Mercyb AP Comparative Government Final Exam Review

Proportional Representation
A multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote
First Past the Post election
a British term for elections conducted in single-member districts that award victory to the candidate with the most votes
Referendum
a law that is written by the government and referred to the electorate for a vote
Plurality
The candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half
Illiberal democracy
A procedural democracy, with elections, but without real competition, and lacking some civil rights and liberties.
Civil liberties
The personal guarantees and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation
Civil rights
the rights of full citizenship and equality under the law
Mestizo
a person of mixed spanish and native american ancestry
Indigenous
originating in the country or region where found, native; inborn; inherent
Social movements
A large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social change
Interest groups
Organization of individuals with similar policy goals who enter the political process to influence legislation that affects the organizations interests
Social Cleavages
the boundaries between citizens of different religions, ethnic groups, race, and social and economic classes.
Civil society
Society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy.
authoritarian regime
a government in which one leader or group of people holds absolute power
democratic regime
government in which political authority is vested in the people
Chancellor of the exchequer
the British cabinet minister responsible for finance
Sharia law
Islamic Law: based on varying degrees of interpretation on the Qu’ran
Central planning
the government of a country deciding how the country’s resources will be used and operate the businesses
free market
economic system in which buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace without government interference
structural adjustment programs
conditions attached to IMF and World Bank loans requiring countries to liberalize and privatize based on the principles of economic liberalism
regime change
Replacement of one government by another
political socialization
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
rentier
A state which derives a substantial portion of its national resources from renting indigenous resources to external clients
Head of government
a role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government
Head of state
the chief public representative of a country who may also be the head of government
Unitary system
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Federal system
a system in which power is divided and shared between national and state governments
Corporatism
direct participation of interest groups in politics
Civil society
Organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests
Common law
a system of law based on precedent and customs
Coalition government
A government controlled by a temporary alliance of several political parties
OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Democratic consolidation
a country with a stable political system in which all of the major actors seeking political influence accept democratic competition, citizen participation, and the rule of law.
GNP
Gross National Product – the sum of all goods and services produced in a nation in a year
Jurist Guardianship
Iranian clergy’s right to rule. they have the ultimate authority in guiding the whole nation.
Representative Democracy
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
Coup d’etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
Modernization theory
A theory asserting that as societies developed, they would take on a set of common characteristics, including democracy and capitalism.
Devolution
the delegation of authority (especially from a central to a regional government)
transparency
Open government operations
political efficacy
The belief that one’s political participation really matters – that one’s vote can actually make a difference
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
General Secretary
the head of the Secretariat in a Marxist-Leninist regime; often the chief executive of
the government
Dependency theory
an approach contending that industrialized nations continue to exploit developing countries for their own gain
Gini coefficient
a measure of variability, developed by Italian statistician and demographer Corrado Gini, used to measure income distribution
Globalization
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
Guardian Council
The leading theological body in Iran for political purposes.
democratic deficit
The lack of democratic procedures in the organization and management of the EU.
Procedural democracy
A country that has free/fair/competitive elections BUT LACKS the other qualities of a liberal democracy (e.g. civil liberties, rule of law, etc)
Substantive democracy
A country with free and fair and competitive elections of policymakers along with strong protections for political / civil rights and liberties such as speech, press, assembly, equal treatment of minorities, independent courts, and citizens with access to multiple sources of information.