MGMT5220 Ch. 4: Leadership and the Project Manager

line manager
have official titles and power in an organization
project managers (leaders)
focus on interpersonal relationships rather than administration
French and Raven’s 5 sources of powers
power is the extent to which one person can influence another to do something
-expert power, referent power, legitimate power, reward power, coercive power
legitimate power
power by virtue of your job title (coveys a legitimate right or authority to be in charge, if subordinate refuses to recognize the authority of the title, then the power does not exist)
reward power
the extent to which the supervisor can hand out rewards (salary increase, bonus, desirable job assignment, promotions)
expert power
supervisor’s special knowledge and expertise (subordinate comes to supervisor to help solve technical problems)
referent power
extent to which the subordinate likes and identifies with the supervisor (can be developed through personal relationships)
coercive power
extent to which supervisor can hand out punishments (disciplinary actions, fines, salary reduction, firing)
project leaders (list)
-develop a project vision
-do the right thing
-develop new processes
-focus on people
-inspire trust
-focus on potential
line manager (list)
-execute the current vision
-do things right
-maintain status quo
-administer policies and procedures
-focused on the bottom line
-incremental improvements
how the project manager leads
project managers function as mini-CEOs and manage both “hard” technical details and “soft” people issues (project managers: acquire project resources, motivate and build teams, have a vision and fight fires, communicate)
how does a project leader acquire project resources?
-review the project documentation
-negotiate with top management to get the resources needed
-negotiate with line managers to get the resources needed
-find alternative and creative ways of funding and resources (internships with students, recent retirees, people about to get laid off)
maslow’s hierarchy of needs
self-actualization, self-esteem, love and belonging, safety and security, physiological needs
providing security and belonging
-letting people know why they are where they are
-making individuals feel that they belong where they are
-placing individuals in positions for which they are properly trained
-letting employees know how their efforts fit into the big picture
providing self-esteem
-a feeling of pride or satisfaction for one’s ego
-possibility of advancement/promotion
-interesting and challenging work/stimulating work environment
-tangible rewards
-management assistance in problem-solving
providing self-actualization
-giving assignments that provide challenges
-clearly defining performance expectations
-giving proper criticism as well as credit
-giving honest appraisals
-providing a good working atmosphere
-developing a team attitude
how to project manager develop vision for project?
-review project documentation
-create an elevator pitch
how project manager fights fires
-get the panicky phone call
-do discovery
-evaluate what needs to get done
-reassign resources
-rework the project plan and budget
skills of a project manager
people who can see the forest for the trees while at the same time (are intimately familiar with each variety of tree in the forest and know how to fix a sick tree)
project leadership and emotional intelligence
-self awareness (understand your own strengths and weaknesses)
-self regulation (act, but not act impulsively)
-motivation (ability to keep score of project progress and strive for greater challenges)
-empathy (willingness to consider other team members’ feelings
-social skills (ability to be friendly, approachable and persuasive
how do project leaders communicate with stakeholders
-meet with project resources
-meet with stakeholders and decision authority
-consult the stakeholders that can block a decision
-inform the remaining stakeholders
traits of effective project leaders
good communication, flexibility to deal with ambiguity, work well with project team, skilled at various influence tactics
partnership between project manager and project team members
-exchange of purpose (help define, or atlas “buy into” the project vision)
-a right to say no (team members are also Subject Matter Experts and SME’s know about the details)
-joint accountability (responsible for their tasks)
-absolute honesty (“school of no surprises” and it is better to bring bad news early than try to hide it
project champions
champions are fanatics in the single minded pursuit of their pet ideas (champions can be: creative originators, entrepreneurs, godfathers or sponsors, project managers)
creative originators
driving force behind an idea; resident expert
person who actively works to sell the idea throughout the organization
godfathers or sponsors
senior level executive who facilitates and promotes the project (including obtaining resources)
project managers (as project champion)
can assume role of champion with sufficient authority (in the organization) to effectively advocate the project
champion traditional duties
technical understanding, leadership, coordination and control, obtaining resources, administrative
champion nontraditional duties
cheerleader, visionary, politician, risk taker, ambassador
how to lead international projects
-develop a detailed understanding of the environment
-do not stereotype
-be genuinely interested in cultural differences
-do not assume there is one way (yours) to communicate
-listen actively and empathetically
Hofstede’s 5 dimensions of culture
individualism, masculinity/feminism, short term/long term orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance
Hofstede’s main dimensions from the 5
uncertainty avoidance and power distance
creating project champions
if institutionalized in the organization:
-identify and encourage their emergence
-encourage and reward risk takers
-remember the emotional connection
-free champions from traditional mgmt
4 competencies determine a project leader’s success
1. understanding the practicing the power of appreciation
2. reminding people what is important
3. generating and sustaining trust
4. aligning with the led
creating project managers
-match personalities with project work
-formalize commitment to project work with training programs
-develop a unique reward system
-identify a distinct career path
personality characteristics that are best associated with project mgmt success include:
interpersonal skills, communication skills, political skills, negotiation skills, technical competency, etc
essential project manager abilities
1. organizing under conflict
2. experience
3. decision making
4. productive creativity
5. organizing with cooperation
6. cooperative leadership
7. integrative thinking
believes everyone else is there to hear him or her speak
deftly mixes negativity with personal attacks, challenging others’ ideas with vigor. without regard to hurting others’ feelings, they use a confrontational style to object to others’ ideas and go against the flow
meeting monsters – facilitator can designate several minutes the start of a meeting for humor, but be serious the rest of the time
fence sitter
unable to make decisions
most common personality types -check emails, play games, send tests and many other thins while in a meeting