Marketing Exam Ch. 5

attitude
“learned predispostion to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way” they’re shaped by our values and beliefs which are learned
beliefs
consumer’s subjective perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes; based on personal experience, advertising, and discussions with other people
brand loyalty
favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time
cognitive dissonance
postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety “should i have purchased the samsung?”; to alleviate consumers often attempt to applaud themselves for making the right choice
consideration set
group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands of which he or she is aware in the product class
consumer behavior
actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services, including the mental and social processes that come before and after these actions
consumer socialization
process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary to function as consumers; children learn how to purchase by interacting with adults and through own purchasing and product usage
evaluative criteria
represent both objective attributes of a brand and subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands
family life cycle
describes the distinct phases that a family progresses through from formation to retirement.
involvement
sometimes consumers skip parts of the 5-stage process and use some depending on their involvment which is the personal, social, and economic significance of the purchase to the consumer
learning
refers to those behaviors the result from (1) repeated experience and (2) reasoning
lifestyle
mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environment, and what they think of themselves and the world around them
motivation
energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need
opinion leaders
considered to be knowledgeable about or users of particular products and services, so their opinions influences other’s choices
perceived risk
represents the anxiety felt because the consumer can’t anticipate the outcomes of a purchase but believes there may be negative consequences
perception
process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world
personality
refers to person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situtation
purchase decision process
stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy 1)problem recognition 2)information search 3) alternative evaluation 4) purchase decision 5) postpurchase behavior
reference groups
people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. they influence the info, attitudes, and aspiration levels that help set a consumer’s standards 1)membership group(person belongs) 2)aspiration group (person wishes to be a member) 3)dissociative group (person wishes to maintain a distance)
self-concept
way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them
situational influences
have an impact on the purchase decision process 1) purchase task 2) social surroundings 3) physical surroundings 4) temporal effects 5) antecedent states
social class
defined as the relatively permanent, homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar values, interests, and behavior can be groups
subcultures
subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes
subliminal perception
you can see or hear messages without being aware of them
word of mouth
the influencing of people during conversations
internal search
scanning your memory for previous experience with products or brands
external search
using personal sources (friends and family), public sources (consumer reports) or marketer-dominated sources (advertising,web sites, salespeople) to find information
extended problem solving
each of the five stages of consumer purchase decision process is used. exists in high-involvement purchase situations for items such as automobiles and audio systems
limited problem solving
consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives
routine problem solving
for products such as table salt and milk, consumers recognize a problem, make a decision, and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives
Marketing mix influences
product
price
promotion
place
psychological influences
motivation and personality
perception
learning
value,beliefs and attitudes
lifestyle
situational influences
purchase task
social surroundings
physical surroundings
temporal effects
antecedent states
sociocultural influences
personal influence
reference groups
family
social class
culture and subculture
selective exposure
occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent withe their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. often occurs in the post purchase stage
selective comprehension
involves interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs. snow pup
selective retention
means that consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it
selective perception
a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention