What are the forces of management?
Social, Political, and Economic
What is the social force?
influence of culture that guides people and relationships
influence of political and legal institutions
the availability, production, and distribution of resources
What is the Classical Perspective?
Emerged during the 19th century. The early study of management. new sub-species of economic man — the salaried man
What are the three subfields that derived from the Classical Perspective?
Scientific management, bureaucratic organizations, and administrative principles
improve efficiency and labor productivity through scientific methods
workers could be “re-tooled” like machines. Productivity could only be improved scientifically. “Father of Scientific Management”.
A bar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage and elapsed time
What are the characteristics of the General Approach?
Developed standard method for performing each job, Selected workers with appropriate abilities, Trained workers in standard methods, Supported workers, and Provided wage incentives to workers for increased output.
What are the criticisms of the General Approach?
Did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers, Did not acknowledge variance among individuals, and Tended to regard workers as uniform.
What are the characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy?
Division of labor, Personnel selected and promoted based on technical qualifications, positions organized in a hierarchy, Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing, Management separate from ownership of the organization, and Managers subject to rules and procedures.
Henri Fayol identified which functions of management?
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Of the 14 principles of management identified by Henri Fayol, which ones are still used today?
Unity of Command, Division of Work, Unity of Direction, and the Scalar Chain
Humanistic Perspective. understand human behaviors, importance of people rather than engineering techniques, Empowerment, informal organization, Acceptance theory of authority.
Who introduced the Theory of Authority?
Who developed theory X and Theory Y?
Maslow and McGregor
What is Theory X?
average human being has inherent dislike for work and avoid it, most people need to be coerces, controlled, directed or threatened. Wants to be directed to avoid responsibility.
What is Theory Y?
Average person does not inherently dislike work. External threat and punishment are not the only ways to motivate workers. under right conditions worker will seek responsibility.
What is the Behavioral Science Approach?
Scientific methods, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics
What other strategies are based on behavioral science?
Matrix organizations, Self-Managed Teams, Corporate Culture, and Management by Wandering Around.
What is the Quantitative Perspective?
Use of mathematics and statistics to aid management decision making. Enhanced by development and growth of the computer
Quantitative Perspective is also referred to as what?
Operations Management focuses on what?
the physical production of goods and services
Information technology focuses on what?
technology and software to aid managers
___ forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people.
Who is considered the First Lady of Management?
Archies’ Antiques, Inc., is characterized by separation of management from ownership and by clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility. These characteristic are consistent with the principles of:
_____ refers to a chain of authority extending from the top to the bottom of the organization and including every employee
Mary Parker Follett thought of leadership as ___, rather than techniques.
A significant contribution of Chester Barnard was the concept of:
The informal organization
The findings provided by the Hawthorne Studies provided the impetus for ______ despite flawed methodology or inaccurate conclusions.
The Humanistic Perspective
Beth Brant, production supervisor at Trustworthy Tools Mfg., Inc. believes that her employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and therefore need to be controlled and directed. Beth is a ___ manager
Max Moore is a new manager at Accord Bank. He believes that people should be treated as individuals, and that is important to let people use their own processes and procedures, rather than try to standardize things too much. Max is basing his management style on:
The management science perspective applies all of the following to managerial problems except:
What are the criticisms of Quantitative management?
Cannot account for unforeseen events, does not pay attention to human factors, does not have a role for human intuition.
For IBM, according to the systems theory, what are the inputs?
Raw material, information, financial resources, and human resources