Marketing Chapter 4, 5 & 6

Marketing Research
the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data about customers, competitors, and the business environment in order to improve marketing effectiveness
syndicated research
research by firms that collect data on regular basis and sell the reports to multiple firms
custom research
research conducted for a single firm to provide specific information its managers need
Perception
process by which people select, organize and interpret information from the outside world
exposure
the extent to which a stimulus is capable of being registered by a person’s sensory receptors
subliminal advertising
supposedly hidden messages in marketers’ communications
attention
the extent to which a person devotes mental processing to a particular stimulus
Interpretation
the process of assigning meaning to a stimulus based on prior associations a person has with it and assumptions he or she makes about it
Motivation
an internal state that drives us to satisfy needs by activating goal-oriented behavior
Heirarchy of needs
an approach that categorizes motives according to five levels of importance, the more basic needs being on the bottom and the higher at the top
learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by acquired information or experience
behavioral learning theories
theories of learning that focus on how consumer behavior is changed by external events or stimuli
classical conditioning
the learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus
operant conditioning
learning that occurs as the result of rewards or punishments
cognitive learning theory
theory of learning that stresses the importance of internal mental processes and that views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment
observational learning
learning that occurs when people watch the actions of others and note what happens to them as a result
attitude
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorable to stimuli on the basis of relatively enduring evaluations of people, objects and issues
affect
the feeling component of attitudes; refers to the overall emotional response a person has to a product
cognition
the knowing component of attitudes; refers to the beliefs or knowledge a person has about a product and its important characteristics
behavior
the doing component of attitudes; involves a consumer’s intention to do something, such as the intention to purchase or use a certain product
self-concept
an individuals self-image that is composed of a mixture of beliefs, observations and feelings about personal attributes
personality
the set of unique psychological characteristics that consistently influences the way a person responds to situations in the environment
lifestyle
the pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money and energy and that reflects their values, tastes and preferences
family life cycle
means of characterizing consumers within a family structure on the basis of different stages through who people pass as they grow older
culture
values, beliefs, customs and tastes a group of people values
subculture
group within a society whose members share a distinctive set of beliefs, characteristics or common experiences
microcultures
groups of consumers who identify with a specific activity or art form
consumerism
a social movement that attempts to protect consumers from harmful business practices
environmentalism
a broad philosophy and social movement that seeks conservation and improvement of the natural environment
kyoto protocol
a global agreement among countries that aims at reducing greenhouse gases that create climate change
environmental stewardship
a position taken by an organization to protect or enhance the natural environment as it conducts its business activities
green marketing
a marketing strategy that supports environmental stewardship, thus creating a differential benefit in the minds of consumers
social class
the overall rank or social standing of groups of people within a society according to the value assigned to factors such as family background, education, occupation and income
status symbols
visible markers that provide a way for people to flaunt their membership in higher social classes
mass-class
the hundreds of millions of consumers who now enjoy a level of purchasing power thats sufficient to let them afford high-quality products
opinion leaders
person who is frequently able to influence others attitudes or behaviors by virtue of active interest and expertise
gender roles
societys expectations regarding the appropriate attitudes, behaviors and appearance for men and women
Producers
individuals or organizations that purchase products for use in the production of other goods and services
resellers
individuals or organizations that buy finished goods for the purpose of reselling, renting or leasing to others to make a profit and to maintain their business operations
government markets
federal, state, county and local govts. that buy goods and services to carry out public objectives
not-for-profit institutions
charitable, educational,community and other public service goals that buy goods an services to support their functions
B2B E-commerce
internet exchanges between two or more business operations
extranet
private, corporate computer network that links company departments, employees, and databases to suppliers, customers, and others outside the organization
private exchanges
systems that link an invited group of suppliers and partners over the web