MGMT Final Vocab

Task objectives
Which of the following orients team members toward their priorities and help them understand how their work fits in the bigger picture?
Provide resources
Which of the following should a manager typically do during the forming stage of team development?
Boundary managers persuade top management to support the team’s work.
Which of the following statements about boundary managers is true?
determined by the task.
The optimal size of a team should be:
inhibit the team and its members from achieving their objectives.
Blocking behaviors:
vertical
Jim is a marketing manager in an organization. Nick and Alex are the executives from the marketing department who report to Jim on the progress of an ongoing project. This scenario is best exemplifies a ________ team.
self-directed
Teams that determine their own objectives and the methods by which to achieve them are known as ________ teams.
Horizontal
________ teams are composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from several different departments in the organization.
Complexity
Task ________ refers to the amount of information that must be processed to understand the task, the degree of uncertainty about possible outcomes, the presence of many subtasks that require a range of skills and knowledge, or the absence of standardized procedures to conduct the task.
geographically distributed
Tim, George, and Mark are team members of the HR department working on the same project from three different locations. They rely only on telephone calls and e-mails to interact with each other and to report to James who is the project manager. This scenario best exemplifies a ________ team.
Social loafing
________ occurs when team members disengage from the team process and fail to contribute to the team’s recommendations or other deliverables.
Managers who conform to Theory X believe that employees are principally motivated by extrinsic rewards.
Which of the following statements is true of Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y?
valence
According to the expectancy theory, the variable that includes the evaluation of whether available outcomes are attractive to an employee is called ________ .
the act of removing an aversive condition in response to a desired behavior
Negative reinforcement refers to:
Recognition
Which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?
Equity
The ________ theory holds that people will compare their circumstances with those of similar others and that this behavior motivates them to seek fairness in the way they are rewarded for performance.
affiliation-oriented manager
Kevin, a top manager in an organization, often socializes and maintains warm relationships with his employees. He tends to be more concerned about his team members rather than their performance. He tries to avoid confrontations and negative feedbacks in an attempt to be liked by everyone. Based on David McClelland’s acquired needs theory, it can be inferred that Kevin is an example of a(n) ________ .
The value of intrinsic rewards is based on individuals’ conception of their worth.
Which of the following statements is true of intrinsic rewards?
The theory suggesting that individuals are motivated by three primary needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
Which of the following theories is a variant on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?
Individuals are driven or motivated by three needs: the need for affiliation, the need for power, and the need for achievement.
Which of the following statements best describes David McClelland’s acquired needs theory?
provide competitive salary and benefits.
To fulfill employees’ drive to acquire, managers should:
Openness
________ defines the ease with which individuals show emotions and are emotionally accessible to other people when they communicate.
Message
Identify the core component of communication.
John is an attentive listener.
John and Mike work as human resource executives in an organization. While listening to presentations, John consciously tries to focus on what the speaker is saying and tends to listen to important information without performing other tasks. Mike refrains from making any responses when someone else is talking. Based on this description, it can be inferred that
reiterating the main points.
In supportive communication, reflecting involves:
women tend to pay less attention to power dynamics in their communication.
Studies of communication styles and approaches of men and women reveal that:
Media
The formats used to convey messages, including oral, written, and electronic are known as communication ________ .
Use given names unless granted permission to do otherwise
Which of the following should individuals do to bridge cultural differences in communication?
Verbal communication includes listening, reading, and writing.
Which of the following statements about verbal and nonverbal communication is true?
Tone
Which of the following is a personal aspect that influences communication?
the facts that need to be conveyed.
Of the three elements of communication, logos refers to:
charismatic
Individuals who arouse strong followership through inspirational visions and/or compelling personal attributes are called ________ leaders.
relations-oriented leaders value workers as humans, focusing more on supporting and developing them.
The factor that distinguishes task-oriented leaders from relations-oriented leaders is that:
a leader’s ability to understand the internal and external environments.
Cognitive skills of leadership refer to:
Leadership substitutes
Which of the following refers to the aspects of a situation that make leadership unnecessary?
A theory of leadership that tries to reveal a set of universal skills that are relevant in all leadership situations
Which of the following best describes the traits-based theory of leadership?
Technical
________ skills refer to a leader’s knowledge about an organization and job-related activities.
inspiring and motivating followers.
Transformational leaders tend to focus more on:
House’s path goal
________ theory states that the most important aspect in leadership is the follower’s expectation that a task can be accomplished and that it will lead to rewards.
leaders and their followers know they can depend on each other and subordinates perform additional assignments.
