Marketing Questions Test 5

Despite the data glut that marketing managers receive, they frequently complain that they lack ________.
A) enough information of the right kind
B) reliable information
C) timely information
D) accurate information
E) valid information
A) enough information of the right kind
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding information collected by marketers?
A) Managers lack information of the right kind.
B) Most managers do not need more information.
C) Most managers need better information.
D) Many managers are burdened by data overload.
E) Managers have the right information and they have enough of it.
E) Managers have the right information and they have enough of it.
A marketing information system (MIS) consists of people and procedures to assess information needs, ________, and help decision makers analyze and use the information.
A) experiment to develop information
B) test market the information
C) develop the needed information
D) critique the needed information
E) compare the needed information
C) develop the needed information
The real value of a company’s marketing research and information system lies in the ________.
A) amount of data it generates
B) variety of contact methods it uses
C) efficiency with which it completes studies
D) quality of customer insights it provides
E) marketing information system it follows
D) quality of customer insights it provides
The marketing information system can serve ________.
A) the company’s marketing managers
B) suppliers
C) resellers
D) marketing services agencies
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
A good MIS balances the information users would ________ against what they really ________ and what is ________.
A) need; like; feasible
B) like; can afford; needed
C) like to have; need; feasible to offer
D) need; can afford; useful
E) use; have to use; available
C) like to have; need; feasible to offer
Marketers must weigh carefully the costs of additional information against the ________ resulting from it.
A) organization
B) benefits
C) creativity
D) ethical issues
E) cost
B) benefits
Four common sources of internal data supplied to internal databases include the accounting department, operations, the sales force, and the ________.
A) owners
B) stockholders
C) marketing department
D) competition
E) Web
C) marketing department
Marketing information from which type of database usually can be accessed more quickly and cheaply than other information sources?
A) external
B) LexisNexis
C) DataStar
D) internal
E) ProQuest
D) internal
________ is the systematic collection and analysis of publicly available information about consumers, competitors, and developments in the marketing environment.
A) Marketing data
B) Marketing intelligence
C) Sales management
D) Customer intelligence
E) Competitive intelligence
B) Marketing intelligence
Which of the following statements regarding marketing intelligence is true?
A) Marketing intelligence is privately held information.
B) The advantage of using competitive intelligence is negligible.
C) All marketing intelligence is free.
D) Marketing intelligence is publicly available information.
E) Marketing intelligence gathering is more focused on gaining insights into consumer activities than competitors’ activities.
D) Marketing intelligence is publicly available information.
Which of the following is NOT considered a source of marketing intelligence?
A) suppliers
B) resellers
C) key customers
D) causal research
E) activities of competitors
D) causal research
Which of the following is NOT a potential source for marketing intelligence?
A) competitors’ garbage
B) competitors’ products
C) competitors’ sales data published in annual reports
D) primary data
E) discussions with purchasing agents
D) primary data
Through which of these sources of information is a competitor least likely to reveal intelligence information?
A) annual reports
B) trade show exhibits
C) Web pages
D) press releases
E) internal marketing meetings
E) internal marketing meetings
Which of the following is an example of a free online database that a company could access in order to develop marketing intelligence?
A) LexisNexis
B) Hoover’s
C) Dialog
D) U.S. Security and Exchange Commission’s database
E) ProQuest
D) U.S. Security and Exchange Commission’s database
Faced with determined competitive marketing intelligence efforts by competitors, most companies are now doing which of the following?
A) training employees on protecting company information
B) promising to not participate in marketing intelligence efforts against competitors
C) providing employees with less key company information
D) decreasing the number of employees involved in decision-making processes
E) introducing codes of ethics
A) training employees on protecting company information
________ is the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data relevant to a specific marketing situation facing an organization.
A) The marketing information system
B) Marketing research
C) Exploratory research
D) Observational research
E) Causal research
B) Marketing research
What is the first step in the marketing research process?
A) developing a marketing information system
B) defining the problem and research objectives
C) developing the research plan for collecting information
D) implementing the research plan
E) interpreting data and deciding on type of research
B) defining the problem and research objectives
Your colleague is confused about using the marketing research process, as he knows that something is wrong but is not sure of the specific causes to investigate. He seems to be having problems with ________, which is often the hardest step to take.
