MGT 3305 CH 7

the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand
Stress/Stress Response
(demand) a person or event that triggers the stress response
Stressor
refers to the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may occur as a result of stressful events
Distress/Strain
Strain is
distress
steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium
Homeostasis
Walter B. Cannon first called stress the
emergency response or the militaristic response
stress occurs when an external, environmental demand upsets an individuals natural steady-state balance (aka homeostasis). Also incorporates the fight-or-flight approach
Cannon’s Homeostatic/medical stress approach
saw stress as a result of person-environment interactions (like Cannon) but emphasized an individual’s cognitive appraisal in persons or evens as being stressful or not
Richard Lazarus cognitive appraisal approach
Problem-focused coping (managing the ________) and emotion-focused coping (managing the ________)
stressor; response
Robert Kahn developed which stress approach?
Person-Environment Fit approach
Richard Lazarus developed which stress approach?
Cognitive Appraisal approach
Walter B. Cannon developed which concept of stress?
Emergency Response or Militaristic Response (fight-or-flight)
the idea that confusing and conflicting expectations of a person in a social role create stress for that person
The Person-environment fit approach
two elements of the personality interact to cause stress (ego-ideal and self-image)
Psychoanalytic Approach
Which stress approach did Harry Levinson develop?
the Psychoanalytic Approach
the embodiment of a person’s perfect self
ego-ideal
how the person really sees him/herself,both positively and negatively
self-image
Work stress is caused by factors in the work environment as well as by
nonwork (external) pressures that spill into the work place
What is one of the most complex work-related causes of stress?
role conflict
What are the 4 categories of work demand?
1) task demands
2) interpersonal demands
3) physical demands
4) role demands
Technological innovation has lead to
task demands
results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations (inter-role, intra-role, or person-role conflict)
Role conflict
caused by opposing expectations related to two separate roles assumed by the same individual (i.e. employee and parent)
Inter-role conflict
caused by opposing expectations related to a single role (i.e. the manager who pushed employees for fast and high-quality work)
Intra-role conflict
ethic violations are likely caused by
person-role conflicts
employees expected to behave in ways that violate personal values, beliefs, or principles
Person-Role conflicts
the confusion a person experiences in relation to the expectations of another (caused by misunderstanding)
Role ambiguity
Sexual harassment and poor leadership are examples of what type of demand and are often generated at work by abrasive personalities?
emotional toxins in INTERPERSONAL DEMANDS
Extreme environments, strenuous activities, hazardous substances, and global travel create what type of demands?
physical demands
impositions from an individual’s personal life environment (home) and self-imposed restrictions
Nonwork demands
an imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and persona life satisfaction
Workaholism
Workaholism is what type of non work demand?
personal demand
Positive stress (where you thrive under pressure) is known as
eustress
indicates that stress leads to improved performance up to an optimum point. Beyond that point, stress has a detrimental effect on performance
Yerkes-Dodson Law
An extremem preoccupation with work may result in acute
individual distress
Karoshi
death by over work (most extreme type of individual distress)
Most common symptoms of psychological distress are:
depression, burnout, and psychosomatic disorders (physical ailments w/ psychological origins)
Emotional exhaustion is caused by
psychological distress
a form of psychological fatigue caused by energy depletion
emotional exhaustion
a psychological response to job stress that Christina Maslach characterizes among three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced perceptions of personal accomplishment
Burnout
a form of psychological distress caused by a lack of challenge, inspiration, and/or opportunity on the job
Rust-out
a cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes, and work stoppages, and turnover
Participated problem
Workplace aggression, substance abuse, and accidents are examples of what type of problems?
Behavioral problems
low morale, dissatisfaction, breakdowns in communication, and disruption of working relationships
Organizational distress
What are three major costs of organizational distress?
