Marketing Research CH 2

Secondary Data
info previously collected for some other problem or issue
Primary Data
info collected for a current research problem or opportunity
Gatekeeper Technologies
tech such as caller ID that are used to prevent intrusive marketing practices such as telemarketers and illegal marketing scams
Information Research Process
systematic approach to collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and transforming data into decision making info
Situations when marketing research might not be needed
1) insufficient time frame
2) inadequate resources
3) costs outweigh the value
Phases of the Info Research Process
Phase 1 – determine research prob
Phase 2 – select approp design
Phase 3 – execute the research design
Phase 4 – communicate the research results
Phase 1
determine prob
1) indentify and clarify info needs
2) define research questions
3) specify research objectives and confirm the info value
Phase 2
Select the research design
4) determine the research design and data sources
5) develop the sampling design and sample size
6) examine measurement and issues and scales
7) design and pretest the questionnaire
Phase 3
Execute the research design
8) collect and prepare data
9) analyze data
10) interpret data to create knowledge
Phase 4
Communicate the research results
11) prepare and present final report
Step 1
Identify and clarify info needs
-decide whether research services are needed
-if yes, agree on research request
-distinguish symptoms from root problem
-select unit of analysis
-determine relevant variables
Step 2
Define the research question
symptoms -> management decision problem -> marketing research question -> underlying causes
must properly define the problem
Management decision problem
-action oriented
-focuses on symptoms
marketing research question
-info oriented
-focuses on the underlying causes
Step 4
Determine research design
-what methods and procedures will guide the collection and analysis of info
-exploratory, descriptive, causal
Step 5
Develop Sampling design and size
-census : attempts to question or observe ALL members of a defined target population
-sample : a small number of members of a target population
-needs to be representative
Step 6
Examine measurement issues
-ident measurement of variable related to the research questions
-critical especially using secondary data
Step 7
Design and pretest the questionnaire
-to collect primary data
-design questionnaires
Data cleaning
process by which raw data are checked to verify that data have been correctly inputted from the data collection form to computer software program
Step 8
Collect and prepare data
-you can never fix bad data
-researchers must know the sources of error
-try to control and minimize error
-data cleaning
Step 9&10
analyze and interpret data
-data analysis includes entering data into computer files, inspected data for errors, and running tabulations and various statistical tests
Step 11
Prepare and present final report
-present to management/decision maker
-communicate results properly
Manager/Decision Maker’s Problem
-define an opportunity
-something has gone wrong
-clarification of a situation
-monitoring and evaluating operations
When is research NOT needed
-inadequate resources
-insufficient time frame
-cost outweighs values
Scientific Method
research procedures should be logical, objective, systematic, reliable, and valid
info becomes knowledge when someone interprets data and attaches meaning
Situation Analysis
gathers and synthesizes background info to familiarize the researcher with the overall complexity of the problem
Iceberg Principle
problem situations the decision maker is aware of are only 10% of the true problem. 90%is neither visible or clearly understood. Ex: symptom = loss of market share, problem = ineffective advertising or poorly trained sales force.
Brand Awareness
% of respondents having heard of a designated brand awareness could either be unaided or aided
Brand Attitudes
number of respondents and their intensity of feeling positive or negative toward a specific brand
how ppl eval their post purchase consumption experience with a particular product, service, or company
Purchase intention
# of ppl planning on buying a specific object within a designated period
Importance of factors
to what extent do specific factors influence a person’s purchase choice
age, gender, occupation, income, and other characteristics of individuals providing the info
unit of analysis
specifies whether data should be collected about individuals, households, orgs, departments, geographical areas, or some combo
Exploratory Research
generates insights that will help define the problem sitch confronting the researcher or improves the understanding of consumer motivations, attitudes, and behavior, that are not easy to access during other research methods
Descriptive Research
collects quantitative data to answer research questions such as who what where when how, NOT WHY
Causal Research
collects data that enables decision makers to determine cause and effect relationships b/t 2 or more variables
Target Population
the pop from which researchers want to collect data
attempts to question or observe all the members of a define target population
small # of members of a target pop
6 Questions a decision maker should ask
1) can the problem be resolved using existing info/mngerial judgement
2) is adequate info available within company’s internal record system to address problem
3) is there enough time to conduct the necessary research before the final managerial decision must be made
4) do the benefits of having the additional info outweigh the costs of gathering it
5) will the research provide useful feedback for decision making
6) will this research give competitors too much info about our marketing strategy