Marketing Principles Chapter 9: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

geographic segmentation
the grouping of consumers on the basis of where they live
demographic segmentation
the grouping of consumers according to easily measured, objective characteristics such as age, gender, income, and education
psychographics
used in segmentation; delves into how consumers describe themselves; allows people to describe themselves using those characteristics that help them choose how they occupy their time (behavior) and what underlying psychological reasons determine those choices.
self-values
goals for life, not just the goals one wants to accomplish in a day; a component of psychographics that refers to overriding desires that drive how a person lives his or her life
self-concept
the image a person has of him- or herself; a component of psychographics
lifestyles
a component of psychographics; refers to the way a person lives his or her life to achieve goals
Value and Lifestyle Survey (VALS)
A psychographic tool developed by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence; classifies consumers into eight segments: innovators, thinkers, believers, achievers, strivers, experiencers, makers, or survivors
benefit segmentation
the grouping of consumers on the basis of the benefits they derive from products or services
behavorial segmentation
a segmentation method that divides customers into groups based on how they use the product or service. Some common behavioral measures include occasion and loyalty
occasion segmentation
a type of behavioral segmentation based on when a product or service is purchased or consumed
loyalty segmentation
strategy of investing in loyalty initiatives to retain the firm’s most profitable customers.
geodemographic segmentation
the grouping of consumers on the basis of a combination of geographic, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics
undifferentiated targeting strategy (mass marketing)
a marketing strategy a firm can use if the product or service is perceived to provide the same benefits to everyone, with no need to develop separate strategies for different groups
differentiated targeting strategy
a strategy through which a firm targets several market segments with a different offering for each
concentrated targeting strategy
a marketing strategy of selecting a single, primary target market and focusing all energies on providing a product to fit that market’s needs
micromarketing
an extreme form of segmentation that tailors a product or service to suit an individual customer’s wants or needs; also called one-to-one marketing
cookies
computer program, installed on hard drives, that provides identifying information
value proposition
the unique value that a product or services provides to its customers and how it is better than and different from those of competitors
value
reflects the relationship of benefits to costs, or what the consumer gets for what he or she gives
perceptual map
displays, in two or more dimensions, the position of products or brands in the consumer’s mind
ideal points
the position at which a particular market segment’s ideal product would lie on a perceptual map