During the mature partnership phase of the relationship life cycle, the:
Transactional
________ leadership refers to the process by which a leader provides something to subordinates in return for something the subordinates want.
is the tendency to be sociable, assertive, and active and to experience things positively.
According to Robert McCrae and Paul Costa’s leadership personality traits, extroversion:
Self-monitoring
________ is the act of reading and using cues from the environment to assess one’s behavior.
the level of accountability that a person assumes to improve the situation.
Of the four dimensions used to effectively address adversity, ownership refers to:
the ability to generate novel or unique propositions, ideas, or solutions.
Of the three indices of creativity, originality is defined as:
Regulation and motivation
Which of the following are the two main components of self-management in emotional intelligence?
ascribe success to luck or circumstance.
Individuals with external locus of control:
Fluency
Which of the following indices of creativity involves the ability to generate many solutions that fit some requirement?
self-awareness
An understanding of one’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors is called ________ .
there are eight kinds of intelligence that can be indicators of career success
According to Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences:
are more adaptive to change than low self-monitors.
High self-monitors:
A type of interpersonal power that is based on the formal position an individual holds in an organization
Which of the following best describes legitimate power?
bridging
Of the three primary styles of influence, pulling involves:
Joint dependence
________ is a phenomenon that exists when two firms are equally dependent on the other.
resistance, commitment, and compliance.
The three primary responses to managerial decisions are:
referent
A type of interpersonal power based on the personal liking an individual has for another is called ________ power.
Assessing performance
Which of the following is the last step in exercising power through influence?
Disengaging
Which of the following styles of influence is helpful when the requestors want to reduce or diffuse conflict?
pretending to agree but doing nothing
Employees’ passive resistance to power refers to:
Influence
________ refers to the means or vehicle by which power is exercised.
Relational
________ power is gained from the types of networks to which an individual belongs and the types of people in those networks.
the act of choosing a solution that is good enough.
Satisficing refers to:
Alternative presentations of the same information that can significantly alter a decision
Which of the following statements best describes framing?
Adjustment
Which of the following heuristics contends that individuals make estimates or choices based on a certain starting point?
Appropriateness framework
________ refers to the process of making decisions based on societal norms or expectations.
conditions of uncertainty
Under ________ , individuals have information related to an organization’s objectives and priorities, but they do not have complete information about alternative courses of action or about the possible outcomes for each one.
nonprogrammed
Decisions that are made in response to novel, poorly defined situations that require managers to use their best judgments are referred to as ________ decisions.
Choosing the optimal decision
Which of the following is the last step in the rational decision-making process?
political
The ________ model of decision making acknowledges that most organizational decisions involve many managers who have different goals and who have to share information to reach an agreement.
A set of constraints that tend to complicate the rational decision-making process
Which of the following statements describes bounded rationality?
search for signals of threats.
While preparing for tough calls using SCRIPTS process, managers should first:
“Great Man” theory
Explained leadership by examining the traits and characteristics of individuals considered to be historically great leaders
Traits-based leadership
theory
Tries to reveal a set of universal traits and skills that are relevant in all leadership situations
Common leadership traits
•Self-confidence
•Initiative
•Risk taking
•Persistence
•High level of physical energy
•Motivation to complete tasks
Cognitive skills
A leader’s ability to understand the internal and external environments, make decisions with sound reasoning, and communicate effectively
Technical skills
A leader’s knowledge about an organization and job-related activities
Interpersonal skills
A leader’s ability to interact with others
Character
The core values and fundamental beliefs that drive behavior in variable situations
Task-oriented behavior
Behaviors that prioritize the accomplishment of a task in an efficient and reliable way
Relations-oriented behavior
Behaviors that prioritize interpersonal relationships, the value of workers as humans, and a strong commitment to the unit and its mission
Charismatic leaders
Individuals who arouse strong followership through inspirational visions and/or compelling personal attributes
Patterns in charismatic leaders
•Exhibit extreme self-confidence about their values
•Possess willingness to take personal risks
•Have a strong moral conviction to exercise their power positively
•Communicate vision through powerful imagery, symbolism, and metaphor
Transformational
leadership
The set of behaviors that leaders use to transform, or change, their organization and individuals for the better
Components of transformational leadership
•Charisma and vision
•Inspirational motivation
•Intellectual stimulation
•Individualized consideration
Transactional leadership
The process of a leader providing something the subordinates want
components:
•Contingent reward
•Active management-by-exception
