Marketing 4220 Chapter 8

learning
relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
incidental learning
casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
behavioral learning theories
assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events
classical conditioning
occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own
unconditioned stimulus
naturally capable of causing a response
conditioned stimulus
did not initially elicit a response, ringing bell
conditioned response
the drooling because of the bell
repetition
increases the strength of stimulus response associations and prevent the decay of these associations in memory
extinction
occurs when the effects of prior conditioning diminish and finally disappear
stimulus generalization
refers to the tendency of stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to evoke similar, conditioned response
halo effect
people react to other, similar stimuli in much the same way they responded to the original stimulus
stimulus discrimination
occurs when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus
brand equity
brand has strong positive associations in a consumer’s memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a result
advertising wear out
consumers become so used to hearing or seeing a marketing stimulus that they no longer pay attention to it
consumer confusion
how likely is it that one company’s logo, product design, or package is so similar to another that the typical shopper would mistake one for the other
instrumental conditioning
occurs when we learn to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes
positive reinforcement
reward strengthens the response and we learn the appropriate behavior
negative reinforcement
also strengthens responses so we learn appropriate behavior; when person avoids negative outcome
punishment
occurs when unpleasant events follow a response
fixed interval reinforcement
after a specified time period has passed, the first response you make brings the reward
variable interval reinforcement
the time that must pass before you get reinforced varies based on some average; you don’t know exactly when to expect reinforcement so you have to respond at a consistent rate
fixed ratio reinforcement
reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses
variable ratio reinforcement
you get reinforced after a certain number of responses, but you don’t know how many are required
frequency marketing
popular technique that rewards regular purchasers with prizes that get better as they spend more
cognitive learning theory
stress the importance of internal mental process; people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment
observational learning
occurs when we watch the actions of others and note the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors
modeling
the process of imitating the behaviors of others
memory
a process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when we need it
encoding
stage, information enters in a way the system will recognize
storage
stage, we integrate this knowledge with that is already in memory and warehouse it until it is needed
retrieval
we access the desired information
episodic memories
relate to events that are personally relevant
narrative
story is often an effective way to convey product information
sensory memory
stores the information we receive from our senses; capacity- high duration- less than a second
short term memory
stores information for a limited period of time and has a limited capacity
chunking
process where store information by combining small pieces into larger ones
long term memory
relatively permanent storage of information; capacity- unlimited, duration- long or permanent
elaborative rehearsal
allows information to move from short term memory into long term memory
activation models of memory
different levels of processing occur that activate some aspects of memory rather than others
associative network
an incoming piece of information get stored in this network that contains many bits of related information
evoked set
the brands a consumer recalls in an appropriate category
spreading activation
allows us to shift back and forth among levels of meaning
brand specific
memory is stored in terms of claims the brand makes
ad specific
memory is stored in terms of the medium or content of the ad itself
brand identification
memory is stored in terms of the brand name
product category
memory is stored in terms of how the product works or where it should be used
evaluative reactions
memory is stored as positive or negative emotions
script
a sequence of events an individual expects to occur
spacing effect
describes the tendency for us to recall printed material more effectively when the advertiser repeats the target item periodically
decay
the structural changes that learning produces in the brain simply go away
interference
as we learn additional information, it displaces the earlier information
state dependent retrieval
illustrates that we are better able to access information if our internal state is the same at the time of recall as we learned the information
highlighting effect
occurs when the order in which consumers learn about brands determines the strength of association between these brands and their attributes
salience
refers to brand’s prominence or level of activation in memory
von restorff effect
novelty/unusual stimulus improves recall
mixed emotions
emotions with positive and negative components
unipolar emotions
emotions that are wholly positive or wholly negative, recall better over time
hybrid ads
marketer’s message is consistent with the theme or events in a program
spontaneous recovery
a stimulus is able to evoke a weakened response even years after we first perceived it
recognition test
researchers show ads to subjects one at a time and ask if they have seen them before
recall tests
ask consumers to independently think of what they have seen without being prompted
response bias
results we obtain from a measuring instrument are based on something else about the instrument of the respondent
illusion of truth effect
telling people that a consumer claim is false can make them misremember the truth
retro brand
updated version of a brand from a prior historical period to trigger nostalgia