively free of its hierarchy. They are often initiated by an entrepreneurial team leader who borrows people and resources (bootlegging) to design a product or service.

Which of the following is true about process losses?
A) Process losses reduce in intensity when more people are added to the team.
B) Process losses exclude time and energy.
C) Process losses help in development of tasks.
D) Process losses occur when the workload needs to be redistributed.
E) Process losses are visible when people do not replace others on the team.
D) Process losses occur when the workload needs to be redistributed.

The process loss problem is apparent when more people are added or replace others on the team. Team performance suffers when a team adds members, because those employees need to learn how the team operates and how to coordinate efficiently with other team members. Process losses also occur because the workload often needs to be redistributed.

_____ interdependence occurs when an employee or work unit shares a common resource, such as machinery, administrative support, or a budget, with other employees or work units.
A) Reciprocal
B) Sequential
C) Anticipatory
D) Total
E) Pooled
E) Pooled

The lowest level of interdependence, called pooled interdependence, occurs when an employee or work unit shares a common resource, such as machinery, administrative support, or a budget, with other employees or work units. This would occur in a team setting where each member works alone but shares raw materials or machinery to perform her or his otherwise independent tasks.

CH. 9
When communicating to others, we try to alter their beliefs and feelings and ultimately their behavior. T/F?
True

One of the functions of communication is to change behavior. When communicating to others, we are often trying to alter their beliefs and feelings and ultimately their behavior. This influence process might be passive, such as merely describing the situation more clearly and fully.

Intended feedback is encoded, transmitted, received, and decoded from the sender to the receiver of the original message. T/F?
False

In most situations, the sender looks for evidence that the other person received and understood the transmitted message. This feedback may be a formal acknowledgment or indirect evidence from the receiver’s subsequent actions. Feedback repeats the communication process. Intended feedback is encoded, transmitted, received, and decoded from the receiver to the sender of the original message.

With different codebooks, communication participants are able to encode and decode more accurately, because they both have a different meaning. T/F?
False

The sender and receiver rely on codebooks, which are dictionaries of symbols, language, gestures, idioms, and other tools used to convey information. With similar codebooks, communication participants are able to encode and decode more accurately, because they both have the same or similar meaning.

As e-mail is asynchronous, there is no need to coordinate a communication session. T/F?
True

E-mail is asynchronous (messages are sent and received at different times), so there is no need to coordinate a communication session.

E-mail is usually fine for ambiguous, complex, and novel situations. T/F?
False

E-mail is usually fine for well-defined situations, such as giving basic instructions or presenting a meeting agenda, but it can be cumbersome in ambiguous, complex, and novel situations.

Which of the following is true about communication?
A) Communication changes behavior.
B) People work interdependently when they do not communicate.
C) People who experience social interaction are more susceptible to physical and mental illnesses.
D) Employee well-being cannot benefit from the communication experience.
E) When sender and receiver have shared mental models, more communication is necessary to clarify meaning about that context.
A) Communication changes behavior.

One of the functions of communication is to change behavior. When communicating to others, we are often trying to alter their beliefs and feelings and ultimately their behavior. This influence process might be passive, such as merely describing the situation more clearly and fully.

Which of the following is true about e-mail?
A) It decreases the amount of communication across the organization.
B) It reduces the flow of information to higher levels in the organization.
C) It is a very good medium for communicating emotions.
D) It hides age, race, and other features, and thus reduces stereotype biases.
E) It reduces reliance on stereotypes when we are already aware of the other person’s personal characteristics.
D) It hides age, race, and other features, and thus reduces stereotype biases.

By hiding age, race, and other features, e-mail reduces stereotype biases. However, it also tends to increase reliance on stereotypes when we are already aware of the other person’s personal characteristics.

Which of the following is true about e-mail communication?
A) E-mail is fine for complex and novel situations.
B) E-mail messages are less diplomatic than written letters.
C) Flaming, a type of e-mail message, refers to the capacity of an organization to transmit information more quickly through traditional paper media.
D) E-mail helps organizations to significantly reduce the problem of information overload.
E) E-mail is a very good medium for communicating emotions.
B) E-mail messages are less diplomatic than written letters.

E-mail messages are less diplomatic than written letters. The term “flaming” has entered our language to describe e-mail and other electronic messages that convey strong negative emotions to the receiver. People who receive e-mail are partly to blame, because they tend to infer a more negative or neutral interpretation of the e-mail than was intended by the sender.

Which of the following statements is true regarding non-verbal communication?
A) Nonverbal communication is more rule-bound than verbal communication.
B) Formal training is required on how to understand nonverbal signals that accompany spoken words.
C) Nonverbal cues signal subtle information to both parties.
D) Nonverbal communication is conscious.
E) Nonverbal cues are less ambiguous and susceptible to misinterpretation.
C) Nonverbal cues signal subtle information to both parties.

Nonverbal cues signal subtle information to both parties, such as reinforcing their interest in the verbal conversation or demonstrating their relative status in the relationship.

Reese rarely checks her e-mail, yet she quickly responds to text messages or instant messages. Which of the following factors of social acceptance does this practice refer to?
A) Organizational norms
B) Team norms
C) Symbolic meaning of a channel
D) Individual preferences
E) Impersonal communication channels
D) Individual preferences.

One of the social acceptance factors is individual preferences for specific communication channels. These preferences are due to personality traits, as well as previous experience and reinforcement with particular channels.

CH. 10
Power is based on the target’s perception that the power holder controls a valuable resource that can help him or her achieve goal. T/F?
True

Power is based on the target’s perception that the power holder controls a valuable resource that can help him or her achieve goals. People might generate power by convincing others that they control something of value, whether or not they actually control that resource.

Power involves the symmetric dependence of one party on another party. T/F?
False

Power involves the asymmetric (unequal) dependence of one party on another party. Although dependence is a key element of power relationships, we use the phrase asymmetric dependence because the less powerful party still has some degree of power—called countervailing power—over the power holder.

A manager’s right to tell his employees what tasks to perform, whom to work with, and so forth is an example of referent power. T/F?
False

Legitimate power is an agreement among organizational members that people in certain roles can request a set of behaviors from others. This perceived right or obligation originates from formal job descriptions, as well as informal rules of conduct. People have referent power when others identify with them, like them, or otherwise respect them.

According to the concept of legitimate power, the “zone of indifference” is the set of behaviors that individuals are willing to engage in at the other person’s request. T/F?
True

Legitimate power has restrictions; it only gives the power holder the right to ask for a range of behaviors from others. This range—known as the “zone of indifference”—is the set of behaviors that individuals are willing to engage in at the other person’s request.

Substitutability refers not only to other sources that offer the resource but also to substitutions for the resource itself. T/F?
True

Substitutability refers to the availability of alternatives. It refers not only to other sources that offer the resource but also to substitutions for the resource itself.

People who have the right to control the information that others receive possess _____ power.
A) reward
B) legitimate
C) referent
D) expert
E) coercive
B) legitimate

A particularly potent form of legitimate power occurs where people have the right to control the information that others receive. These information gatekeepers gain power in two ways. First, information is a resource, so those who need that information are dependent on the gatekeeper to provide that resource.

Absorbing or neutralizing the impact of environmental shifts as they occur is a form of _____ power.
A) reward
B) legitimate
C) referent
D) expert
E) coercive
D) expert

There are three types of expertise that cope with uncertainty namely prevention, forecasting, and absorption. People and work units gain expert power by absorbing or neutralizing the impact of environmental shifts as they occur.

Which of the following influence tactics occurs when relying on the authority of the firm’s policies or values?
A) Silent authority
B) Coalition formation
C) Assertiveness
D) Impression management
E) Upward appeal
E) Upward appeal

Upward appeal involves calling on higher authority or expertise, or symbolically relying on these sources, to support the influencer’s position. It also occurs when relying on the authority of the firm’s policies or values. When an individual reminds others that his request is consistent with the organization’s overarching goals, he is implying support from senior executives without formally involving them.

Which of the following occurs when people are motivated to implement an influencer’s request at a minimal level of effort and for purely instrumental reasons?
A) Compliance
B) Coalition
C) Commitment
D) Assertiveness
E) Resistance
A) Compliance

Compliance occurs when people are motivated to implement the influencer’s request at a minimal level of effort and for purely instrumental reasons. Without external sources to prompt the desired behavior, compliance would not occur.

Which of the following conditions forces employees to engage in organizational politics?
A) Excessive resources
B) Increase in budgets
C) Scarce resources
D) Application of formal rules
E) Routine situations
C) Scarce resources

Employees are more likely to engage in organizational politics in certain conditions. One of those conditions is scarce resources. When budgets are slashed, people rely on political tactics to safeguard their resources and maintain the status quo.

