Marketing Ch 10: Marketing research

The research process
1. Defining Objectives and Research Needs
2. Designing the Research
3. Data Collection Process
4. Analyzing Data and Developing Insights
5. Action Plan and Implementation
market research
a set of techniques and principles for systematically collecting, recording, analyzing, and interpreting data that can aid decision makers involved in marketing goods, services, or ideas.
Defining objectives and research needs
step one:
– What information is needed to answer specific research questions?
– How should that information be obtained?
Designing the research
Step two: Defining the Type of data, Secondary vs Primary and the Type of research, Qualitative Vs Quantitative to design the research.
Data Collection Process
Step 3 of the research process
Secondary data
Pieces of information that have already been collected from other sources and usually are readily available.
Primary data
Data collected to address specific research needs.
raw numbers or facts
external secondary data
• Government Sources
• Census
• Syndicated data:
– Nielson: connect to consumer
– IRI: how we snack
– JD: going deep, research consumers
– Simmons: UGA, combining info, and deliver where it matter most
syndicated data
data available for a fee from commercial research firms such as information Resources Inc. (IRI), National Purchase diary Panel, and ACNielsen
scanner data
A type of syndicated external secondary data used in quantitative research that is obtained from scanner readings of UPC codes at check-out countries
panel data
information collected from a group of consumers
internal secondary data
• Data warehouse
• Data mining
• Credit card contains shopping info, collect data at point of sell
• Target was first to make sense 2nd internal data with pregnancy products.
data warehouse
Large computer files that store millions and even billions of pieces of individual data.
data mining
The use of a variety of statistical analysis tools to uncover previously unknown patterns in the data stared in databases or relationships among variables
The number of consumers who stop using a product or service, divided by the average number of consumers of that product or service.
Organized, analyzed, interpreted data that offer value to marketers.
Qualitative research
Informal research methods, including observation, following social media sites, in-dept interviews, focus groups, and projective techniques
Qualitative methods
• Provides initial information
• Generally in‐depth and unstructured
• Includes:
– Observation
– In‐depth interviews
– Focus Groups
– Social Media Research
ex. Vid, motion buying habit
Observation research
An exploratory research method that entails examining purchase and consumption behaviors through personal or video camera scrutiny.
– Manual, mechanical, ethnographic
– flee market, observing buying habits
ex. Vid, eye tracking technology
Social media research
• Monitoring blogs
• Online communities
• Sentiment mining
ex. bloggers, dedicated teens who blog and comment on products
Sentiment mining
Data gathering by evaluating customer comments posted through social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter.
In-dept interviews
An exploratory research techniques in which trained researchers ask questions, listen to and record the answers, and then pose additional questions to clarify or expand on a particular issue.
• Limited number
• Somewhat unstructured
• Time consuming and costly
Focus group
A research technique in which a small group of persons, 8 to 12, comer together for an intensive discussion about a particular topic, with the conversation guided by a trained moderator using an unstructured method of inquiry.
Quantitative research
Structure responses that can be statistically tested to confirm insights and hypotheses generated via qualitative research or secondary data.
Quantitative method
• Large numbers of respondents
• Statistically valid
• Can generalize
– It’s most popular is survey (online + pen or paper)
A systematic means of collecting information from people that generally uses a questionnaire.
– Telephone Interviews
– Mall Intercept Interviews
– Mail survey
– In-Person Interviews
– Internet surveys
Issues with survey
• Interviewer bias
• Presence of interviewer may change responses
• Consumer unwillingness to participate.
A form that features a set of questions designed to gather information from respondents and thereby accomplish the researcher’ objectives; questions can be either unstructured or structured.
Questionnaire issues
• Types of questions
• Ordering of questions
• Wording of questions
Unstructured questions
Open-ended questions that allow respondents to answer in their own words
• Fill in blank
• Projective technique If a Wendy’s hamburger could talk to a McDonald’s or a Burger King hamburger, what would it say?
Structured questions
Closed-ended questions for which a discrete set of response alternatives, or specific answers, is provided for respondents to evaluate.
• Likert scale
• Semantic Differencial
questions to avoid
Jargon or inappropriate terminology
Double barreled
Consumer unable to answer
Ordering of questions
• Sensitive, personal questions at end
• More difficult questions at end
Sampling fram
– Systematic sample
– Simple random
– Stratify random
• Changing a variable and analyzing results
• Usually change one of 4 Ps’ (independent) and look at either sales or awareness (dependent)
• Field or Lab
Biometric data
Digital scanning of the physiological or behavioral characteristics of individuals as a means of identification.
Analyzing data and developing insights
Step 4 of the research process
– Converting data into info to explain, predict, for upper management
Action plan and implementation
Step 5 of the research process
– Executive Summary Body
– Conclusions
– Limitations
– Supplements including tables, figures, appendices
ex. Vid, domino faced their problem head on