A social trend in which people use technology to get the things they need from each other rather than from traditional institutions like corporations.
Word-of-mouth communication that customers view as authentic.
The gap between good buzz and bad buzz.
Advertising by sampling that is designed to create buzz about a product.
E-commerce that takes place on Facebook
Marketing activities that aim to increase brand awareness or sales by consumers passing a message along to other consumers.
brand ambassadors or brand evangelists
Loyal customers of a brand recruited to communicate and be salespeople with other consumers for a brand they care a great deal about.
Internet-based platforms that allow users to create their own content and share it with others who access these sites.
Online platforms that allow a user to represent him-or herself via a profile on a website and provide and receive links to other members of the network to share input about common interests.
A free microblogging service that lets users post short text messages with a maximum of 140 characters.
Online, highly engaging digital environments where avatars live and interact with other avatars in real time.
Graphic representations of users of virtual worlds.
Digital products consumers buy for use in online contexts.
product review sites
Social media sites that enable people to post stories about their experiences with products and services.
location-based social networks
Networks that integrate sophisticated GPS technology that enables users to alert friends of their exact whereabouts via their mobile phones.
Any direct communication to a consumer or business recipient designed to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further information, and/or a visit to a store or other place of business for purchase of a product.
A collection of products offered for sale in a book form, usually consisting of product descriptions accompanied by photos of the items.
A collection of products offered for sale in book form, usually consisting of product descriptions accompanied by photos of the items.
The use of the telephone to sell directly to consumers and business customers.
A direct marketing approach that allows the consumer to respond to a message by immediately contacting the provider to ask questions or order the product.
direct-response TV (DRTV)
Advertising on TV that seeks a direct response, including short commercials of less than two minutes, 30-minute of longer infomercials, and home shopping networks.
Half-hour or hour-long commercials that resemble a talk show but actually are sales pitches.
Promotional and other e-commerce activities transmitted over mobile phones and other mobile devices, such as smart phones and personal digital assistants.
Marketing communication by which a company representative interact directly with a customer or prospective customer to communicate about a good or service.
A salesperson whose primary function is to facilitate transactions that the customer initiates.
A sales support person with a high level of technical expertise who assists in product demonstrations.
A salesperson who promoted the firm and tries to stimulate demand for a product but does not actually complete a sale.
The person responsible for finding new customers and calling on them to present the company’s products.
A salesperson who works to develop long-term relationships with particular customers or to generate new sales.
The sales function when handled by a team that may consist of a salesperson, a technical specialist, and others.
A form of personal selling that focuses on making an immediate sale with little or no attempt to develop a relationship with the customer.
A form of personal selling that involves securing, developing, and maintaining long-term relationships with profitable customers.
creative selling process
The process of seeking out potential customers, analyzing needs, determining how product attributes might provide benefits for the customer, and then communicating that information.
A part of the selling process that includes identifying and developing a list of potential or prospective customers.
A part of the selling process that includes developing information about prospective customers and planning the sales interview.
The first step of the actual sales presentation in which the salesperson tries to learn more about the customer’s needs, create a good impression, and build rapport.
The part of the selling process in which the salesperson directly communicates the value proposition to the customer and invites two-way communication.
The stage of the selling process in which the salesperson actually asks the customer to buy the product.
Activities after the sale that provide important services to customers.
Efforts that go into selling, such as the number and type of sales calls, expense account management, and a variety of nonselling activities, such as customer follow-up work and client service.
The results of the salesperson’s efforts.
public relations (PR)
Communication function that seeks to build good relationships with an organization’s publics, including consumers, stockholders, and legislators.
The process of managing a company’s reputation when some negative event threatens the organization’s image.
public relations campaign
A coordinated effort to communicate with one or more of the firm’s publics.
PR activities aimed at employees of an organization.
PR activities such as an annual and quarterly reports aimed at a firm’s investors.
Talking with and providing information to government officials in order to influence their activities relating to an organization.
Writing a speech on a topic for a company executive to deliver.
Materials such as logos, brochures, building design, and stationery that communicate an image of the organization.
A PR activity aimed at developing close relationships with the media.
PR activities through which companies provide financial support to help fund an event in return for publicized recognition of the company’s contribution.
Activities–from a visit by foreign investors to a company picnic–that are planned an implemented by a PR department.
Marketing activity in which a firm “ambushes” consumers with promotional content in places they are not expecting to encounter this kind of activity.
Advertising placed where advertising isn’t normally or hasn’t ever been seen.