Media Literacy Chapter 5: Children as a Special Audience

True or False: younger children in general are more vulnerable to media manipulation and negative effects than older children in general
What are the 2 main reasons why children are treated as a special audience?
1. Children have not matured enough (lack maturation)
2. Lack the degree of real-world experience
Maturation? (definition in terms of media literacy)
A series of gates along the path to higher media literacy
What are the three types of maturation development?
1. Cognitive Development
2. Emotional Development
3. Moral Development
Cognitive Development?
When we are very young, are minds are not developed enough to allow for an UNDERSTANDING of ABSTRACT thoughts.
Emotional Development?
Emotional Maturity
We develop high levels of emotional literacy by gaining experience with emotions and by paying close attention to our feelings when we interact with the media
Moral Development?
We are not born with a moral code about what is wrong or right
We must learn as young children what is WRONG & RIGHT
3 stages of Moral Development?
1. Pre-Conventional
2. Conventional
3. Postconventional
Pre-Conventional? (1st stage of moral development)
Children rely on authority to tell them what is wrong or right
Conventional? (2nd stage of moral development)
Children develop a conscience for themselves as they internalize what is right and wrong
Postconventional? (3rd stage of moral development)
Adolescents try to move beyond the conventional norms about what is wrong or right as they are confronted with moral dilemmas
Begin to think more deeply about the WHY
How can “lack of experience” in the world effect how children view TV?
Children are more keen to accept program cs ontent as accurate “information” due to lack of experience
What are the two methods the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has regulated advertisers methods in marketing to children?
1. Limit the amount of time devoted to advertising in children programs
2. Distinguish a clear separation from children programming to the beginning of advertising (commercials). This is done by a 5 second bumper (absolutely nothing shown on the TV screen for 5 seconds before heading to the commercials)
What are the 4 tactics parents have done to restrict children’s TV viewing habits?
1. Imposing Restrictions
2. Co-viewing
3. Active Mediation
4. Use of program Ratings
Co-viewing? (definition)
Parents and children watch TV together
Active Mediation?
Consists of conversations that parents or adults have with children about TV
What are the 4 types of mediation approaches?
1. Nonmediators
2. Optimists
3. Cynics
4. Selectives
Optimists? (mediation approach)
Reinforce Television Content
Cynics? (mediation approach)
primarily counters television content
Selectives? (mediation approach)
Those who use both positive and negative discussion techniques about TV
True or False: When program ratings is available to parents (to control what content their children watch), they must of the time use the features
What kind of ability helps people be more media literate and hence need less protection from the media?
Natural Abilities
What are the 2 types of Natural Abilities
1. Cognitive
2. Emotional
What are the 4 cognitive natural abilities?
1. Field Independency
2. Crystalline Intelligence
3. Fluid Intelligence
4. Conceptual Differentiation
Field Independency?
Your natural ability to distinguish between the signal and the noise in any message
This skill allows people to sort quickly through the field and determine what information is important
Noise and Signal? (definitions)
1. Noise: the “chaos” of symbols and images
2. Signal: The information which emerges from the chaos
Crystalline Intelligence?
The ability to memorize facts
Best measured by multiple choice test
What type of thinking are people with crystalline intelligence good at?
Vertical Thinking
Vertical Thinking?
Systematic, logical thinking that proceeds step by step in an orderly progression
Fluid Intelligence?
The ability to create, makes leaps of insight, and perceive things in a fresh and novel manner
What type of thinking are people with fluid intelligence good at?
Lateral Thinking
Lateral Thinking?
The ability to to jump to a new and quite arbitrary position, then work backwards to try and construct a logical path between this new position and the starting point.
More of a creative thinker
Conceptual Difference?
Refers to how people group and classify things
The more objects one can classify into MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE CATEGORIES, the higher degree of conceptual differentiation that individual possess
What are the 3 emotional natural abilities?
1. Emotional Intelligence
2. Tolerance for Ambiguity
3. Non-impulsiveness
Emotional Intelligence?
Our ability to understand and control our emotions
Not rushing (being impulsive) in making decisions about the messages we are receiving