Marketing Research Exam 2

experiment
a research approach in which one variable is manipulated and the effect on another variable is observed
casual research
research designed to determine whether a change in one variable likely caused an observed change in another
concomitant variation
the statistical relationship between two variables
appropriate time order of occurrence
change in an independent variable occurred before an observed change in the dependent variable
elimination of other possible causal factors
hard to prove that something else did not cause change in B
laboratory experiments
experiments conducted in a controlled setting
field experiments
tests conducted outside the laboratory in an actual environment, such as a marketplace
internal validity
the extent to which competing explanations for the experimental results observed can be ruled out
external validity
the extent to which causal relationships measured in an experiment can be generalized to outside persons, settings, and times
history
the intervention, between the beginning and end of an experiment, of outside variables or events that might change the dependent variable
maturation
changes in subjects occurring during the experiment that are not related to the experiment but that may affect subjects’ response to the treatment factor
instrument variation
changes in measurement instruments that might affect measurements
selection bias
systematic differences between the last test group and the control group due to a biased selection process
mortality
loss of test units or subjects during the course of an experiment, which may result in nonrepresentativeness
testing effect
an effect that is a by-product of the research process itself
regression of the mean
the tendency of subjects with extreme behavior to move toward the average for that behavior during the course of the experiment
randomization
random assignment of subjects to treatment conditions to ensure equal representation of subject characteristics
physical control
holding constant the value or level of extraneous variables throughout the course of an experiment
design control
use of the experimental design to control extraneous causal factors
statistical control
adjusting for the effects of confounded variables by statistically adjusting the value of the dependent variable for each treatment condition
experimental design
a test in which the researcher has control over and manipulates one or more independent variables
treatment variable
an independent variable that is manipulated in an experiment
experimental effect
the effect of the treatment variable on the dependent variable
contamination
inclusion in a test of a group of respondents who are not normally there
pre-experimental designs
designs that offer little or no control over extraneous factors
one-shot case study design
a pre-experimental design with no pretest observations, no control group, and an after measurement only
one-group pretest-posttest design
a pre-experimental design with pre- and post measurements but no control group
true experimental design
research using an experimental group and a control group, to which test units are randomly assigned
before and after with control group design
a true experimental design that involves random assignment of subjects or test units to experimental and control groups and pre- and post measurements of both groups
after-only with control group design
a true experimental design that involves random assignment of subjects or test units to experimental and control groups, but no pre- measurement of the dependent variable
quasi- experiments
studies in which the researchers lack complete control over the scheduling of treatments or must assign respondents to treatments in a nonrandom manner
interrupted time-series design
research in which repeated measurements of an effect “interrupts” previous data patterns
multiple time-series design
an interrupted time-series design with a control group
test market
real-world testing of a new product or some element of the marketing mix using and experimental or quasi-experimental design
measurement
the process of assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events, in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities or qualities of attributes
rule
a guide, method, or command that tells a researcher what to do
constructs
specific types of concepts that exist at higher levels of abstraction
constitutive definition
a statement of the meaning of the central idea or concept under study, establishing its boundaries; also known as theoretical, or conceptual, definition
operational definition
a statement of precisely which observable characteristics will be measured and the process for assigning a value to concept
scale
a set of symbols or numbers so constructed that the symbols or numbers can be assigned by a rule to the individuals (or their behaviors or attitudes) to whom the scale is applied
nominal scales
scales that partition data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories
ordinal scales
scales that maintain that labeling characteristics or nominal scales and have the ability to order data
interval scales
scales that have the characteristics of ordinal scales, plus equal intervals between points to show relative amounts; they may include an arbitrary zero point
ratio scales
scales that have the characteristics of interval scales, plus a meaningful zero point so that magnitudes can be compared arithmetically
reliability
the degree to which measures are free from random error and, therefore, provide consistent data
test-retest reliability
the ability of the same instrument to produce consistent results when used a second time under conditions as similar as possible to the original conditions
stability
lack of change in results from test to retest
equivalent form reliability
the ability of two very similar forms of an instrument to produce closely correlated results
internal consistency reliability
the ability of an instrument to produce similar results when used on different samples during the same time period to measure a phenomenon
split-half technique
a method of assessing the reliability of a scale by dividing the total set of measurement items in half and correlating the results
validity
the degree to which what a researcher was trying to measure was actually measured
face validity
the degree to which a measurement seems to measure what it is supposed to measure
content validity
representativeness, or sampling adequacy, or the content or a measurement instrument
criterion-related validity
the degree to which a measurement instrument can predict a variable that is designated a criterion
predictive validity
the degree to which a future level of a criterion variable can be forecast by a current measurement scale
concurrent validity
the degree to which another variable, measured at the same point in time as the variable or interest, can be predicted by the measurement instrument
construct validity
the degree to which a measurement instrument represents and logically connects, via the underlying theory, the observed phenomenon to the construct
convergent validity
the degree of correlation among different measurement instruments that purport to measure the same construct
discriminant validity
a measure of the lack of association among constructs that are supposed to be different
scaling
procedures for assigning numbers (or other symbols) to properties of an object in order to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question
unidimensional scale
a scale designed to measure only one attribute or a concept, respondent, or object
multidimensional scale
a scale designed to measure several dimensions of a concept, respondent, or object
graphic rating scale
a measurement scale that includes a graphic continuum, anchored by two extremes
itemized rating scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent selects an answer from a limited number or ordered categories
noncomparative scale
a measurement scale in which judgement is made without reference to another object, concept, or person
rank-order scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent compares two or more items and ranks them
comparative scale
a measurement scale in which one object, concept or person is compared with another scale
paired comparison scale
a measurement scale that asks the respondent to pick one or two objects in a set, based on some stated criteria
constant sum scale
a measurement scale that asks the respondent to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes, based on their importance to him or her
semantic differential scale
a measurement scale that examines that strengths and weaknesses of a concept by having the respondent rank it between dichotomous pairs of words or phrases that could be used to describe it; the means of the responses are then plotted as a profile or image
stapel scale
a measurement scale that requires the respondent to rate, on a scale ranging from +5 to -5, how closely and in what direction a descriptor adjective fits a given concept
likert scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent specifies a level of agreement or disagreement with statements expressing either a favorable or an unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study
purchase intent scale
a scale used to measure a respondent’s intention to buy or not buy a product
balanced scale
a measurement scale that has the same number of positive and negative categories
nonbalanced scale
a measurement scale that is weighted toward one end or the other of the scale
questionaire
a set of questions designed to generate the data necessary to accomplish the objectives of a research project; also called an interview schedule or a survey instrument
survey objective
an outline of the decision-making information sought through a questionnaire
open-ended question
a question to which the respondent replies in her or his own words
closed-ended question
a question that requires the respondent to choose from a list of answers
dichotomous question
a closed-ended question that asks the respondent to choose between two answers
multiple-choice question
a closed-ended question that asks the respondent to choose among several answers; also called multichotomous questions
scale-response question
a closed-ended question in which the response choices are designed to capture the intensity of the respondent’s feelings
clarity in wording
clarity achieved by avoiding ambiguous terminology, using reasonable, vernacular language adjusted to the target group, and asking only one question at a time
respondent biasing
leading questions that give away the research goal or sponsor identity
respondent’s question-answering ability
factors affecting this ability include lack of required information, forgetfulness, or incomplete recall ability
respondent’s willingness to answer
embarrassing, sensitive, or threatening questions or questions divergent from respondent’s self-image may cause them to refuse to answer
screeners
questions used to identify appropriate respondents
prompters
short encouraging statements to rebuild respondent interest
necessary questions
questions that pertain directly to the stated survey objectives or are screeners, interest generators, or required transitions.
approval by managers
managerial review and approval after questionnaire drafting to prevent false starts and expensive later redrafts
pretest
a trial run of a questionnaire
supervisor’s instructions
written directions to a field service firm on how to conduct a survey
field management companies
firms that provide support services such as questionnaire formatting, screener writing, and coordination of data collection
questionnaire costs and profitability
factors affecting costs and profits, including overestimating, overbidding, incidence rate, roadblocks to completed interviews, and premature interview terminations
sampling
the process of obtaining information from a subset of a larger group
population
an entire group of people about whom information is needed; also called universe or population of interest
census
a collection of data obtained from or about every member of the population of interest
sample
a subset of all the members of a population of interest
sampling frame
a list of population elements from which units to be sampled can be selected of a specified procedure for generating such a list
random-digit dialing
a method of generating lists of telephone numbers at random
probability samples
samples in which every element of the population has a known, nonzero likelihood of selection
nonprobability samples
samples in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a nonrandom manner
sample size
the number or population elements chosen in the sample
population parameter
a value that accurately portrays or typifies a factor of a complete population, such as average age or income
sampling error
error that occurs because the sample selected is not perfectly representative of the population
nonsampling error
all error other than sampling error; also called measurement error
simple random sample
a probability sample selected by assigning a number to every element of the population and then using a table of random numbers to select specific elements for inclusion in the sample
systematic sampling
probability sampling in which the entire population is numbered and elements are selected using a skip interval
stratified sample
a probability sample that is forced to be more representative though simple random sampling of mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets
proportional allocation
sampling in which the number of elements selected from a stratum is directly proportional to the size of the stratum relative to the size of the population
disproportional, or optimal, allocation
sampling in which the number of elements taken from a given stratum is proportional to the relative size of the stratum and the standard deviation of the characteristic under consideration
cluster sample
a probability sample in which the sampling unites are selected from a number of small geographic areas to reduce data-collection costs
convenience samples
nonprobability samples based on using people who are easily accessible
judgement samples
nonprobability sample in which the selection criteria are based on the researchers personal judgment about representativeness of the population under study
quota samples
nonprobability samples in which quotas, based on demographic or classification factors selected by the researcher, are established for population subgroups
snowball samples
nonprobability samples in which additional respondents are selected based on referrals from initial respondents