A) developing the research plan
B) determining a research approach
C) defining the problem and research objectives
D) selecting a research agency to help
E) C and D
C) defining the problem and research objectives
Which of the steps in the marketing research process has been left out of the following list: defining the problems and research objectives, implementing the research plan, and interpreting and reporting the findings?
A) developing the research budget
B) choosing the research agency
C) choosing the research method
D) developing the research plan
E) comparing and contrasting primary and secondary data
D) developing the research plan
Causal research is used to ________.
A) test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships
B) gather preliminary information that will help define problems
C) find information at the outset of the research process in an unstructured way
D) describe marketing problems or situations
E) quantify observations that produce insights unobtainable through other forms of research
A) test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships
Of the following combinations, managers would be most likely to start with ________ research and later follow with ________ research.
A) exploratory; causal
B) descriptive; causal
C) descriptive; exploratory
D) causal; descriptive
E) causal; exploratory
A) exploratory; causal
The objective of ________ research is to gather preliminary information that will help define the problem and suggest hypotheses.
A) descriptive
B) exploratory
C) causal
D) corrective
E) descriptive and exploratory
B) exploratory
In the second step of the marketing research process, research objectives should be translated into specific ________.
A) marketing goals
B) information needs
C) dollar amounts
D) research methods
E) information sources
B) information needs
Secondary data consists of information ________.
A) that already exists somewhere but is outdated
B) that does not currently exist in an organized form
C) that already exists somewhere but was collected for another purpose
D) that is used by competitors
E) that the researcher can only obtain through surveys and observation
C) that already exists somewhere but was collected for another purpose
) Information collected from online databases on the Internet is an example of ________ data.
A) primary
B) secondary
C) observational
D) experimental
E) ethnographic
B) secondary
Which form of data below can usually be obtained more quickly and at a lower cost than the others?
A) primary
B) survey research
C) secondary
D) experimental research
E) observational research
C) secondary
It is most accurate to say that secondary data are ________.
A) collected mostly via surveys
B) expensive to obtain
C) not always very usable
D) never purchased from outside suppliers
E) always necessary to support primary data
C) not always very usable
Your assistant wants to use secondary data exclusively for the current marketing research project. You advise him that the use of secondary data has some potential problems. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
A) It may not exist.
B) It may not be relevant.
C) It may not be impartial.
D) It is generally more expensive to obtain than primary data.
E) It may not be current.
D) It is generally more expensive to obtain than primary data.
For secondary data to be useful to marketers, it must be relevant, current, unbiased, and ________.
A) complete
B) accurate
C) inexpensive
D) collected before secondary data
E) experimental
B) accurate
Which method could a marketing researcher use to obtain information that people are unwilling or unable to provide?
A) observational research
B) focus groups
C) personal interviews
D) Internet surveys
E) questionnaires
A) observational research
Ethnographic research ________.
A) comes from traditional focus groups
B) is gathered where people live and work
C) provides secondary data
D) is most popular in the service sector
E) provides data to marketers when observation is impossible
B) is gathered where people live and work
Which of the following is true of ethnographic research?
A) It is conducted within traditional focus groups.
B) It provides fresher and better insight into customer behavior than traditional approaches do.
C) It provides researchers with secondary data.
D) It is most popular in the service sector.
E) It is a research option when observation is not possible.
B) It provides fresher and better insight into customer
Survey research, though used to obtain many kinds of information in a variety of situations, is the approach best suited for gathering ________ information.
A) interpersonal
B) causal
C) attitudinal
D) descriptive
E) exploratory
D) descriptive
Fredia Pellerano has just discovered the major advantage of survey research. She reports to her supervisor that the advantage is its ________.
A) flexibility
B) interactive design
C) ease to complete
D) understandability
E) simplicity
A) flexibility
Survey research is least likely to be conducted through which of the following?
A) the Web
B) the mail
C) the telephone
D) observation
E) person-to-person interactions
D) observation
Experimental research is best suited for gathering ________ information.
A) exploratory
B) causal
C) attitudinal
D) interactive
E) descriptive
B) causal
ABC Company has decided to use mail questionnaires to collect data. Management recognizes this method has all the following advantages EXCEPT which one?