•Passive management-by-exception
Contingent reward
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which leaders offer rewards to subordinates in exchange for their services
Management-by-exception
A method of leadership done passively or actively that describes when leaders should intervene to increase a subordinate’s effort to meet standards
Leader-member exchange (LMX)
theory
A method of leadership in which leaders treat each member differently, and as a result, develop unique relationships with each member
Fiedler contingency model
Leaders are more effective depending on the favorability of a leadership situation, which is described by leader-member relations, task structure, and positional power of the leader
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational leadership theory
Leaders have the flexibility and range of skills to adapt their leadership behavior. This type of leadership is based on the interplay of:
House’s Path-goal theory of leadership
The most important aspect in leadership is the follower’s expectation that a task can be accomplished and that it will lead to rewards
Leadership Substitutes
Aspects of a situation that make leadership unnecessary
Leadership Neutralizers
Aspects of a situation that hinder a leader’s ability to act a particular way
Intelligence
A person’s ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, and adapt to changes in the environment
Intelligence quotient (IQ)
A measure of the overall quality of an individual’s mental abilities
Cultural intelligence
The ability to understand and respond appropriately to different cultural contexts and situations
Emotional intelligence
The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those
of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing our emotions and relationships in a productive manner
Linguistic intelligence
Word smart
Spatial intelligence
Picture smart
Kinesthetic intelligence
Body smart
Musical intelligence
Music smart
Interpersonal intelligence
People smart
Intrapersonal intelligence
Self smart
Naturalist intelligence
Nature smart
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Individuals possess three components of intelligence:
Computational(analytic)intelligence
Experiential(creative) intelligence
Contextual(practical) intelligence
Personality
A system of enduring inner characteristics, tendencies, and temperaments that are both inherited and shaped by social, cultural, and environmental factors
Locus of control
The extent to which an individual believes that he or she can control or influence the outcome of events
Self-Monitoring
The ability of individuals to read cues from their environment to assess their behavior. People can vary from being high self-monitors to being low self-monitors
Legitimate power
Power that is based on the formal position an individual holds in an organization
Reward power
Power that gives someone the ability to reward another for his or her behavior
Coercive power
Power that gives someone the ability to punish another for his or her behavior
Expert power
Power based on an individual having specialized knowledge or skills
Referent power
Power based on the personal liking an individual has for another
Positional power
Power that comes from an individual’s formal place within an organization’s structure
Personal power
Power that is obtained from having personal attributes that others desire
Relational power
Power gained from the networks to which an individual belongs, the people in those networks, and the strength of the relationships within the networks
Using Influence
Steps in exercising power through influence:
1. Choose an influence style and influence tactics
2. Use specific influence principles
3. Build sources of interpersonal power
4. Assess performance
Decision Making
The process of identifying issues and making choices from alternative courses of action
Theory of rational choice
The theory that individuals make decisions based on a rational thought process that optimizes self-interest
Expected utility
When confronted with a choice, people try to make the best possible decision; one that maximizes their expected utility
Cognitive heuristics
Rules of thumb or short-cuts that individuals use to save time when making complex decisions
Confirmation bias
A bias in which people tend to seek information that confirms a decision before seeking information that disconfirms a decision, even if the disconfirming information is more powerful and important
Status quo bias
The tendency to favor the “here and now” and to reject potential change
Framing
Alternative wordings for same information that significantly alters a decision
Escalation of commitment
A type of bias in which decision makers commit themselves to a particular course of action beyond the level suggested by rationality as a means of justifying previous commitments
-Individuals tend to conform to majority when they rely less on their experience and insight
-Dominance of conformity can cause people to make decisions that go against their values
Solomon Asch’s experiment indicated that:
Appropriateness framework:
The process of making decisions based on societal norms or expectations
Social decisions involving norms are shaped by:
Programmed decisions
Decisions that are made in response to recurring organizational problems that require individuals to follow established rules and procedures
Nonprogrammed decisions
Decisions that are made in response to novel, poorly defined, or unstructured situations that require managers to use their best judgments
Classical model
Seeks to maximize economic or other outcomes using a rational choice process
Administrative model
Acknowledges that managers may be unable to make economically rational decisions because they lack sufficient information on which to base their decisions
Political model
Acknowledges that most organizational decisions involve many managers who have different goals and who have to share information to reach an agreement
