marketing research test 2

primary data
information that is developed or gathered by the researcher specifically for the research project at hand
secondary data
have been previously gathered by someone other than the researcher and or for some other purposes than the research project at hand
uses of secondary data
economic trend forecasting
corporate intelligence
international data
public opinion
historical data
internal secondary data
data that has been collected within the firm
-sales records
-purchase requisitions
-invoices
database
collection of data and information describing items of interest
record
each unit of information in a database
-customer
field
subcomponents of information, make up records
-name, address, email
database marketing
process of building, maintaining and using customer (internal) and other (internal) databases (products, suppliers, and resellers) to contract, transact, and build customer relationships
internal databases
databases consisting of information gathered by a company typically during the normal course of business transactions
-use to develop CRM
data mining
software that helps managers make sense out of seemingly senseless masses of information contained in databases
micromarketing
employs a differentiated marketing mix for specific customer segments, sometimes fine tuned for the individual shopper
-made possible by databases and data mining
5 uses for databases
1. identify prospects
2. which customer should receive a particular offer
3. deepen customer loyalty
4. reactivate customer purchases
5. avoid serious customer mistakes
external secondary data
obtained from outside the firm
1. published
2. syndicated services data
3. databases
advantages of secondary data
-obtained quickly
-inexpensive
-readily available
-enhance primary data
-can achieve research objective alone
interpreting secondary data
1. the source of the research and of the funding- who paid for it
2. the researches who had contact with the participants
3. the individuals or objects studied and how they were selected
4. the exact nature of the measurements made of questions asked
5. the setting in which the measurements were taken
6. the extraneous differences between groups and compared
7. the magnitude of any claimed differences
disadvantages of secondary data
-incompatible reporting units
-measurements don’t match
-class definitions are not usable
-data are outdated
evaluating secondary data
what was the purpose of the study?
who collected the information?
what information was collected?
how was the information obtained?
how consistent is the information with other information?
published sources
sources of information that are prepared for public distribution and are normally found in libraries or through other entities such as trade association, professional organizations and companies
-books, newsletters, white papers
packaged information
type of secondary data in which the data collected and or the process of collecting the data are prepackaged for all users
-the way they collect is standardized
1. syndicated data
2. packaged services
syndicated services data
all data provided to clients are standardized, made available to all subscribers regardless of who you are
advantages of syndicated data
-shared cost
-high quality data
-data are normally collected and disseminated very quickly
disadvantages of syndicated data
buyers have little control over what information is collected
firms often must commit to long-term contracts (2yr)
no strategic information advantage in purchasing syndicated data because everyone gets the exact same thing. So why purchase? If you don’t purchase, you’re are at a disadvantage
packaged services
prepackaged marketing research PROCESS that is used to generate information for a particular user
-data will differ for each client
advantages of packaged services
-using the experience of the firm offering the service
-reduced cost because this is all they do, like an assembly line
-lot of different types
-speed of conducting the service
disadvantages of packaged services
-inability to customize services
-service firm not being knowledgeable of the client’s industry
application of packaged information
-measuring consumer attitudes and opinions
-market segmentation
-monitoring media usage and promotion effectiveness
– market tracking studies
tracking studies
longitudinal studies that monitor a variable such as sales or market shares over time
quantitative research
research involving the administration of a set of structured questions with predetermined response options to a large number of respondents
qualitatiave research
collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say
pluralistic research
combination of qualitative and quantitate research with the aim of gaining advantages of both
-qualitative then quantitative
observation methods
techniques in which the researcher relies on his or her powers of observation to obtain information
1. direct vs indirect
2. covert vs overt
3. structured vs unstructured
4. in situ vs invented
direct observation
observing behavior as it occurs
ex: squeezing tomatoes in grocery store
indirect observation
observing the effects or results of the behavior rather than the behavior itself
1. archives
2. physical traces
archives
secondary sources, such as historical records, that can be applied to the current problem
physical traces
tangible evidence of some past event
-garbology
covert observation
subject is unaware that he or she is being observed
-mystery shopper
-one way mirrors
-hidden cameras
overt observation
when the respondent knows he or she is being observed
-lab settings, recordings of sales calls
structured observation
researcher identifies beforehand which behaviors are going to be observed and recorded and all other behaviors are “ignored”
unstructured observation
places no restrictions on what the observer records, used in exploratory research
in situ observation
the researcher observes the behavior exactly as it happens
-mystery shopping
invented observation
occurs when the researcher creates the situation
appropriate conditions for observation
1. short time interval
2. public behavior
3. faulty recall
advantages of observational data
-Insight to actual, not reported behaviors
-No chance for recall error
-Better accuracy
-Lower cost
disadvantages of observational data
-Small number of subjects (not reality)
-Subjective interpretations
-Inability to pry beneath the surface behavior observed
-Motivations, attitudes, and other internal conditions are unobserved, we wont know why
mystery shopper
people who pose as consumers and shop at a company’s own stores or those of its competitors to collect data about customer employee interactions and to gather observational data
levels of mystery shopping
level 1- simplest. Phone call. Call location and evaluate level of customer service over phone following scripted conversation
level 2- visit establishment, make a small purchase evaluate transaction and image of facility, little or no customer employee interaction required. Did they say your name
level 3- visits establishment with a script, no purchase is involved, discussing phone packages
level 4- bank loan or buying house, most complicated
focus group
small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem
advantages of focus groups
-they generate fresh ideas
-they allow clients to observe their participants
-versatility, wide variety of issues
-ability to tap special respondents
disadvantages of focus groups
-representative of the population?