A) low cost per respondent
B) more honest answers may be given
C) has an average response rate
D) has no interviewer to bias respondents’ answers
E) can collect large amounts of information
C) has an average response rate
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of telephone interviews?
A) They are more expensive to conduct than mail questionnaires.
B) Interviewer bias is introduced.
C) Respondents may be unwilling to answer personal questions.
D) Interviewers may explain or probe more deeply on some questions.
E) Potential respondents may refuse to participate.
D) Interviewers may explain or probe more deeply on some questions.
Which of the following contact methods is generally the least flexible?
A) telephone interviewing
B) personal interviewing
C) mail questionnaires
D) online surveys
E) online panels
C) mail questionnaires
Which contact method for marketing research is flexible, allows for explanation of difficult questions, and lends itself to showing products and advertisements?
A) personal interviewing
B) online interviewing
C) phone interviewing
D) ethnographic research
E) observational research
A) personal interviewing
Focus group interviewing has become one of the major marketing research tools for getting insight into consumer thoughts and feelings. However, if the sample size is small, a researcher would be most concerned about which of the following?
A) finding a representative sample
B) generalizing from the results
C) administering the questions
D) orchestrating cooperation among participants
E) finding enough secondary data to support the findings
B) generalizing from the results
Which of the following is a disadvantage of online focus groups?
A) Participants must be in a central location.
B) The Internet format can restrict respondents’ expressiveness.
C) Results take longer to tabulate and analyze.
D) The cost of online focus groups is greater than that of most other qualitative research methods.
E) The format of focus groups can be varied.
B) The Internet format can restrict respondents’ expressiveness.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of Web-based research?
A) speed
B) low costs
C) almost instantaneous results
D) control over who respondents are
E) ease of administration
D) control over who respondents are
Which of the following has the highest rating for speed of data collection and compilation?
A) open-ended questionnaires
B) personal interviews
C) mail surveys
D) online surveys
E) ethnographic research
D) online surveys
Marketing researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups of consumers by studying a small ________ of the total consumer population.
A) group
B) sample
C) population
D) target group
E) audience
B) sample
You generally need to ask three questions when developing a sampling plan. Which of the questions below is one of these three?
A) Who should be left out of the sample (sampling exclusion)?
B) How should we contact the sample (sampling approach)?
C) Why should respondents be selected (sampling justification)?
D) How should participants be chosen (sampling procedure)?
E) none of the above
D) How should participants be chosen (sampling procedure)?
What is a major drawback of probability sampling?
A) It can be time consuming.
B) Sampling error cannot be measured.
C) The most difficult population from which to obtain information is chosen.
D) Everyone has an equal chance of selection.
E) Marketers must rely on the judgment of the researcher in respondent selection.
A) It can be time consuming.
What are the two main types of research instruments used to collect primary data?
A) surveys and samples
B) questionnaires and mechanical devices
C) focus groups and online databases
D) online panels and experiments
E) personal interviews and online focus groups
B) questionnaires and mechanical devices
The most common research instrument used is the ________.
A) mechanical device
B) live interviewer
C) questionnaire
D) telephone interviewer
E) moderator
C) questionnaire
Which of the following is the best advice about creating research questionnaires?
A) Use simple and direct language.
B) Questions should not be arranged in a particular order.
C) Ask difficult questions in the beginning to “weed out” uninterested respondents.
D) Ask personal questions in the middle of the instrument.
E) Avoid personal questions that may make some respondents uncomfortable.
A) Use simple and direct language.
After a research instrument is selected, the next step in the marketing research process is ________.
A) selecting a sampling method
B) interpreting the findings
C) implementing the research plan
D) collecting secondary data
E) selecting a research approach
C) implementing the research plan
AMF Research Group must guard against problems during the implementation phase of marketing research for its clients. Which of the following is NOT a problem that should be anticipated during this phase?
A) ensuring the accuracy of the collected data
B) respondents who give biased answers
C) interviewers who make mistakes or take shortcuts
D) interpreting and reporting the findings
E) ensuring the completeness of the collected data
D) interpreting and reporting the findings
Typically, customer information is buried deep in separate databases, plans, and records of many different company functions and departments. To overcome such problems, which of the following should you try?