Garbage can model
A model of decision making whereby, problems, solutions, participants, and choices flow throughout an organization. A decision process is not viewed as a sequence of steps that begins with a problem and ends with a solution
Interpersonal conflict
Occurs between two or more individuals who are members of the same group
Causes of Interpersonal conflict
•The need to influence the work of others
•Interdependence of individuals who must coordinate their work to achieve common goal
•Perceptions that achievement of one individual’s goals come at the expense of another’s ability to attain his or her goals
•Lack of communications that lead to negative assumptions about motives and intentions of others
Intergroup conflict
Conflict that occurs between two or more groups
Causes of intergroup conflict
•Group loyalty that exaggerates group differences
•Competition for scarce resources
•Stereotyping the other group as “the enemy”
Affective conflict
Conflict in which individuals attack each other’s personalities through criticism, threats, and insults
Cognitive conflict
Conflict that results from disagreements over work-related issues such as meeting schedules, work assignments, processes, or the task itself
Diagnosing the Disagreement
– The nature of the difference among the people involved
– The factors that underlie this difference
– The extent to which the difference has evolved
Resolving the Disagreement
– Define issues, positions and perspectives
– Identify differences in interests in issues
– Take specific actions to resolve disagreement
Distributive Negotiations
Single-issue negotiations that are assumed to be part of a “fixed pie” where one person’s gain is the other person’s loss
Integrative Negotiations
Negotiations that focus on multiple issues to “expand the pie” and actively seek alternative solutions through tradeoffs that satisfy both parties’ interests
Best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA)
The course of action that a person will take if a negotiation ends in an impasse
Assessing the BATNA
•Identify all possible alternatives to pursue if you are unable to reach an agreement with the other party
•Estimate the value associated with each alternative
•Select the best alternative
Reservation value
The lowest offer a negotiator is willing to accept. It is the point at which a negotiator is indifferent between accepting a proposed offer and rejecting it in favor of pursuing his or her BATNA
Zone of possible
agreement, or ZOPA
The set of all possible deals that would be acceptable to both parties. The ZOPA is the space between one party’s reservation value and the other party’s reservation value
Package reservation value
The lowest value that a negotiator will be willing to accept for a package offer
Claim Value
The process by which a negotiator attempts to gain benefits or concessions for his or her position
Guidelines for claiming value by making the first offer in negotiations
•Set high but realistic aspirations
•Make an offer that falls outside the ZOPA that you know the other side will not accept
•Provide a justification for your offer
•Get the best deal you can while strengthening your relationship with the other party
Create value
The process of expanding the opportunities or issues that can be evaluated in a negotiation so that there is a greater likelihood that each party will achieve some level of satisfaction
Mediator
An individual who does not make a final decision, but works with each party to find some common ground on which both parties can agree
Arbitrator
An individual who listens to both sides of a disagreement and makes a final decision based on the arguments
Individualism versus Collectivism
•Individualist cultures place individuals’ needs above the needs of the group
•Collectivist cultures place the needs of the group above individuals’ needs
Egalitarianism versus Hierarchy
•Negotiators from hierarchical cultures with differentiated social status are less willing to engage in confrontational negotiations
•Negotiators from egalitarian cultures that do not emphasize social status are more comfortable in confrontational negotiations
Low-versus High-Context Norms for Communication
•Low-context cultures prefer to communicate directly
•High-context cultures prefer to communicate indirectly
intergroup
In an organization, the finance department had a conflict with the human resources department when the HR team failed to submit some important papers to the finance team on time for documentation. This scenario is an example of a(n) ________ conflict.
cognitive
Maria and Kim are working together on an important project. Maria works hard to complete the project before deadline and pays more attention to the task. However, Kim wastes a lot of time and often comes up with lame excuses. Therefore, Maria has a conflict with Kim. This scenario is an example of a(n) ________ conflict.
In low-context cultures, information is explicit and meaning is clear.
Which of the following statements about negotiating across cultures is true?
De-escalation
Which of the following is most likely to occur when individuals who are in conflict perceive a common enemy?
groupthink
Extreme consensus during a decision-making process is known as ________ .
negotiation
A process by which two parties attempt to reach agreement on an issue by offering and reviewing various positions or courses of action is known as ________ .
Affective conflict is also known as personal conflict.
Which of the following statements about affective conflicts is true?
group members of an in-group will seek to find negative aspects of an out-group to enhance their self-image.
Social identity theory proposes that:
Avoidance
Which of the following responses to conflict is most appropriate when the issue is trivial?
reaching an agreement quickly because prolonged conflicts can distract people from their work and cause bitter feelings
As a response to conflict, compromising involves: