Marketing Research Essentials 8th Edition Chapter 9

measurment
the process of assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities or qualities of attributes
Rule
a guide, method, or command that tells a researcher what to do
Constructs
specific types of concepts that exist at higher levels of abstraction
Constitutive Definition
A statement of the meaning of the central idea or concept under study, establishing its boundaries, also known as theoretical, or conceptual, definition
Operational definition
a statement of precisely which observable characteristics will be measured and the process of assigning a value to the concept
Scale
Set of symbols or numbers so constructed that the symbols or numbers can be assigned by a rule to the individuals (or their behaviors or attitudes) to whom the scale is applied
Nominal scales
scales that partition data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories
Ordinal scales
Scales that maintain the labeling characteristics of nominal scales and have the ability to order data
interval scales
scales that have the characteristics of ordinal scales, plus equal intervals between points to show relative amounts, they may include an arbitrary zero point
ratio scales
scales that have the characteristics of interval scales, plus a meaningful zero point so that magnitudes can be compared arithmetically
Reliability
the degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore provide consistent data
Test-retest reliability
The ability of the same instrument to produce consistent results when used a second time under conditions as similar as possible to the original conditions
stability
lack of change in results from test to retest
equivalent form reliability
the ability of two very similar forms of an instrument to produce closely correlated results
internal consistency reliability
the ability of an instrument to produce similar results when used on different samples during the same time period to measure a phenomenon
split half technique
a method of assessing the reliability of a scale by dividing the total set of measurement items in half and correlating the results
validity
the degree to which what a researcher was trying to measure was actually measured
face validity
the degree to which a measurement seems to measure what it is supposed to measure
content validity
representatives, or sampling adequacy of the content of a measurement instrument
criterion-related validity
the degree to which a measurement instrument can predict a variable that is designated a criterion
predictive validity
the degree to which a future level of criterion variable can be forecast by a current measurement scale
concurrent validity
the degree to which another variable, measured at the same point in time as the variable of interest, can be predicted by the measurement instrument.
Construct validity
the degree to which a measurement instrument represents and logically connects, via the underlying theory, the observed phenomenon to the construct
convergent validity
the degree of correlation among different measurement instruments that purport to measure the same construct
discriminant validity
a measure of the lack of association among constructs that are supposed to be different
scaling
procedures for assigning numbers (or symbols) to properties of an object in order to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question
unidimensional scale
scale designed to measure only one attribute of a concept, respondent, or object
multidimensional scale
a scale designed to measure several dimensions of a concept, respondent, or object
graphic rating scale
a measurement scale that includes a graphic continuum anchored by two extremes
itemized rating scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent selects an answer from a limited number of ordered categories
non-comparative scale
a measurement scale in which judgement is made without referring to another object, concept, or person
rank-order scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent compares two or more items and ranks them
comparative scale
a measurement scale in which one object, concept, or person is compared with another on a scale
paired comparison scale
a measurement scale that asks the respondent to pick one of two objects in a set, based on some stated criteria
constant sum scale
a measurement scale that asks the respondent to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes, based on their importance to him or her
semantic differential scale
a measurement scale that examines the strengths and weaknesses of a concept by having the respondent rank it between dichotomous pairs of words or phrases that could be used to describe it, the means of the responses are then plotted as a profile or image
Stapel scale
a measurement scale that requires the respondent to rate, on a scale ranging from +5 to -5, how closely and in what direction a descriptor adjective fits a given concept
likert scale
a measurement scale in which the respondent specifics a level of agreement or disagreement with statements expressing either a favorable or an unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study
purchase intent scale
a scale used to measure a respondents intention to buy or not buy a product
balanced scale
a measurement scale that has the same number of positive and negative categories
nonbalanced scale
a measurement scale that is weighted toward one end or the other of the scale