CH.11
Conflict consumes personal energy and distracts employees from their work. T/F?
True

Conflict can undermine job performance in many ways. It is often stressful, which consumes personal energy and distracts employees from their work.

A debate energized by conflicts tests the logic of arguments. T/F?
True

A debate energized by conflicts tests the logic of arguments and encourages participants to reexamine their basic assumptions about the problem and its possible solution.

Conflict generates less vigilance. T/F?
False

Through conflict, employees continuously question current practices and become more sensitive to dissatisfaction from stakeholders. In other words, conflict generates more vigilance.

Conflict decreases with the level of task interdependence. T/F?
False

Conflict increases with the level of task interdependence. Task interdependence refers to the extent to which employees must share materials, information, or expertise to perform their jobs. Higher interdependence increases the risk of conflict because there is a greater chance that each side will disrupt or interfere with the other side’s goals.

People who use forcing typically have a win-win orientation. T/F?
False

Forcing tries to win the conflict at the other’s expense. People who use this style typically have a win-lose orientation—they believe the parties are drawing from a fixed pie, so the more one party receives, the less the other party will receive.

Which of the following statements about conflict is true?
A) It prevents individuals and groups from making inferior decisions.
B) It encourages people engaged in a dispute from sharing resources.
C) It forces people engaged in a dispute to coordinate with each other.
D) It discourages people from evaluating alternatives thoroughly.
E) It reduces distorted perceptions and stereotypes.
A) It prevents individuals and groups from making inferior decisions.

Conflict energizes people to debate issues and evaluate alternatives more thoroughly. The debate tests the logic of arguments and encourages participants to reexamine their basic assumptions about the problem and its possible solution. It prevents individuals and groups from making inferior decisions.

Which of the following is true about relationship conflict?
A) It focuses on the issue as the source of conflict.
B) The parties refer to legitimate differences of opinion regarding tasks or decisions.
C) It reduces trust of a relationship.
D) It is more likely to escalate when team members have high levels of emotional intelligence.
E) It is also called task-related conflict.
C) It reduces trust of a relationship.

Relationship conflict (also known as socioemotional conflict) focuses on the adversary rather than the issue as the source of conflict. Relationship conflict reduces trust because the strong negative emotions that typically accompany this conflict undermine any identification with the other person, leaving the relationship held together mainly by calculus-based trust.

In the model of the conflict process, which of the following is a part of conflict outcomes?
A) Differentiation
B) Interdependence
C) Poor communication
D) Conflict style
E) Turnover
E) Turnover

Turnover is a negative conflict outcome.

Which of the following produces the classic tension between employees from two companies brought together through a merger?
A) Task interdependence
B) Differentiation
C) Goal incompatibility
D) Scarce resources
E) Ambiguity
B) Differentiation

Differentiation produces the classic tension between employees from two companies brought together through a merger. Even though everyone wants the company to succeed, they fight over the “right way” to do things because of their unique experiences in the separate companies.

Employees tend to have the lowest risk of conflict when working with others in a(n) _____ interdependence relationship.
A) anticipatory
B) total
C) reciprocal
D) pooled
E) sequential
D) pooled

Aside from complete independence, employees tend to have the lowest risk of conflict when working with others in a pooled interdependence relationship. Pooled interdependence occurs when individuals operate independently except for reliance on a common resource or authority.

CH. 12
Shared leadership is based on the ideas that leadership is singular, not plural. T/F?
False

Shared leadership is based on the idea that leadership is plural, not singular. It doesn’t operate out of one formally assigned position, role, or individual. Instead, employees lead each other as the occasion arises. Shared leadership typically supplements formal leadership.

Shared leadership flourishes in organizations where employees are encouraged to take initiative and risks without fear of failure. T/F?
True

Shared leadership flourishes in organizations where the formal leaders are willing to delegate power and encourage employees to take initiative and risks without fear of failure (i.e., a learning orientation culture).

A leader’s truthfulness and tendency to translate words into deeds is referred to as integrity. T/F?
True

The leader’s truthfulness and tendency to translate words into deeds is referred to as integrity.

Leaders possess a drive when they have a high moral capacity to judge dilemmas using sound values and to act accordingly. T/F?
False

Leaders possess integrity when they have a high moral capacity to judge dilemmas using sound values and to act accordingly. Integrity involves truthfulness and consistency of words and actions, qualities that are related to honesty and ethical conduct.

