Marketing Research Chapter 5

Qualitative marketing research
Research that addresses marketing objectives through tecniques that allow the researchers to provide elaborate interpertations of market phenoma without depending on numerical measurement

– It focus is on discovering true inner meanings and now insights

Researcher-dependent
Researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience
5 ways when qualitative research is useful
-It is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives
-The research objective is to develop a detailed and in-depth understanding of some phenomena
– The research objective is to learn how consumers use a product in its natural setting or to learn how to express some concept in colloquial terms
-The behavior the researcher is studying is particularly context-dependent
– A fresh approach to study the problem is needed
Quantitative Marketing Research
Descriptive and conclusive

Addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and statistical analysis

Qualitative Marketing Research
Exploratory

-Uses small versus large samples
– Asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions
– Subject interpretation versus statistical analysis

4 major categories of qualitative research
Phenomenology
Ethnography
Grounded theory
Case studies
Phenomenology
Originating in philosophy and psychology
Ethnography
Originating in anthropology
Grounded theory
Originating in sociology
Case studies
Originating in psychology and in business research
Phenomenology
– A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by that context in which people live
– Seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences
– Relies on conversational interview tools and respondents are asked to tell a story about some experience
Ethnography
Represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
Participant-observation
An ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data from his or her observations
Grounded Theory
Represents in inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records
– The researcher asks the questions to him or herself and repeatedly questions the responses to drive deeper explanations

Key Questions:
– What is happening here?
– How is it different?

Case Studies definition
The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event
Focus group interview
An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents
6 advantages of a focus group interview
Relatively fast
Easy to execute
Allow respondents to piggyback off each other’s ideas
Provide multiple perspectives
Flexibility to allow more detailed descriptions
High degree of scrutiny
Preparing a focus group outline: Discussion guide
Includes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session
Focus Group Discussion Guide: 5 steps
1. Welcome and introductions should take place first
2. Begin the interview with a broad icebreaker that does not reveal too many specifics about the interview
3. Questions become increasingly more specific as the interview proceeds
4. If there is a very specific objective to be accomplished, that question should probably be saved for last
5. A debriefing statement should provide respondents with the actual focus group objectives and answering any questions the May have
4 disadvantages of a focus group
1. Require objective, sensitive, and effective moderators
2. May have unique sampling problems
3. May not be useful for discussing sensitive topics in face-to-face situations
4. Cost a considerable amount of money, particularly when they are not conducted by someone employed by the company desiring the focus group
Moderator
A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussio
4 qualities of a good moderator
1. Develops rapport with the group
2. Good listener
3. Tries not to interject his or her own opinions
4. Controls discussion without being overbearing
Depth interview
A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic
Laddering
A particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels
Online focus group
A qualitative research effort in which a group of individuals provides unstructured comments by entering their remarks into an electronic internet display board of some type
Focus blog
A type of informal, “continuous” focus group establishes as an Internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participant comments
5 advantages of online versus face-to-face focus group techniques
1. Fast
2. Inexpensive
3. Bring together many participants from widespread geographical areas
4. Respondent anonymity
5. Transcript automatically recorded
4 disadvantages of online versus face-to face focus group techniques
1. Less control over who participates
2. Participants cannot touch or taste something
3. Cannot see facial expression and body language
4. Moderators’ ability to probe and ask questions is reduced
Social Networking
– One of the most impactful trends in recent times
– A large portion of this information discusses marketing and consumer-related information
3 misuses of exploratory and qualitative research
Interpretation
Replicability
“Motivational research” era
Interpretation
Qualitative research cannot draw conclusive references
Replicability
When the same conclusion is reached based on another researcher’s interpretation
“Motivational research” era
Produced some interesting and bizarre reasons for consumer’s behavior