1) Participation Problems
2) Performance Decrements
3) Compensation Awards
Which type of organizational distress includes absenteeism, tardiness, strikes, and turnover?
participation problems
an organization loses a valuable employee
Dysfunctional turnover
the organization benefits by creating opportunities for new members, new ideas, and fresh approaches (occurs when an org. loses an employee that had no value to it)
Functional turnover
a cost of resulting from poor quality or low quantity of prediction, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair
Performance decrement
an organizational cost resulting form court awards for job distress
Compensation awards
Weak Organ Hypothesis aka Achilles’ heel phenomenon
suggests that a person breaks down at her weakest point
a complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including: competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements
Type A Behavior Pattern
Which type of behavioral pattern is also known as coronary-prone behavior because it is linked with coronary heart disease?
Type A personality
Type B Behavior Pattern are _______ coronary prone.
less
a personality characterized by commitment, control, challenge, and hence, resistant to distress
Personality Hardiness
a way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events
Transformational Coping
characterized by a passive avoidance of events and decreased interaction with the environment. May lead to short-term stress reduction (alternative to transformational coping)
Regressive Coping
a healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others
Self-Reliance
an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people
Counterdependence
an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships
Overdependence
an organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain
Preventive Stress Management
the stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or ELIMINATE the demand or STRESSOR causing stress
Primary Prevention
the stage in preventive stress management designed o ALTER or modify the individual’s or the organizations RESPONSE to a demand or stressor
Secondary Prevention
a psychological approach to normal human development that identifies three distinct patterns of attachment (concept of self-reliance originally based on this)
Attachment Theory
A secure pattern of attachment and _________ behavior results in self-reliance.
interdependent
____________ people are confident, enthusiastic, and persistent in facing challenges.
self-reliant
emotional and psychological connectedness to another person
Interpersonal attachment
Two insecure patterns of attachment are ________ and _________.
counterdependence; overdependence
the stage in preventive stress management designed to HEAL individual or organizational SYMPTOMS of distress and strain
Tertiary Prevention
What are two organizational stress prevention methods that are considered secondary prevention?
team building and social support at work
Primary prevention is _______ directed.
stressor
Secondary prevention is ________ directed.
response
Tertiary prevention is _________ directed.
symptom
Organizational stressors combined with primary prevention are connected to
health risk factors
Stress responses combined with secondary prevention are connected to
asymptomatic disease
Distress combined with tertiary prevention is connected to
symptomatic disease
A major goal in job redesign should be to
increase worker control
Increasing worker control is a strategy of what?
preventive stress management
A second object of job redesign should be to reduce __________ and increase _________ in the workplace
uncertainty; predictability
What are the 4 types of organizational stress prevention?
1) Job Redesign
2) Goal Setting
3) Role Negotiation
4) Social Support Systems
Goal setting is designed to increase _____ _______ while reducing _____ _____ and ambiguity.
task motivation; role conflict
Goal setting focuses on a person’s _______ while directing energy into a ______ _______.
energy; productive channel
Role negotiation allows individuals to modify their ________ _______.
work roles
According to the job strain model, a passive job has a ________ self-determination and a _______ workload.
low; low
According to the job strain model, an active job has a ________ self-determination and a _______ workload.
high; high
According to the job strain model, a low-strain job has a ________ self-determination and a _______ workload.
high; low
According to the job strain model, a high-strain job has a ________ self-determination and a _______ workload.
low;high
What are the 8 types of Individual Prevention for stress?
1) Positive Thinking (primary)
2) Time Management (primary)
3) Leisure Time Activities (primary)
4) Physical Exercise (secondary)
5) Relaxation Training (secondary)
6) Diet (secondary)
7) Opening Up (tertiary)
8) Professional Help (tertiary)
What are primary prevention activities?
learned optimism, time management, and leisure time activities
What are secondary prevention activities?
physical exercise, relaxation, and diet
What are tertiary prevention activities?
opening up and professional help
Social support at work and home comes from:
1) Organizational (supervisor/colleagues)
2) Family (spouse/kids/in-laws)
3) Church/Religion (friends/support groups)
4) Clubs (business/social/athletic)
5) Professional (psychologists/physicians)
Mental and physical health improves through ______-_________.
self-disclosure
What are the 4 sources of stress at work (aka work demands)?
1) task demands
2) role demands
3) interpersonal demands
4) physical demands
What are the 2 sources of stress at work (aka non work demands)
1) home demands
2) personal demands