A) customer satisfaction measurement
B) more sophisticated software
C) customer relationship management
D) a marketing information system
E) decreased marketing intelligence
C) customer relationship management
Which of the following is true about customer relationship management (CRM)?
A) It relies on information produced through primary research.
B) Its aim is to maximize profit margins.
C) Its aim is to increase the efficiency of each customer touchpoint.
D) Its aim is to maximize customer loyalty.
E) Most companies who first implemented CRM have greatly benefited from the results.
D) Its aim is to maximize customer loyalty.
Which of the following most accurately identifies the purpose of a data warehouse?
A) to prioritize information
B) to integrate information a company already has
C) to interpret data
D) to analyze data
E) to identify and discard old data
B) to integrate information a company already has
In CRM, findings about customers discovered through ________ techniques often lead to marketing opportunities.
A) data warehousing
B) data mining
C) customer strategy
D) customer loyalty management
E) value network
B) data mining
A successful CRM program can be expected to help a company achieve all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) providing higher levels of customer service
B) developing deeper customer relationships
C) creating offers tailored to specific customer requirements
D) understanding competition better
E) understanding how to better build the marketing mix
D) understanding competition better
Marketing information is only valuable when it is used to ________.
A) simplify management’s job
B) identify a target market
C) please shareholders
D) increase efficiencies in the supply chain
E) make better marketing decisions
E) make better marketing decisions
What source of marketing information provides those within the company ready access to research information, stored reports, shared work documents, contact information for employees and other stakeholders, and more?
A) an intranet
B) an extranet
C) the Internet
D) marketing research
E) marketing intelligence
A) an intranet
When managers use small convenience samples such as asking customers what they think or inviting a small group out to lunch to get reactions, they are using ________.
A) informal surveys
B) experiments
C) observation
D) direct marketing
E) marketing intelligence
A) informal surveys
Small organizations can obtain, with minimal effort and cost, most of which type of data available to large businesses?
A) experimental
B) observational
C) secondary
D) primary
E) ethnographic
C) secondary
You have been asked to locate secondary data for your small organization’s research needs. Which of the following is NOT a common source for this type of research?
A) competitors’ Web sites
B) the U.S. Small Business Administration
C) the U.S. Census Bureau
D) online surveys
E) the local Chamber of Commerce
D) online surveys
The availability of which of the following is most problematic in international marketing research?
A) primary data
B) research specialists
C) secondary data
D) intelligence limitations
E) consumers willing to answer surveys
C) secondary data
Because of the scarcity of good secondary data, international researchers often must collect their own primary data. An initial problem with this collection is developing good ________.
A) samples
B) research firms
C) customer relationships with nationals
D) relationships with channel members
E) analytical models
A) samples
What do many researchers encounter when conducting market research in foreign countries?
A) Some countries have few telephones, limiting access to respondents.
B) Some countries have poor mail services.
C) Some countries have poor roads that limit personal contacts.
D) Some cultures may not value marketing research.
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Cultural differences, especially those involving language, can add to research costs in foreign markets and can increase the ________.
A) foreign trade
B) risks of error
C) response rate
D) need for a larger sample
E) reliance on primary data
B) risks of error
Anna Gregory just completed reading a marketing research report about the top 25 countries that purchase American products. What would the report most likely say about international research within these countries?
A) It is on the decrease due to high costs.
B) The costs are higher than the benefits.
C) There is a lack of qualified research personnel.
D) Despite the costs of international research, the costs of not doing it are higher.
E) Interpretations of American quality are consistent among different countries.
D) Despite the costs of international research, the costs of not doing it are higher.
According to your text, what are two current major public policy and ethical issues in marketing research?
A) child pornography and identifying sampling methods
B) intrusions on consumer privacy and misuse of research findings
C) misuse of research findings and locating valuable secondary data
D) selling of personal information to other firms and online secondary data
E) ethnography and the misinterpretation of it
B) intrusions on consumer privacy and misuse of research findings
) Choose the statement that is NOT a typical consumer concern about intrusion on consumer privacy.
A) Sophisticated researchers probe our deepest feelings.
B) Marketers use personal information to manipulate our buying.
C) Marketers build huge databases full of personal information.
D) Marketers make too many products and services available, creating unnecessary consumer wants.
E) Protecting personal information is increasingly important.
D) Marketers make too many products and services available, creating unnecessary consumer wants.
Behavioral targeting, the practice of ________, is being used by more and more companies.
A) tracking customers’ activities and rewarding customer loyalty
B) managing customer relationships
C) mining and analyzing data from data warehouses
D) tracking consumers’ online movements and using this information to target ads to them
E) observing and interacting with consumers in their natural environments
D) tracking consumers’ online movements and using this information to target ads to them
Consumers are most likely to willingly provide research information when researchers provide which of the following?
A) coupons
B) social network membership
C) value for the exchange
D) prizes
E) rebates
C) value for the exchange
The best approach for researchers to take to guard consumer privacy includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A) Ask only for the information needed.
B) Use information responsibly to provide value.
C) Avoid sharing information without the customer’s permission.
D) Sell the information only when it is financially worthwhile.
E) Fully explain to the respondents how the information will be used.
D) Sell the information only when it is financially worthwhile.
Many major companies have created the position of ________ to address concerns about the privacy of customers.
A) chief customer loyalty manager
B) chief behavioral analyst
C) chief privacy officer
D) ethics manager
E) data warehouse manager
C) chief privacy officer
To address concerns about the misuse of research study findings, several highly regarded marketing associations have developed ________.
A) customer relationship management guidelines
B) behavior targeting “Do Not Track” lists
C) chief privacy officer job descriptions
D) codes of research ethics
E) bans against using “cookies”
D) codes of research ethics
Diana Dion is currently researching data sources from within her company to make marketing decisions. Diana is making use of ________ databases.
A) external
B) current
C) historical
D) internal
E) foreign
D) internal
Your marketing department is attempting to improve strategic decision making, track competitors’ actions, and provide early warning of opportunities and threats. To achieve this goal, which of the following would be the best for your department to use?
A) internal databases
B) external databases
C) marketing intelligence
D) the Internet
E) company reports only
C) marketing intelligence
Patti Lovelace is making a presentation to the owners of her company. She is trying to convince them to conduct some current marketing research. Which of the following would she be LEAST likely to emphasize as a benefit or selling point of marketing research?
A) assessing market potential and market share
B) understanding customer satisfaction and purchase behavior
C) measuring the effectiveness of pricing and accounting
D) measuring the effectiveness of distribution and promotion activities
E) understanding customer motivation
C) measuring the effectiveness of pricing and accounting
You are about to test the hypothesis that sales of your product will increase at a very similar rate at either a $5 drop in unit price or a $7 drop in unit price. You are involved in what type of research?
A) exploratory
B) descriptive
C) causal
D) focus group
E) ethnographic
C) causal
Which type of research would be best suited for identifying which demographic groups prefer diet soft drinks and why they have this preference?
A) observational research
B) focus group research
C) ethnographic research
D) experimental research
E) descriptive research
E) descriptive research
You want to observe how often consumers listen to music throughout their day and what different audio devices they use. You are also interested in how consumers store and access their own music collections. You should conduct ________ research.
A) causal
B) experimental
C) secondary
D) survey
E) exploratory
E) exploratory
Nathan Zabalas owns a regional chain of drug stores. Before expanding nationwide, Nathan is conducting marketing research to determine the best options for opening new stores. He plans to start by collecting secondary data. Which of the following is NOT a source of secondary data that Nathan might use?
A) Yankelovich’s Monitor
B) commercial online databases
C) online questionnaires
D) Web search engines
E) local chambers of commerce
C) online questionnaires
Wal-Mart sends a trained observer to watch and interact with customers as they shop in a Wal-Mart store. This is an example of ________.
A) secondary research
B) survey research
C) ethnographic research
D) experimental research
E) descriptive research
C) ethnographic research
Carls Jr. came out with a new hamburger and released it in two different cities with two different price points. Marketers at Carls Jr. then analyzed the different levels of purchase made at the two different price points, planning on using the information to set a nationwide price for the new offering. This is an example of ________.
A) observational research
B) survey research
C) ethnographic research
D) experimental research
E) descriptive research
D) experimental research
Maryann Rose is conducting research to determine consumers’ personal grooming habits. Because of the personal nature of the survey questions about this topic, Maryann wants to select the contact method that is most likely to encourage respondents to answer honestly. Which contact method should Maryann select?
