MGMT 605 Developing Management Skills

motivation
a combination of desire and commitment
performance
product of ability and motivation
ability
product of aptitude and training/resources
five tools for overcoming poor performance from lack of ability
resupply, restrain, refit, reassign, release
indulging style
emphasis on employee satisfaction to the exclusion of performance
imposing style
exploitation of employees by assigning tasks with sole emphasis on performance without regard to job satisfaction
ignoring style
neglect of performance/satisfaction, can paralyze a work unit
integrating style
emphasis on performance and satisfaction equally, challenging to implement high rewards if successful
goal setting process includes which three things
1. include employees in goal setting
2. set specific, consistent, challenging goals
3. provide feedback
specific goals are
measurable, unambiguous, behaviorial
hierarchical needs model
people are motivated to satisfy their most basic unfulfilled needs (need for achievement, affiliation, power)
equity
refers to worker’s perception of the fairness of rewards
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
go in order from the bottom tot he top: physiological->safety->belongingness-> esteem->self-actualization
Alderer’s hierarchy (ERG theory)
growth, relatedness, existence, you can jump around (unlike Maslow’s)
Herzberg Factor Theory
-factors that increase satisfaction, motivate (intrinsic factors)
– factors that reduce dissatisfaction, reduce crappiness (extrinsic factors)
Equity theory
1. internal comparison (individuals compare their inputs to a situation to their outcomes)
2. External (social comparison: people compare the ratio of their inputs/outputs to other peoples input/outputs
Reinforcement theory
rewarding vs disciplining
goal setting theory
SMART goals: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, thransferable
Expectancy theory
1. effort-performance relationships: probability perceived by individual that certain effort gives certain performance
2. performance-reward relationship: if you get to that certain performance, you will receive a reward
3. rewards-personal goals relationship: reward that people receive is meaningful
issue-focused conflict
interpersonal decision-making process by which 2 or more people agree how to allocate scarce resources
people-focused conflict
interpersonal conflict that is a clash between different personalities, interpersonal styles
Sources of conflict
1. personal differences (perceptions and expectations)
2. informational deficiency (misinformation and misrepresentation)
3. role incompatibility (goals and responsibilities)
4. environmental stress (resource scarcity and uncertainty)
conflict management approaches
1. forcing approach
2. accommodating approach
3. avoiding response
4. compromising response
5. collaborating approach
forcing approach
assertive, uncooperative, satisfy own needs at expense of tohers
accomadating
unassertive, cooperative, tries to preserve friendly interpersonal relationship by satisfying others needs and not yours
avoiding response
unassertive, uncooperative
compromising response
attempts to satisfy both parties by “splitting the differences”
collaborating approach
cooperative, assertive, focuses on finding solutions that are acceptable to both parties
Negotiation strategies
integrative bargaining perspective & distributive bargaining perspective
integrating bargaining perspective
focus is on collaborative ways of “expanding the pie” by avoiding fixed, incompatible positions
distributive bargaining perspective
requires both parties to give up something to resolve the conflict, divide up the “fixed pie”
empowerment
the use of acquired power to give others power in order to accomplish objectives,strikes balance between lack of/abuse of power
delegation
assignment of responsibilities for tasks
dirty dozen
12 negative attributes found in companies facing decline, turbulace, downsizing, change
five core dimensions of empowerment
1. self-efficacy (sense of personal competence)
2. self determination (sense of personal choice)
3. personal consequence ( sense of having impact
4. meaning (sense of value in activity)
5. trust (sense of security)
small-wins strategy
individuals get opportunities to succeed in small ways
task identity
oppurtunity to accomplish whole task
four stages of team development
1. forming
2. norming
3. storming
4. performing
Everest goals
goals that represent an ultimate achievement, extraordinary accomplishment
task-facilitating roles
those that help the team accomplish its outcome objectives
relationship-building roles
emphasize the interpersonal aspects of the team
five categories for why groups form
1. common needs
2. common interests
3. common goals
4. cultural similarity
5. physical proximity
team
goal directed group, actively pursuing a goal
group
an association of people
T or F: every team is a group but every group is not a team
True
punctuated equilibrium
long periods of inertia, inter-spaced by rapid periods of accelerated activity
group decision making pros
supplement ideas, devils advocate, mutual support, diversity of skills, more creativity, buy-in
group descison making cons
conflict, group think, takes a long time, everyone blamed/ambiguous responsibility, group shift, social loafing
frameworks
familiar patterns that managers can use to clarify complex/ambiguous situations
negative deviance
change towards illness error, conflict, and the like, usually depicted as a shift to the left along the continuum that shows normal healthy performance in the middle
positive deviance
change towards excellence, perfection, psychological “flow”, and the like, usually depicted as a shift to the right along the continuum that shows normal healthy performance in the middle
abundance approach of performace
right side of the performance continuum, characterized by striving for excellence/being ethically virtuous
deficient approach of performance
left side of performance continuum, characterized by problem solving, making a profit -> garnered more attention that the abundance approach but is less relevant to leading positive change
positive energizers
people who strengthen and create vitality/liveliness in others
negative energizers
people who deplete the good feelings/ enthusiasm in others
positive energy networks
interconnected groups of vitality/ liveliness, being a member has shown to be more predictive of success
collective feeling
managers plan events where people can share feelings
collective noticing
mangers notice/become aware when employees suffer
collective responding
managers ensure an appropriate response is made when healing/restoration is needed
6 forces for change
1. nature of the workforce (climate of the current workforce)
2. economic shocks( ex ebb/flow of stock market)
3. competition (barriers ot entry have changed as a result of globalization)
4. technology
5. social trends (ex green movement)
6. world politics ( organizations are embedded in a much larger overarching system)
resistance factors: organizational level
1. Structural inertia ( org have built in mechanisms to maintain stability)
2. Limited focus of change (many things are interdependent, can’t change one thing without changing many things)
3. Group Inertia ( group processes/ norms make change difficult)
4. Threats to expertise, power, resources
resistance factors: individual level
1. Psychological Reasons (ex force of habit, need for security, dear of unknown)
2. Situational reasons: (ex employees feel managers ignore their needs, lack of info, etc)