Marketing Research ch 1-5

CHAPTER 1
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marketing research
the systematic and objective identification, and use of information that is undertaken to improve decision making related to identifying and solving problems in marketing
problem identification research
research undertaken to help identify problems that are not necessarily apparent or that that likely to arise in the future
problem solving research
research undertaken to help solve specific marketing problems
marketing research process
defining the problem
developing an approach to the problem
formulating a research design
doing fieldwork or collecting data
preparing and analyzing data
preparing and presenting the report
competitive intelligence
the process of enhancing marketplace competitiveness through a greater understanding of a firm’s competitors and the competitive environment
marketing research industry
the marketing research industry consists of suppliers who provide marketing research services
internal supplier
marketing research departments located within a firm
external suppliers
outside marketing research companies hired to conduct a complete marketing research project or a component of it
full-service suppliers
companies that offer the full range of marketing research activities
syndicated services
companies that collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve the info needs of multiple clients
customized services
companies that tailor the research procedures to best meet the needs of each client
internet services
companies that specialize in conducting research on the internet
limited service suppliers
companies that specialize in one or a few steps of the marketing research process
field services
companies whose primary service offering is their expertise in collecting data for research projects
focus groups and qualitative services
services related to facilities, recruitment, and other services for focus groups, and other forms of qualitative research, such as one-on-one depth interviews
technical and analytical services
services related to design issues and computer analysis of quantitative data, such as those obtained in large surveys
marketing information system (MIS)
a formalized set of procedures for generating, analyzing, storing, and distributing pertinent info to marketing decision makers on an ongoing basis
decision support system (DSS)
in formation system that enables decision makers to interact directly with both databases and analysis models. The important components of a DSS include hardware and a communication network, database, model base, software base, and the DSS user
CHAPTER 2
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problem definition
a broad statement of the general problem and identification of the specific components of the marketing research problem
problem-definition process
1 history of the problem
2 alternative courses of action available to the decision maker
3 the criteria that will be used to evaluate the alternative courses of action
4 the nature of potential actions that are likely to be suggested based on the research findings
5 the info that is needed to answer the decision maker’s questions
6 the manner in which the decision maker will use each item of information in making the decision
7 the corporate culture as it relates to the decision making
problem audit
a comprehensive examination of a marketing problem to understand its origin and nature
experience survey
interviews with people knowledgeable about the general topic being investigated
key-informant technique
interviews with people knowledgeable about the general topic being investigated
lead-user survey
surveys that involve obtaining information from the lead users of the technology
secondary data
data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand
primary data
data originated by the researcher to address the research problem
qualitative research
an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples intended to provide insight and understanding of the problem setting
pilot surveys
surveys that tend to be less structured than large scale surveys in that they generally contain more open-ended questions and the sample size is much smaller
Case studies
involve an intensive examination of a few selected cases of the phenomenon of interest. Cases could be customers, stores, or other units
Environmental context of the problem
Factors that have an impact on the definition of the marketing research problem, including past information and forecasts, resources and constraints of the firm, objectives of the decision maker, buyer behavior, legal environment, and marketing and technological skills of the firm
objectives
Goals of the organization and of the decision maker that must be considered in order to conduct successful marketing research
Buyer behavior
A body of knowledge that tries to understand and predict consumers’ reactions based on an individual’s specific characteristics
Legal environment
Regulatory policies and norms within which organizations must operate
Economic environment
The economic environment is composed of purchasing power, gross income, disposable income, discretionary income, prices, savings, credit availability, and general economic conditions
Management decision problem
The problem confronting the decision maker. It asks what the decision maker needs to do
Marketing research problem
Asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained
Conceptual map
A way to link the broad statement of the marketing research problem with the management-decision problem
Broad statement of the problem
The initial statement of the marketing research problem that provides an appropriate perspective on the problem
Specific components of the problem
The second part of the marketing research problem definition. The specific components focus on the key aspects of the problem and provide clear guidelines on how to proceed
objective evidence
Unbiased evidence that is supported by empirical findings
theory
A conceptual scheme based on foundational statements, which are assumed to be true
Analytical model
An explicit specification of a set of variables and their interrelationships designed to represent some real system or process in whole or in part