Authentic leadership involves behaving in ways that are consistent with the self-concept rather than pretending to be someone else. T/F?
True

Authentic leadership is more than self-awareness; it also involves behaving in ways that are consistent with the self-concept of the leader, rather than pretending to be someone else.

Which of the following is true about shared leadership?
A) It calls for a collaborative culture.
B) It prefers an internally competitive culture.
C) It flourishes in organizations that do not encourage employees to take risks.
D) It is based on the idea that leadership is singular.
E) It operates out of one formally assigned position.
A) It calls for a collaborative culture.

Shared leadership calls for a collaborative rather than internally competitive culture, because employees take on shared leadership roles when co-workers support them for their initiative.

Which of the following is true about authentic leadership?
A) It includes only self-awareness.
B) It refers to a form of leadership where employees throughout the organization informally assume leadership responsibilities in various ways and at various times.
C) It is a form of leadership where leaders receive feedback only from people outside the organization.
D) It involves behaving in ways that are consistent with the self-concept of the leader.
E) It defines leadership as serving others to encourage their need fulfillment.
D) It involves behaving in ways that are consistent with the self-concept of the leader.

Authentic leadership is more than self-awareness; it also involves behaving in ways that are consistent with that self-concept rather than pretending to be someone else. To be themselves, great leaders regulate their decisions and behavior in several ways.

Which of the following leadership behaviors reduces employee absenteeism and turnover?
A) Task-orientation
B) People-orientation
C) Achievement-orientation
D) Transaction-orientation
E) Participation-orientation
B) People-orientation

Increasing people-oriented leadership reduces employee absenteeism, grievances, turnover, and job dissatisfaction, whereas increasing task-oriented leadership results in higher job performance.

Which of the following is true about servant leadership?
A) It is an extension of the task-oriented leadership style.
B) It emphasizes that employees should serve leaders selflessly.
C) Servant leaders serve by drawing attention to them.
D) It emphasizes that leaders should serve the organization rather than the society.
E) It does not view leadership as a position of power.
E) It does not view leadership as a position of power.

Servant leaders do not view leadership as a position of power. Rather, they serve without drawing attention to themselves, without evoking superior status, and without being judgmental about others or defensive of criticisms received.

According to Fiedler’s contingency model, which of the following refers to the clarity or ambiguity of operating procedures?
A) Leader-member relations
B) Position power
C) Task structure
D) Legitimate power
E) Coercive power
C) Task structure

Situational control is affected by three factors in the following order of importance: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. Leader-member relations refer to how much employees trust and respect the leader and are willing to follow his or her guidance. Task structure refers to the clarity or ambiguity of operating procedures. Position power is the extent to which the leader possesses legitimate, reward, and coercive power over subordinates.

CH. 13
Organizational structure formally dictates what activities receive the most attention, as well as financial, power, and information resources. T/F?
True

Organizational structure formally dictates what activities receive the most attention, as well as financial, power, and information resources.

Division of labor increases training costs in organizations. T/F?
False

With division of labor, training costs are reduced because employees require fewer physical and mental skills to accomplish the assigned work.

Coordination tends to become less expensive as the division of labor increases. T/F?
False

Coordination tends to become more expensive and difficult as the division of labor increases, so jobs are specialized in companies only to the point where it is not too costly or challenging to coordinate the people in those jobs.

Larger organizations encourage coordination through informal communication by assigning liaison roles to employees. T/F?
True

Larger organizations encourage coordination through informal communication by assigning liaison roles to employees, who are expected to communicate and share information with co-workers in other work units.

Standardizing outputs involves ensuring that individuals and work units have clearly defined goals. T/F?
True

Standardizing outputs involves ensuring that individuals and work units have clearly defined goals and output measures.

Which of the following forms of coordination consists of subtypes such as liaison roles and temporary teams?
A) Informal communication
B) Formal hierarchy
C) Standardization
D) Formal communication channel
E) Direct supervision
A) Informal communication

Informal communication consists of subtypes such as liaison roles and temporary teams.

Which of the following forms of standardization provides training to employees or hires people who have learned precise role behaviors from educational programs?
A) Standardized processes
B) Standardized outputs
C) Standardized skills
D) Standardized goals
E) Standardized quality
C) Standardized skills

When work activities are too complex to standardize through processes or goals, companies often coordinate work effort by extensively training employees or hiring people who have learned precise role behaviors from educational programs. This is referred to as standardized skills.