-Subjective interpretation
-Dependence on the moderator
-High cost per participant
traditional focus groups
select 6-12 people who interact in a dedicated room, with a one way mirror for client viewing, for about two hours
contemporary focus groups
online focus group and the client can observe activity from any remote location
moderators
guide focus group participants; responsible for creating an atmosphere that is conductive to openness, yet they must make certain the participants do not stray too far from the central focus of the study
good moderator characteristics
• open minded
• energetic
• involved
• prepared
• experienced
• enthusiastic
online focus group
form of a contemporary focus group in which respondents communicate via an internet forum which clients can observe
advantages of online focus groups
-no physical set up necessary-
-transcripts are captured on file in real time
-participants can be widely separated in geographical areas
-participants are comfortable in home, more likely to open up
-moderator can exchange private messages with individual participants
disadvantages of online focus groups
-no facial expressions or body language
-participants cant physically inspect products or taste food items
-participants can lose interest or become distracted
when should focus groups be used
when the research objective is to explore or describe rather than predict
objective of focus groups
1. generate ideas
2. understand consumer vocabulary
3. reveal consumer needs, motives, perceptions, attitudes about a product
4. understand findings from a quantitative studies
in depth interview
set of probing questions posed one on one to a subject by a trained interviewer to gain an idea of what the subject thinks about something or why he or she behaves in a certain way
-one person in depth for a long period of time
advantages to in depth interviews
-ability to probe by asking additional questions
-generate deep responses
-great insight on consumer behavior
disadvantages to in depth interviews
-lack of structure in the process
-varied results to give insight
laddering
technique used in in depth interviews in an attempt to discover how product attributes are associated with desired consumer values
-trying to establish links leading from product attributes to values
protocol analysis
involves placing a person in a decision making situation and asking him or her to verbalize everything he or she considers when making a decision
projective techniques
involve situations in which participants are placed in (projected into) simulated activities in hopes that they will divulge things about themselves that they might not reveal under direct questioning; good for situations where respondent might be hesitant–tipping, socially undesirable behaviors
word association test
involves reading words to a respondent who then answers with the first word that comes to his or her mind
sentence completion test
respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them in their own words
picture test
“thematic apperception test”
a picture is provided to participants, who are instructed to describe their reactions by writing a short story about the picture
cartoon or balloon test
a line drawing with an empty balloon about the head of one of the actors is provided to subjects who are instructed to write in the balloon what the actor is saying or thinking
role playing
participants are asked to pretend they are a third person and to describe how they would act in a certain situation or to a specific statement
ethnographic research
detailed, descriptive study of a group and its behavior, characteristics, culture and so on
physiological measurements
involves studying an individuals involuntary responses to marketing stimuli via equipment that monitors eye dilation, respiration etc
-unnatural and subjects may be nervous
pupilometer
device that attaches to a persons head, a persons pupil enlarges more with an interesting than when an uninteresting one is viewed
eye tracking
measures where the eye is looking, what is catching the consumers eye?
galvanometer
device that determines excitement levels by measuring electrical activity in respondents skin
neuroimaging
viewing brain activity, helps better understand consumers unconscious activity when they are being tested
survey
interviews with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire
advantages of surveys
1. standardizations
2. ease of administration
3. ability to tap the unseen (follow up questions)
4. sustainable for statistical analysis
5. sensitivity to subgroup differences
person administered survey
an interviewer reads the questions, either face to face or over the telephone, to the respondent and records his or her answers without the use of a computer
advantages of person administered survey
1.offer feedback
2. rapport
3. quality control
4. adaptability
disadvantages of person administered survey
1. humans make errors
2. slow speed
3. high cost
4. fear or interview evaluation
interview evaluation
occurs when the interviewers presence creates anxieties in respondents that may cause them to alter their normal responses
computer assisted surveys
interviewer verbalizes the questions while relying to some degree computer technology to facilitate the interview work
-computer shows the questions, allows storage, video to demo product feature
advantages of computer assisted surveys
1. speed
2. relatively error free
3. use of pics, videos and graphics
4. quick capture of data
disadvantages of computer assisted surveys
1. technical skills may be required
2. setup costs can be high
person administered/computer assisted (if used to facilitate)
1. in home survey
2. mall intercept survey
3. in office survey
4. telephone survey
in home survey
used when the survey requires respondents to see, read, touch, use, or interact with a product prototype and when the researcher believes the security and comfort or respondents homes are important in affecting the quality of the data collected
in home survey advantages
• go in depth
• privacy of home, feeling comfortable
• can run up to 2 hours and get more details
in home survey disadvantages
• cost per interview can be high
• underrepresent certain portions of populations-people who aren’t home during the day (working populations)
• interview evaluations apprehension: chance response because they are worried about what someone will think of them
-interviewer must travel to respondents home
mall intercept survey
respondent is encountered while visiting a shopping mall
mall intercept advantages
-fast and convenient
-good for product demos
mall intercept disadvantages
-only get people who are going to the mall
-not a comfortable environment
in office surveys
take place in person while the respondent is in their office
in office advantage
-useful for interviewing busy executives
in office disadvantages
-very expensive
-need a good interviewer
wide area telecommunications service
purchase from the phone company, can call anyone anywhere for one rate
WATS
random digit dialing
put in first 6 digits of phone number and computer fills in the rest and calls someone
central telephone interview advantages
-one location, manager is watching over everyone on the phone
-quality control
-can tell if someone didn’t answer the question and can fix it, can alter throughout the survey
-fast turn around
-reasonable cost
-may be willing to share more info
central telephone interview disadvantages
-restricted to phone, cant show product
-declining response rate
-limited in quantity and type of into they can obtain
computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI)
each interviewer has hands free headset and is seated in front of computer screen driven by company’s computer system. interviewer reads the question on the screen and enters respondents answers directly into program
CATI advantages
-Computer controls survey in front of human
-Quality control, if you put in a wrong answer choice, cant continue until its right
CATI disadvantage
-high cost
self administered survey
respondent completes survey on their own with no agent (human or computer) administering the interview
-paper and pencil survey, on someone’s own time
1. group self administered survey
2. drop off survey
3. mail survey
advantages of self administered survey
1. reduced cost
2. respondent control
3. no interviewer evaluation apprehension
disadvantages of self administered survey
1. respondent control
2. lack of monitoring
3. high questionnaire requirements
group self administered survey
administering a questionnaire to respondents in groups rather than individually for convenience and to gain economies of scale
group survey advantages
-Inexpensive
-Takes away apprehension
-No interviewer evaluation apprehension
group survey disadvantage
how do you find groups for a survey
drop off survey
survey representative approaches a prospective respondent, introduces the general purpose of the survey, and leaves it with the respondent to fill out on their own
drop off survey advantages
-cost of interviewer eliminated
-appropriate for local market surveys
-quick turn around
-high response rates
-minimal interview influence on answers
-inexpensive
-good control over how respondents are selected
drop off survey disadvantage
not acceptable for large scale national survey
mail survey
one in which the questions are mailed to prospective respondents who are asked to fill them out and return them to the researcher by mail
mail survey advantages
-economical method
-good listing companies exist
mail survey disadvantages
-low response rate
-self selection bias (only those interested respond)
-slow
computer administered survey
a computer plays an integral role in posing the questions and recording respondents’ answers
1. fully automated survey
2. online survey
advantages of computer administrated surveys
1. breadth of user friendly features
2. relatively inexpensive
3. reduction of interviewer evaluation concern in respondents
disadvantage of computer administrated survey
requires computer literate respondents
requires internet connected respondents
fully automated survey
survey administered by a computer but not online
-completely automated telephone survey
computer dials a phone number and a recording does the survey
online interviews
internet based questionnaire in which respondent answers questions online
online interview advantages
-Becoming primary
-Survey monkey
-Ease of creating and posting
-Fast turn around
-can do more often, continuous
disadvantages of online interviews
-low response rate
-people who respond have strong opinions, missing middle
hybrid surveys
use multiple data collection modes
becoming increasingly popular
advantage of hybrid survey
multiple avenues to achieve date collection goal
disadvantages of hybrid survey
1. the survey mode may affect responses
2. additional complexity
what method do i use?
1. how much time do i have
2.how much money do i have
3.type of respondent interaction required
4. what is the incidence rate
5. cultural/infrastructure considerations
incidence rate
percentage of population that possesses some characteristic necessary to be included in the survey
advantages of social media & surveys
-Assists with soliciting attention from the public – keeping costs low
-Many social media sites allow automated surveys and have tools for this
-Allow use of electronic coupons for incentives
-low costs, fast results,
social media survey disadvantages
-non users of social media
-low response rate
-confidentiality issues
7 rules for observational research
1. look for the ordinary, not the extraordinary
2. nothing people do is “natural”
3. be the master of the obvious
4. don’t fear the details
5. identify the whole activity
6. most obvious things are in hindsight
7. marry observation with traditional qualitative