A) mail questionnaires
B) telephone interviews
C) individual interviews
D) focus group interviews
E) online panels
A) mail questionnaires
Tasoula Jeannopoulos has a limited budget for the market research she needs to conduct; however, the sample size for her research is quite large. Which of the following methods of contact would provide Tasoula with the most cost-effective way to reach a large sample of potential customers?
A) telephone surveys
B) personal interviews
C) Internet surveys
D) mail surveys
E) focus group interviews
C) Internet surveys
You want to find out whether Americans between 21 and 40 years of age tend to vote Democratic and whether Americans between 41 and 70 tend to vote Republican. You will most likely use a ________ to collect your data.
A) simple random sample
B) mechanical device
C) stratified random sample
D) cluster sample
E) convenience sample
C) stratified random sample
You have decided to use only closed-end questions on your survey. Which of the following questions would NOT be found on your survey?
A) Do you like chocolate?
B) What is your gender?
C) Do you work full- or part-time?
D) What do you like about your teacher?
E) In what month do you plant your garden?
D) What do you like about your teacher?
Loft Industries sells roof trusses to contractors and builders and would like to conduct research to determine how customers assess customer service. Which of the following research instruments would be best for this firm?
A) people meters
B) checkout scanners
C) questionnaires
D) eye cameras
E) MRI scans
C) questionnaires
Michael Quinones is a customer service agent for a national car rental business. He has access to the company’s intranet, which provides performance reports, shared work documents, contact information, and detailed information about customers. Which of the following is this access most likely to enable Michael to do during interactions with customers?
A) analyze primary data
B) use data mining techniques
C) share information with value-network members
D) reward customer loyalty with an upgrade or discount
E) evaluate marketing intelligence
D) reward customer loyalty with an upgrade or discount
As a small business consultant, you recommend to your clients that they use no-cost methods of observation to gather market research. Which of the following are you NOT likely to recommend your clients do?
A) observe vehicle and pedestrian traffic
B) monitor competitors’ advertising from local media
C) evaluate how many and what kind of customers they currently have
D) hire additional staff to observe extensively
E) visit and socialize with competitors
D) hire additional staff to observe extensively
Juanita Petino operates a dress shop in a suburban mall. Her research budget is very small, so she uses low-cost or no-cost methods to gather research data. One method that works very well for her is changing the themes in her local newspaper and radio advertising and watching the result. Juanita is using ________ to gather data for marketing decisions.
A) informal surveys
B) experiments
C) guess work
D) logic-directed research
E) secondary sources
B) experiments
For a small business manager deciding where to relocate within the city, relevant research will LEAST likely include ________.
A) traffic-flow patterns in specific areas
B) informal surveys of customers
C) past sales data
D) competitors’ advertisements
E) options for repackaging the company’s products
E) options for repackaging the company’s products
Marialba Hooper is conducting marketing research for a company that is investigating the possibility of entering multiple international markets. As Marialba plans her research in 30 different countries, upon which of the following is she LEAST likely to rely?
A) free secondary data
B) translators
C) primary data collected for the purpose of her research
D) the same process as domestic researchers
E) personal interviews
A) free secondary data
Malaya Ramirez is organizing marketing research in Central American countries for a large American corporation that is interested in expanding its market. The survey Malaya is using was written in English and then translated into Spanish for use by Spanish-speaking respondents. Which of the following is it most important for Malaya to do before administering this questionnaire to a sample of the market?
A) make sure that the survey includes both open-end and closed-end questions
B) decide whether to focus on primary or secondary data
C) determine which type of research instrument to use
D) have the questionnaire translated back into English to check for accuracy
E) determine whether to focus on descriptive or causal objectives
D) have the questionnaire translated back into English to check for accuracy
The best approach for researchers to take to guard consumer privacy includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A) Ask only for the information needed.
B) Use information responsibly to provide value.
C) Avoid sharing information without the customer’s permission.
D) Sell the information only when it is financially worthwhile.
E) Fully explain to the respondents how the information will be used.
D) Sell the information only when it is financially worthwhile.
Many major companies have created the position of ________ to address concerns about the privacy of customers.
A) chief customer loyalty manager
B) chief behavioral analyst
C) chief privacy officer
D) ethics manager
E) data warehouse manager