Which of the following is true about a span of control?
A) A wide span of control is necessary when employees perform novel or complex tasks.
B) A narrow span of control is possible when employees perform routine jobs.
C) A wide span of control is necessary when employees require more supervisory decisions and coaching.
D) A wide span of control is necessary when employees perform highly interdependent work with others.
E) A wide span of control is possible when there is less frequent need for direction or advice from supervisors.
E) A wide span of control is possible when there is less frequent need for direction or advice from supervisors.

A factor influencing the best span of control is whether employees perform routine tasks. A wider span of control is possible when employees perform routine jobs, because there is less frequent need for direction or advice from supervisors. A narrow span of control is necessary when employees perform novel or complex tasks, because these employees tend to require more supervisory decisions and coaching.

Which of the following statements about formalization is true?
A) Newer companies tend to be more formalized.
B) Smaller companies tend to have more formalization.
C) Low level of formalization tends to undermine organizational learning and creativity.
D) Formalization is a source of job dissatisfaction and work stress.
E) When work activities are novel, formalization becomes easier.
D) Formalization is a source of job dissatisfaction and work stress.

Formalization is a source of job dissatisfaction and work stress. Rules and procedures have been known to take on a life of their own in some organizations.

Which of the following statements about a mechanistic structure is true?
A) It is characterized by a wide span of control.
B) It has limited decision making at lower levels.
C) It has a low degree of formalization and centralization.
D) In this structure, tasks are fluid, adjusting to new situations.
E) It is more compatible with organizational learning and quality management.
B) It has limited decision making at lower levels.

Mechanistic structures have many rules and procedures, limited decision making at lower levels, tall hierarchies of people in specialized roles, and vertical rather than horizontal communication flows.

CH. 14
Shared values are values that people within the organization or work unit have in common and place near the top of their hierarchy of values. T/F?
True

Shared values are values that people within the organization or work unit have in common and place near the top of their hierarchy of values.

Espoused values are apparent by watching executives and other employees in action, where they focus their attention and resources, and how they behave toward stakeholders. T/F?
False

Espoused values are the values that corporate leaders want others to believe guide the organization’s decisions and actions. Shared enacted values are the values that most leaders and employees truly rely on to guide their decisions and behavior. These “values-in-use” are apparent by watching executives and other employees in action, including their decisions, where they focus their attention and resources, and how they behave toward stakeholders.

Organizational culture models and measures incorrectly assume that organizations have a fairly clear, unified culture that is easily decipherable. T/F?
True

Many organizational culture models and measures incorrectly assume that organizations have a fairly clear, unified culture that is easily decipherable. This “integration” perspective, as it is called, further assumes that when an organization’s culture changes, it shifts from one unified condition to a new unified condition with only temporary ambiguity or weakness during the transition.

When subcultures are suppressed, the organization takes less time to discover and adopt values aligned with the emerging environment. T/F?
False

Subcultures are the spawning grounds for emerging values that keep the firm aligned with the evolving needs and expectations of customers, suppliers, communities, and other stakeholders. Companies eventually need to replace their dominant values with ones that are more appropriate for the changing environment. If subcultures are suppressed, the organization may take longer to discover and adopt values aligned with the emerging environment.

Strong cultures tend to be long-lasting. T/F?
True

In a strong organizational culture, most employees across all subunits understand and embrace the dominant values. These values and assumptions are also institutionalized through well-established artifacts, which further entrench the culture. In addition, strong cultures tend to be long-lasting; some can be traced back to the values and assumptions established by the company’s founder.

_____ values are the values that most leaders and employees truly rely on to guide their decisions and behavior.
A) Espoused
B) Shared enacted
C) Socially desirable
D) Promissory
E) Organizationally desirable
B) Shared enacted

Organizational culture is not represented by espoused values. Instead, it consists of shared enacted values—the values that most leaders and employees truly rely on to guide their decisions and behavior. These “values-in-use” are apparent by watching executives and other employees in action, including their decisions, where they focus their attention and resources, and how they behave toward stakeholders.

Which of the following is true about organizational culture models?
A) They include only shared values.
B) They are represented by espoused values.
C) They assume that organizations have a fairly clear, unified culture that is easily decipherable.
D) They can be estimated through employee surveys alone.
E) They exclude assumptions.
C) They assume that organizations have a fairly clear, unified culture that is easily decipherable.

Many organizational culture models and measures incorrectly assume that organizations have a fairly clear, unified culture that is easily decipherable. This “integration” perspective, as it is called, further assumes that when an organization’s culture changes, it shifts from one unified condition to a new unified condition with only temporary ambiguity or weakness during the transition.

