Heuristics are based on the assumption that
we cannot operate as perfectly rational decision makers
Humans split big problems into
do-able sub problems
we falsely make decisions based on our recent experience
we tend to take one instance as being representative e.g. someone gets a 4 on a test but is actually quite bright
don’t solve all of the problem at once- split down into manageable compartments e.g. directions to an unknown place
There are 4 types of buying styles:
complex decision-making, brand loyalty, inertia, and variety-seeking
What makes one purchase more complex than another?
novel or infrequent purchase, active search, more than one decision maker, or more than one person involved
When are you involved as a consumer?
When the product: is important to your self-image, is of continual interest to you, entails significant risks, has emotional appeal, and is defined with group norms
when a decision is required..importance of perceived risk
importance of product to self-image, continuous interest in product, emotional appeal and badge value to reference group
not as sexy as high involvement for marketers- but accounts for the majority of purchases
Complex decision making assumes hierarchy of
You are involved when the product:
is important to your self-image, is of continual interest to you (e.g. fashion or computers), entails significant risks, has emotional appeal and is identified with group norms
A low involvement purchase is one in which consumers do not consider the product important to their belief system and
do not strongly identify with it
Low involvement vs High involvement
Low 1) brand beliefs formed by passive learning 2)a purchase decision is made 3)brand may or may not be evaluated afterwards. High 1)brand beliefs are formed first by active learning 2)brands are evaluated 3)a purcahse decision is made
View of passive consumer
Consumers learn information at random. Consumers are information catchers. Consumers represent a passive audience for advertising. Consumer buy first and evaluate later. Consumers buy brand least likely to cause problems. Personality and lifestyle characteristics unimportant as are reference groups.
View of active consumer
Consumers are information processors. Consumers are information seekers. Consumers represent an active audience for advertising. Evaluate brands before buying. Seek to maximize expected satisfaction. Personality and characteristics are important.
Low involvement advertising involves
campaigns of high repetition and short duration messages which focus on a few key points. Emphasize visual and non-message components.
Low involvement positioning
emphasizes problem minimization
Widespread distribution is important for
low involvement goods
Behaviorist explanation of consumer learning is much simpler
Ehrenberg coined this as ATR- Awareness Trial Reinforcement
Involvement to behaviorists:
involvement is an instrumental behavior that is pleasureable through the provision of hedonic and informational reinforcement
Enduring involvement results from the person’s
reinforcement history with the product, stimulus control and consequences of pre and post purchase responses
Behavior with high levels of hedonic and informational reinforcement will
be most involving