Marketing Research Essentials, 8th Edition (Ch. 1-4)

process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas and goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives
marekting concept
a business philosophy based on consumer, goal, and systems orientation
consumer orientation
the identification of and focus on the people or files most likely to buy a product and the production of a good that will meet their needs most effectively
systems orientation
the creation of systems to monitor the external environment and deliver the desired
marketing research
the planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of results to management
descriptive function
the gathering and presentation of statement of facts (what is happening)
diagnostic function
the explanation of data or actions (why things are happening)
predictive function
specification of how to use descriptive and diagnostic research to predict the results of a planned marketing decision (what will happen if we take certain actions)
marketing strategy
a plan to guide the longterm use of a firm’s resources based on its existing and projected internal capabilities and on projected changes in the external environment
Applied research
research aimed at solving a specific, pragmatic problem
applied research
example: better understanding of marketplace, determining why a strategy or tactic failed, or reduction of uncertainty in management decisions
basic/pure research
research aimed at expanding the frontiers of knowledge and used to validate existing theory or learn more about concept/phenomenon.
people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma (always keep your promises and follow the rules)
choice that yields the most benefit to the greatest number of people through the fairest and most just means possible
choose the best possible outcomes based on your past experiences, or the experiences of others. compare ethical dilemma with examples of similar dilemmas and their outcomes
marketing research problem
statement specifying the type of information needed to solve the management decision problem and how that information can be obtained efficiently and effectively
marketing research problem
narrowly defined and typically focus on marketing strategy and tactics and the relationship with the customer/consumer.
marketing research objective
a goal statement, defining the specific information needed to solve the marketing research problem
management decision problem
statement specifying the type of managerial action required to solve a problem
a conjectural statement about a relationship between two or more variables that can be tested with empirical data
research design
the plan to be followed to answer the marketing research objectives
research design
can be descriptive, diagnostic, causal
symbol or concept that can assume any one of a set of values
dependent variable
a symbol or concept expected to be explained by the independent variable
independent variable
symbol or concept over which the researcher has some control and that is hypothesized to cause or influence
spurious association
a relationship between a presumed cause and a presumed effect that occurs as a result of an unexamined variable
spurious association
when other variables cause changes in the dependent variables
survey research
where an interviewer interacts with respondents to obtain facts, opinions and attitudes
probability sample
a subset of a population where every element in a population has a known (nonzero) chance of being selected
non-probability sample
subset of a population in which the chances of selection for the various elements in the population are unknown
research request
and interanl document used by large organizations that describe a potential research project, its benefits to the organization, And estimated cost. Must be formally approved before research project can begin
research proposal
Document developed usually in response to a request for proposal (RFP) that presents the research objectives, research design, Timeline, and cost of the project
secondary data
Data that can have been gathered previously and might be relevant
Primary data
New data gathered to solve particular problem
Database marketing
Marketing that relies on the creation of a large computerized file of customers’ and potential customers’ profiles and purchase patterns to create a targeted marketing mix
Data mining
The use of statistical and other advanced software to discover non-obvious patterns hidden in a database
Behavioral targeting
The use of off-line and online data to understand the consumer habits, demographics, and social networks in order to increase the effectiveness of online advertising
decision support system (DSS)
Interactive, Personalize information management system, designed to be initiated and controlled by individual decision-makers. Designed to support the needs and styles of individual decision-makers. It is interactive, flexible, discovery-oriented, and easy to learn
qualitative research
Research whose findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis
quantitative research
Research that uses mathematical analysis
focus group
Group of 8 to 10 participants who are led by a moderator in an in-depth discussion on one particular topic or concept
focus group moderator
a person hired by a client to lead the focus group– should have a background in psychology or sociology, or at least marketing
discussion guide
a written outline of topics to be covered during a focus group
projective tests
a technigue for tapping respondents’ deepest feelings by having them project those feelings onto an unstructured situation
drawing a comparison between a product and a person
photo sort
a projective technique in which a respondent sorts photos of different types of people , identifying those who she or he feels would use the specified product
third-person technique
a projective technique in which the interviewer learns about respondents feelings by asking them to answer in the third person such as “your neighbor” or “most people”
random error
results from chance variation
chance variation
difference between the sample value and the true value of the population mean
systematic error
results from problems or flaws in the execution of the research design (AKA non sampling error)
sampling frame
list of population elements or members from which units to be sampled are selected.
frame error
results from an inaccurate rate or incomplete sampling frame
population specification error
results from incorrectly defining the population or universe from which a sample is chosen
selection error
results from incomplete or improper sample selection procedures or not following appropriate procedures
measurement error
systematic error that results from a variation between the information being sought and what is actually obtained by the measurement process
surrogate information error
results from a discrepancy between the information needed to solve a problem and that sought by the researcher
interviewer error
results from the interviewer’s influencing the respondents (consciously or unconsciously)
processing error
results from the incorrect transfer of information from a survey document to a computer
nonresponse bias
results from a systematic difference between those who do and those who do not respond to a measurable instrument
refusal rate
the percentage of people contacted who refused to participate in a survey
response bias
error that results from the tendency of people to answer a question incorrectly through either deliberate falsification or unconscious misrepresentation
door-to-door interviews
interviewed conducted face-to-face with consumers in their homes
mall-intercept interviews
interviews conducted by intercepting mall shoppers and interviewing them face-to-face
central location telephone interviews
interviews conducted by calling respondents from a centrally located marketing research facility
computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI)
call center telephone interviews in which interviews enter respondents’ answers directly into a computer
self-administered interviews
questionnaires filled out by respondents with no interviewer present
mail panels
precontacted and prescreened participants who are periodically sent questionnaires
longitudinal study
where the same respondents are resampled over time