Marketing Chapter 4-7 Terms

Marketing Research Ethics
Taking an ethical and above-board approach to conducting marketing research that does no harm to the participant in the process of conducting the research.
Marketing Information System
A process that first determines what information marketing managers need and then gathers, sorts, analyzes, stores, and distributes relevant and timely marketing information to system users.
Intranet
An internal corporate communication network that uses Internet technology to link company departments, employees, and databases.
Marketing Intelligence System
A method by which marketers get information about everyday happenings in the marketing environment.
Marketing Research
The process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data about customers, competitors, and the business environment in order to improve marketing effectiveness.
Syndicated Research
Research by firms that collect data on a regular basis and sell the reports to multiple firms.
Custom Research
Research conducted for a single firm to provide specific information its managers need.
Marketing Decision Support System (MDSS)
The data, analysis software, and interactive software that allow managers to conduct analyses and find the information they need.
Data Mining
Sophisticated analysis techniques to take advantage of the massive amount of transaction information now available.
Research Design
A plan that specifies what information marketers will collect and what type of study they will do.
Secondary Data
Data that have been collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand.
Primary Data
Data from research conducted to help make a specific decision.
Exploratory Research
A technique that marketers use to generate insights for future, more rigorous studies.
Focus Group
A product-orientated discussion among a small group of consumers led by a trained moderator.
Case Study
A comprehensive examination of a particular firm or organization.
Ethnography
An approach to research based on observations of people in their own homes or communities.
Descriptive Research
A tool that probes more systematically into the problem and bases its conclusions on large numbers of observations.
Cross-sectional Design
A type of descriptive technique that involves the systematic collection of quantitative information.
Longitudinal Design
A technique that tracks the responses of the same sample of respondents over time.
Causal Research
A technique that attempts to understand cause-and-effect relationships.
Experiments
A technique that tests predicted relationships among variables in a controlled environment.
Telemarketing
The use of the telephone to sell directly to consumers and business customers.
Mall-intercept
A study in which researchers recruit shoppers in malls or other public areas.
Unobtrusive Measures
Measuring traces of physical evidence that remain after some action has been taken.
Cookies
Text files inserted by a Web site sponsor into a Web surfer’s hard drive that allows the site to track the surfer’s moves.
Predictive Technology
Analysis techniques that use shopping patterns of large numbers of people to determine which products are likely to be purchased if others are.
Validity
The extent to which research actually measures what it was intended to measure.
Reliability
The extent to which research measurement techniques are free of errors.
Representativeness
The extent to which consumers in a study are similar to a larger group in which the organization has an interest.
Sampling
The process of selecting respondents for a study.
Probability Sample
A sample in which each member of the population has some known chance of being included.
Non-probability Sample
A sample in which personal judgement is used to select respondents.
Convenience Sample
A non-probability sample composed of individuals who just happen to be available when and where the data are being collected.
Back-Translation
The process of translating material to a foreign language and then back to the original language.
Consumer Behavior
The process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.
Involvement
The relative importance of perceived consequences of the purchase to a consumer.
Perceived Risk
The belief that choice of a product has potentially negative consequences, whether financial, physical, and/or social.
Problem Recognition
The process that occurs whenever the consumer sees a significant difference between his current state of affairs and some desired or ideal state; this recognition initiates the decision-making process.
Information Search
The process whereby a consumer searches for appropriate information to make a reasonable decision.
Search Marketing
Marketing strategies that involve the use of internet search engines.
Search Engine Optimization
A systematic process of ensuring that your firm comes up at or near the top of lists of typical search phrases related to your business.
Search Engine Marketing
Search marketing strategy in which marketers pay for ads or better positioning.
Sponsored Search Ads
Paid ads that appear at the top or beside the Internet search engine results.
Comparison Shopping Agents (shopbots)
Web applications that help online shoppers find what they are looking for at the lowest price and provide customer reviews and ratings of products and sellers.
Behavioral Targeting
The marketing practice by which marketers deliver advertisements for products a consumer is looking for by watching what the consumer does online.
Evaluative Criteria
The dimensions consumers use to compare competing product alternatives.
Heuristics
A mental rule of thumb that leads to a speedy decision by simplifying the process.
Brand Loyalty
A pattern of repeat product purchases, accompanied by an underlying positive attitude toward the brand, based on the belief that the brand makes products superior to those of its competition.
Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction
The overall feelings or attitude a person has about a product after purchasing it.
Cognitive Dissonance
The anxiety or regret a consumer may feel after choosing from among several similar attractive choices.
Perception
The process by which people select, organize, and interpret information from the outside world.
Exposure
The extent to which a stimulus is capable of being registered by a person’s sensory receptors.
Subliminal Advertising
Supposedly hidden messages in marketers’ communications.
Attention
The extent to which a person devotes mental processing to a particular stimulus.
Interpretation
The process of assigning meaning to a stimulus based on prior associations a person has with it and assumptions he or she makes about it.
Motivation
An internal state that drives us to satisfy needs by activating goal-orientated behavior.
Hierarchy of Needs
An approach that categorizes motives according to five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at the top.
Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by acquired information or experience.
Behavioral Learning Theories
Theories of learning that focus on how consumer behavior is changed by external events or stimuli.