Which of the following is true about subcultures?
A) When they are suppressed, organizations take less time to adopt values aligned with the emerging environment.
B) They potentially avoid dissension among employees.
C) They weaken an organization’s standards of performance and ethical behavior.
D) They potentially create conflict among employees.
E) Countercultures discourage constructive conflict.
D) They potentially create conflict among employees.

Subcultures, particularly countercultures, potentially create conflict and dissension among employees.

Which of the following statements is true about rituals?
A) They are more formal artifacts than ceremonies.
B) They are planned activities conducted specifically for the benefit of an audience.
C) They include publicly rewarding employees and celebrating the launch of a new product or newly won contract.
D) They differ each time and are not repetitive.
E) They are predictable events that have symbolic meanings.
E) They are predictable events that have symbolic meanings.

Rituals are the programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize an organization’s culture. These rituals are repetitive, predictable events that have symbolic meanings reflecting underlying cultural values and assumptions.

A(n) _____ diagnoses cultural relations between the companies and determines the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur.
A) bicultural audit
B) adaptive culture
C) artifact
D) ritual
E) ceremony
A) bicultural audit

Organizational leaders can minimize cultural collisions and fulfill their duty of due diligence by conducting a bicultural audit. A bicultural audit diagnoses cultural relations between the companies and determines the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur.

CH. 15
Stability occurs when the driving and restraining forces are roughly in equilibrium. T/F?
True

Stability occurs when the driving and restraining forces are roughly in equilibrium—that is, they are of approximately equal strength in opposite directions.

Resistance reduces motivation of employees. T/F?
False

Resistance is motivational; it potentially engages people to think about the change strategy and process. Change agents can harness that motivational force to ultimately strengthen commitment to the change initiative.

Employees lack commitment to (or even compliance with) a change initiative when their personal cost-benefit analysis calculation is positive rather than negative. T/F?
False

Employees lack commitment to (or even compliance with) a change initiative when their personal cost-benefit analysis calculation is negative rather than positive. They might believe the benefits for them (and possibly for the organization) are trivial (i.e., some pain for little gain).

Competitors, changing consumer trends, impending government regulations, and other forms of turbulence in the external environment are the main driving forces in Lewin’s model. T/F?
True

Creating an urgency to change typically occurs by informing employees about competitors, changing consumer trends, impending government regulations, and other forms of turbulence in the external environment. These are the main driving forces in Lewin’s model. They push people out of their comfort zones, energizing them to face the risks that change creates.

Dissatisfied customers represent a compelling driving force for change. T/F?
True

Dissatisfied customers represent a compelling driving force for change because the organization’s survival typically depends on having customers who are satisfied with the product or service.

Which of the following processes supports and reinforces new role patterns and prevents the organization from slipping back into the old way of doing things?
A) Freezing
B) Refreezing
C) Unfreezing
D) Resistance
E) Restraining
B) Refreezing

Refreezing occurs when the organization’s systems and structures are aligned with the desired behaviors. They must support and reinforce the new role patterns and prevent the organization from slipping back into the old way of doing things.

Which of the following is true about employee resistance?
A) It is a warning system.
B) It is a form of relationship conflict.
C) It reduces motivation of employees.
D) It weakens procedural justice.
E) It forces change agents to give up the change strategy.
A) It is a warning system.

Employee resistance is a signal—a warning system—that the change agent has not sufficiently addressed the underlying conditions that support effective organizational change.

Which of the following strategies might lead to conflict and poor decisions if employees’ interests are incompatible with organizational needs?
A) Communication
B) Learning
C) Employee involvement
D) Stress management
E) Negotiation
C) Employee involvement

Employee involvement is very time-consuming. It might lead to conflict and poor decisions if employees’ interests are incompatible with organizational needs.

Which of the following strategies tends to produce compliance but not commitment to change?
A) Communication
B) Learning
C) Employee involvement
D) Stress management
E) Negotiation
E) Negotiation

Negotiation may be expensive, particularly if other employees want to negotiate their support. It also tends to produce compliance but not commitment to change.

The action research approach adopts a(n) _____ view.
A) stakeholder
B) parallel learning
C) high-performance work practices
D) open-systems
E) shared values
D) open-systems

The action research approach adopts an open-systems view. It recognizes that organizations have many interdependent parts, so change agents need to anticipate both the intended and the unintended consequences of their interventions.