thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job
Frederick W. Taylor
Father of scientific management
when workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work outputs
a group member whose work pace is significantly faster than the normal pace in their group.
best known for the use of motion studies
known for human resources, and employee rights
breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive
timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs
a graphic chart that shows which task must be completed at which times in order to complete a project of task. (Henry Gantt)
the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
Elements of Bureaucratic Organizations
Qualification-based hiring, merit-based promotion, chain of management, division of labor, impartial application of rules and procedures, recorded in writing, managers separate from owners.
first proposed the idea of bureaucratic organizations
best known for developing five functions of managers, and fourteen principles of management
Fayol’s Five Functions of Management
Planning, Organizing, Leading, Commanding, and Controlling
Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
Division of work, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, esprit de corps
Mary Parker Follett
social worker, know for her work with conflict management
to have both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that meets the needs of both
best know for his role in the famous Hawthorne Studies.
Best Known for his ideas about cooperation and acceptance of authority
a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces created by two or more people
Zone of Indifference
managerial requests in which acceptance of managerial authority is automatic
involves managing the daily production of goods and services
is the amount of raw materials and the numbers of parts and finished products that a company has in its possession.
With the systems approach, rather than viewing one part of an organization as a separate from the other parts, managers should look for connections between the different parts of the organization.
a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole
smaller systems that operate within the context of a larger system
occurs when two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart. (1+1=3)
systems that can sustain themselves only be interacting with their environments, on which they depend for their survival
systems that can sustain themselves without interacting with their environments.
techniques for drawing 3-D objects on paper
holds that there are no universal management theories and that the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place.