Verbal models
Analytical models that provide a written representation of the relationships between variables
Graphical models
Analytical models that provide a visual picture of the relationships between variables
Mathematical models
Analytical models that explicitly describe the relationships between variables, usually in equation form
research questions
refined statements of the specific components of the problems
hypothesis
an unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher
CHAPTER 3
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research design
a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project that specifies the procedures necessary to obtain the info needed to structure and/or solve the marketing research problem
exploratory research
a type of research design that has as its primary objective the provision of insights into and comprehension of the problem situation confronting the researcher
conclusive research
research designed to assist the decision maker in determining, evaluating, and selecting the best course of action for a given situation
descriptive research
a type of conclusive research that has as its major objective the description of something – usually market characteristics or functions
survey
an interview with a large number of respondents using a predesigned questionnaire
cross-sectional design
a type of research involving the one-time collection of information from any given sample of population elements
longitudinal design
a type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly. the sample remains the same over time, providing a series of pictures that, when viewed together, portray both the situation and the changes that are taking place
panel
a panel consists of a sample of respondents, general households that have agreed to provide info at specified intervals over an extended period
casual research
a type of conclusive research whose major objective is to obtain evidence regarding cause-and-effect (causal) relationships
casual design
a design in which the casual or independent variables are manipulated in a relatively controlled environment
random sampling error
the error due to the particular sample selected being an imperfect representation of the population of interest
nonsampling error
errors that can be attributed to sources other than sampling; they can be random or nonrandom
budgeting and scheduling
management tools needed to help ensure that the marketing research project is completed within the available resources
marketing research proposal
contains the essence of the project and serves as a contract between the researcher and management
1) executive summary
2) background
3) problem definition/research objectives
4) approach to the problem
5) research design
6) fieldwork/data collection
7) data analysis
8) reporting
9) cost and time
10) project personnel
11) appendices
CHAPTER 4
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internal data
data available within the organization for which the research is being conducted
external data
data that originate external to the organization
psychographics
quantified psychological profiles of individuals
data warehouse
a centralized database that consolidates company-wide data from a variety of operational systems
data mining
technique involving the use of powerful computers and advanced statistical and other software to analyze large databases in order to discover hidden patterns in the data
customer relationship management (CRM) system
a decision support system that is used for managing the interactions between an organization and its customers
database marketing
the practice of using CRM databases to develop relationships and highly targeted marketing efforts with individuals and customer groups
geo-visual databases
databases created by combining internal customer databases with geographic data, as from the U.S. Census Bureau, and making use of appropriate customer mapping software
customer mapping
maps that solve marketing problems are called thematic maps. They combine geography with demographic info and a company’s sales data or other proprietary info and are generated by a computer
CHAPTER 5
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syndicated sources
companies that collect and sell common pools of data designed to serve info needs shared by a number of clients, including competing firms in the same industry
periodic surveys
surveys that collect data on the same set of variables at regular intervals, each time sampling from a new group of respondents
panel surveys
surveys that measure the same group of respondents over time, but not necessarily on the same variables
lifestyle
a distinctive pattern of living that is described by the activities people engage in, and the interests they have, and the opinions they hold of themselves and the world around them (AIOs)
purchase panels
a data-gathering technique in which respondents record their purchases in a diary
media panels
a data-gathering technique that involves samples of respondents whose television viewing behavior is automatically recorded by electronic devices, supplementing the purchase information recorded in a diary
scanner data
data obtained by passing merchandise over a laser scanner that reads the UPC code from the packages
volume-tracking data
scanner data that provide info on purchases by brand, size, price, and flavor or formulation
scanner panels
scanner data collected from panel members who are issued an ID card that enables their purchases to be linked to their identities
scanner panels with cable TV
the combination of a scanner panel with manipulations of the advertising that is being broadcast by cable TV companies
audit
a data collection process derived from physical records or inventory analysis. data are collected personally by the researcher or by representatives of the researcher, and the data are based upon counts, usually of physical objects
industrial firms/organizations
secondary data derived from industrial firms and organizational sources and intended for industrial or institutional use
single-source data
an effort to combine data from different sources by gathering integrated info on household and marketing variables applicable to the same set of respondents