Classical Conditioning
The learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
Learning the occurs as the result of rewards or punishments.
Cognitive Learning Theory
Theory of learning that stresses the importance of internal mental processes and that views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment.
Observational Learning
Learning that occurs when people watch the actions of others and note what happens to them as a result.
Attitude
A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to stimuli on the basis of relatively enduring evaluations of people, objects, and issues.
Affect
The feeling component of attitudes; refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product.
Cognition
The knowing component of attitudes; refers to the beliefs of knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristics.
Behavior
The doing component of attitudes; involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product.
Personality
The set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment.
Self-Concept
An individual’s self-image that is composed of a mixture of beliefs, observations, and feelings about personal attributes.
Family Life Cycle
A means of characterizing consumers within a family structure on the basis of different stages through which people pass as they grow older.
Lifestyle
The pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences.
Psychographics
The use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to construct market segments.
AIO’s
Measures of consumer activities, interests, and opinions used to place consumers into dimensions.
Sensory Marketing
Marketing techniques that link distinct sensory experiences such as a unique fragrance with a product or service.
Time Poverty
Consumers’ belief that they are more pressed for time than ever before.
Culture
The values, beliefs, customs, and tastes a group of people values.
Subculture
A group within a society whose members share a distinctive set of beliefs, characteristics, or common experiences.
Microcultures
Groups of consumers who identify with a specific activity or art form.
Consumerism
A social movement that attempts to protect consumers from harmful business practices.
Environmentalism
A broad philosophy and social movement that seeks conservation and improvement of the natural environment.
Kyoto Protocol
A global agreement among countries that aims at reducing greenhouse gases that create climate change.
Environmental Stewardship
A position taken by an organization to protect or enhance the natural environment as it conducts its business activities.
Green Marketing
A marketing strategy that supports environmental stewardship, thus creating a differential benefit in the minds of consumers.
Social Class
The overall rank or social standing of groups of people within a society according to the value assigned to factors such as family background, education, occupation, and income.
Status Symbols
Visible markers that provide a way for people to flaunt their membership in higher social classes.
Mass-class
The hundreds of millions of global consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power that’s sufficient to let them afford high-quality products-except for big-ticket items like college educations, housing, or luxury cars.
Reference Group
An actual or imaginary individual or group that has a significant effect on an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior.
Opinion Leader
A person who is frequently able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors by virtue of his or her active interest and expertise in one or more product categories.
Gender Roles
Society’s expectations regarding the appropriate attitudes, behaviors, and appearance for men and women.
Metrosexual
A straight, urban male who is keenly interested in fashion, home design, gourmet cooking, and personal care.
Business-to-Business Markets
The group of customers that include manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and other organizations.
Organizational Markets
Another name for business-to-business markets.
Derived Demand
Demand for business or organizational products caused by demand for consumer goods or services.
Inelastic Demand
Demand in which changes in price have little or no effect on the amount demanded.
Joint Demand
Demand for two or more goods that are used together to create a product.
Producers
The individuals or organizations that purchase products for use in the production of other goods and services.
Resellers
The individuals or organizations that buy finished goods for the purpose of reselling, renting, or leasing to others to make a profit and to maintain their business operations.
Government Markets
The federal, state, county, and local governments that buy goods and services to carry out public objectives and to support their operations.
Not-for-Profit Institutions
The organizations with charitable, educational, community, and other public service goals that buy goods and services to support their functions and to attract and serve their members.
North American Industry Classification System
The numerical coding system that the US, Canada, and Mexico use to classify firms into detailed categories according to their business activities.
Business to Business E-Commerce
Internet exchanges between two or more businesses or organizations.
Extranet
A private, corporate computer network that links company departments, employees, and databases to suppliers, customers, and others outside the organization.
Private Exchanges
Systems that link an invited group of suppliers and partners over the Web.
Buyclass
One of three classifications of business buying situations that characterizes the degree of time and effort required to make a decision.
Straight Rebuy
A buying situation in which business buyers make routine purchases that require minimal decision making.
Modified Rebuy
A buying situation classification used by business buyers to categorize a previously made purchase that involves some change and that requires limited decision making.
New-Task Buy
A new business-to-business purchase that is complex or risky and that requires extensive decision making.
Buying Center
The group of people in an organization who participate in a purchasing decision.
Product Specifications
A written description of the quality, size, weight, and other details required of a product purchase.
Customer Reference Program
A formalized process by which customers formally share success stories an actively recommend products to other potential clients, usually facilitated through an on-line community.
Single Sourcing
The business practice of buying a particular product from only one supplier.
Multiple Sourcing
The business practice of buying a particular product from several different suppliers.
Reciprocity
A trading partnership in which two firms agree to buy from one another.
Outsourcing
The business buying process of obtaining outside vendors to provide goods or services that otherwise might be supplied in-house.
Crowdsourcing
A practice in which firms outsource marketing activities to a community of users.
Reverse Marketing
A business practice in which a buyer firm attempts to identify suppliers who will produce products according to the buyers firm’s specifications.
Market Fragmentation
The creation of many consumer groups due to a diversity of distinct needs and wants in modern society.
Target Marketing Strategy
Dividing the total market into different segments on the basis of customer characteristics, selecting one or more segments, and developing products to meet the needs of those specific segments.