Mgmt 371

process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
motivation
according to the Protestant ethic, person should work hard because hard work and prosperity would lead to a place in heaven. The organizational scholar who advanced the Protestant Ethic notion was:
Max Weber
there are _____ approaches to motivation, one or another may be useful in specific organizational contexts with specific _____ or ____, at different times
several; individuals or groups
Frederick Taylor’s scientific management advanced the idea that:
the relationship or management and labor should be one of cooperation rather than conflict
Basic motivational assumption within Taylor’s scientific management is the same as within Adam Smith’s political economic notions which is:
people are motivated by self-interest and economic gain
what is the “invisible hand” that Adam Smith formulated to explain motivation for individual behavior?
unseen forces of a free market sysetm
modern management practices such as employee management recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans emphasize ____ _____
external incentives
What is an approach to employee motivation that considers both psychological needs and external incentives?
psychological ownership
maslow’s hierarchy of needs model begins with ___ needs and ends with ____ needs
physiological; self-actualization
Alderfer’s growth need category corresponds to Maslow’s:
self-esteem and self-actualization eneds
First professional position, provides very competitive salary and benefit package- your attention is now directed to learning and advancement opportunities. According to Alderfer and McGregor, these are:
growth and Theory Y concerns
McGregor believed that theory x assumptions were appropriate for:
individuals motivated by lower order needs
maslow’s progression hypothesis states:
only ungratified needs motivate behavior
Kenexa (leading HR service company) uses blend of psychology and technology to “inspire” employees by:
listening to employees through interviews and surveys
people who have strong desire to control others are high in:
need for power
need for achievement concerns include:
challenging goals, task difficulty, improvement
the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used to measure:
the achievement motive
high need for socialized versus personalized power is a characteristic of an ____ ____-
effective leader
According to Herzberg, major difference between motivator and hygiene factors includes:
motivators deal with job characteristics that are intrinsic to the job and hygiene factors deal with characteristics of environment or factors extrinsic to the job
being dissatisfied with various rules and regulations at a job, or ____ ____
hygiene factors
what is both a hygiene and motivational factor in research done on Herzberg’s 2 factor theory?
pay
what is a motivating factor in Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
recognition
A valid conclusion regarding herzberg’s two-factor theory is:
hygiene factors are of some importance up to a threshold level
what is NOT a valid criticism of Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
extrinsic factors may be more important in determining satisfaction or dissatisfaction on the job
what factors are related to job dissatisfaction (Herzberg)
hygiene factors
Key understanding to the relationship between hygiene and motivation factors is:
they are independent
What ideas are consistent with new ideas in motivation?
1.eustress
2. individuals are motivated by their own physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual energy
3. energy recovery is as or more important than energy expenditure
eustress most accurately reflects:
the positive side of stress which is healthy and normal
demands the organization can place on the employee:
deadlines, quality standards, production quotas
equity theory is a:
process approach to motivation
if you use calculated involvements as basis for understanding person’s relationship with a work organization, what would be best framework?
social exchange
if in a group and feel others are making minimal contributions, you are LEAST likely to:
increase participation and contribution
under equity theory, people are motivated when:
then find themselves in a situation they see as unfair
An equity sensitive individual (Adam) is:
someone who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of their comparison other
the importance and value placed on a reward in expectancy theory is known as
valence
according to expectancy theory of motivation, individuals will make choices based on:
anticipated outcomes of those choices or decision
the close linkage of _____ to performance under expectancy theory is crucial for enhancing motivation
rewards
in case of repeated failure under expectancy theory, employee may
reduce effort
motivation theory that holds that employee motivation is determined by the belief that a valued outcome will result from effort is called:
expectancy theory
the belief that performance is connected to rewards:
instrumentality
expectancy theory of motivation focuses on:
personal perceptions
under expectancy theory of motivation, employee can most easily adjust:
effort
what are weaknesses of expectancy theory?
1. theory assumes a person is total rational
2. theory’s complexity has made it difficult to test
3. measures of instrumentality, valence, and expectancy have only weak validity
under expectancy theory, person’s motivation increases along with the belief that effort leads to performance and:
that performance leads to rewards and the reward is valued
include need models, equity and expectancy theories, as well as goal-setting approaches
internal theories of motivation
says only ungratified needs motivate behavior
maslow’s theory
increased emphasis on ____ focuses attention on satisfaction of social and affiliation needs
teamwork
______ theory explains both progression need and gratification up the hierarchy and regression when people are faced with frustration
ERG
Alderfer’s growth need, McClelland’s need for achievement, and Maslow’s self-actualization are _______
similar
_______ ____ ____ rests on the higher order needs of Maslow’s need hierarchy
McGregor’s theory Y
Motivation factors relate to job satisfaction and hygiene factors relate to job dissatisfaction is ________’s model
Herzberg’s model
new line of research called ____ ______ ______ emphasizes the management of energy rather than focusing on how time is managed
positive organizational behavior
new idea in motivation includes focusing on learning lessons fro m _____ ____ inorder to develop _____ ______
professional athletes; corporate athletes
when an employee’s knowledge and skills match job task demands, an acceptable _____ _____ _____will take place
individual-organizational match
________ exists when one person’s ratio of inputs to outputs is different than the ratio of a comparison person
inequity
as organizations grow internationally, they may have trouble determining ____ and _____ ______/______ across national borders
pay and benefit equity/inequity
the belief that performance is related to rewards
instrumentality
belief that people are motivated by “enlightened” self-interest is consistent with ___ _____’s view on _____
Adam Smith’s view on motivation
expectancy theory holds up more strongly in cultures that value ________
individualism
needs of workers are ______ across cultures
different
work conditions related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
hygiene factors
factors and conditions outside the person that may explain and predict a person’s behavior
external
arousal and sustaining goal-directed behavior
motivation
what is most appropriate and beneficial to the individual
self-interest
attributes and characteristics inside theindividual that determine behavior
internal
feeling of self-worth
self esteem
basic needs for food and water
physiological needs
assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs
Theory Y
set of assumptions applied to individuals who are motivated by lower order needs
Theory X
fulfillment of potential
self-actualization
desire to accomplish goals and perform at high level
need for achievement
interest in being around other and developing meaningful relationships
need for affiliation
company policy and working conditions in the two-factor theory
hygiene factor
projective test used extensively by David McClelland
TAT
desire to dominate others
need for power
Needs theory
McClelland
Equity theory
Adams
Two-factor theory
Herzberg
needs hierarchy theory
Maslow
Expectancy theory
Vroom
likelihood that one’s efforts will lead to reward
Expectancy
evaluated work behavior
performance
importance and value of an outcome
valence
person’s feeling of fairness
equity
belief that performance is linked to rewards
instrumentality