marketing- chapter 6- consumer decision making

consumer behavior
processes a consumer uses to make purchase decisions, as well as to use and dispose of purchased goods or services; also includes factors that influence purchase decisions and product use
consumer-decision making process
a five-step process used by consumers when buying goods or services; 1) need recognition 2)information search 3)evaluation of alternatives 4)purchase 5)post-purchase behavior
need recognition
result of an imbalance between actual and desired states; triggered when a consumer is exposed to a stimuli or recognizes a new want
want
recognition of an unfulfilled need and product that will satisfy it
stimulus
any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses; external-influences from an outside source (ex: recommendation of a restaurant, advertisement on the radio); internal-occurrences you experience, such as hunger or thirst
internal information search
the process of recalling past information stored in the memory; stems largely from previous experience with a product
external information search
the process of seeking information in the outside environment; two types: marketing-controlled and nonmarketing-controlled information sources
nonmarketing-controlled information source
a product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion (ex: personal sources, public sources (reviews of movies in a newspaper)
marketing-controlled information source
a product information source that originates with marketers promoting the product
evoked set (consideration set)
a group of brands, resulting from an information search, which are the buyer’s most preferred alternatives and can be further evaluated and eventually make a choice
cognitive dissonance
inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions; marketers do not want this!
involvement
the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior
routine response behavior
the type of decision making exhibited by consumers buying frequently-purchased, low-cost goods and services; requires little search and decision time; low involvement
limited decision making
the type of decision making that requires a moderate amount of time for gathering information and deliberating about and unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category
extensive decision making
the most complex type of consumer decision making, used when buying an unfamiliar, expensive product, or an infrequently bought item; requires use of several criteria for evaluating options and much time for seeking information (ex: buying a home)
culture
the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behavior (cultural influence on consumer buying decisions)
value
the enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct (cultural influence on consumer buying decisions)
subculture
a homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group (cultural influence on consumer buying decisions)
social class
a group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves, and who share behavioral norms (cultural influence on consumer buying decisions)
reference group
a group in society that influences an individual’s purchasing behavior (social influences on consumer buying decisions)
primary membership group
a reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner such as family, friends, and coworkers
secondary membership group
a reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally such as a club, professional group, or religious group
aspirational reference group
a group that someone would like to join (must conform to the norms of this group)
nonaspirational reference group
a group with which an individual does not want to associate
opinion leader
an individual who influences the opinions of others; first to try new products; important for marketing managers to persuade them to buy their product (social influences on consumer buying decisions)
socialization process
how cultural values and norms are passed down from parents to children
individual influences on consumer