Marketing 371: Chapter 12

A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should do which of the following?
She should find socially active persons who are very interested in the product category
Which of the following statements most accurately defines homophily?
Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs.
Recent research on opinion leadership has called into question the traditional view that there are ________ opinion leaders.
generalized
The opinion leader referred to as a(n) ________ is actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.
market maven
A(n) ________ is a marketing intermediary retained by a consumer to guide what that consumer buys.
surrogate consumer
Several research methods are used to study reference groups and opinion leadership. ________ methods trace communication patterns among members of a group. These techniques allow researchers to systematically map out the interactions that take place among group members.
Sociometric
A sociometric network analysis is likely to study all of the following EXCEPT which one?
the use of surrogate consumers
The importance of weak ties in a social system is demonstrated by their ________.
bridging function
In advertising terms, a(n) ________ refers to a view or exposure to an advertising message.
impression
Product information that is transmitted by individuals to individuals is called ________.
word-of-mouth
In general, advertising is more effective when it ________ than when it ________.
reinforces our existing product preferences; tries to create new product preferences
Social networking is an integral part of what many call ________, which is characterized by interactive platforms that foster the creation of communities.
Web 2.0
According to the ________ perspective, under the right circumstances a group of people is smarter than the smartest people within the group.
wisdom of crowds
Meagan is planning her wedding and wants everything to be just right, from the invitations and table settings to the ceremony and music selections. Because she feels overwhelmed by all of the information to sort through and the choices to make, she hires a wedding planner to make many of the decisions and purchases for her. Meagan’s wedding planner is best described as a(n) ________.
surrogate consumer
People who supply online product reviews are called ________.
brand advocates
In the diffusion of innovation process, which group is very slow to adopt new products and constitutes one-sixth of the population?
laggards
A ________ innovation is a new product that creates major changes in the way we live.
discontinuous
Fashion refers to ________.
a particular combination of attributes within a style, trend, or fad
A ________ is a very short-lived fashion.
fad
Fallon was the son of a very wealthy banker from Connecticut. The first time Fallon saw an artist on MTV wearing a polished bicycle chain around his neck, he knew he had to get an item like that for himself. Fallon’s behavior is best explained by the ________ theory of fashion.
trickle-up
When product information is transmitted from individual to individual it is best known as ________.
word-of-mouth
Jenny just posted a tweet on Twitter about how much she loves a new movie. Jenny has potentially influenced others with ________.
word-of-mouth
Word-of-mouth communication about products is thought to be influential because it is perceived as ________.
A) being more reliable
B) coming from a trustworthy source
C) having more social pressure to conform associated with it
***D) all of the above****
Which term refers to a piece of information triggering a sequence of interactions?
information cascade
James is known as a techie. He is the go-to source for his friends when it comes to recommendations on the best in the latest electronics. James is most likely a(n) ________.
opinion leader
Opinion leaders are more influential when they are ________.
quite similar to the people being influenced
Experts that are specialized in a limited number of topics are called ________.
monomorphic
Experts who are knowledgeable in several fields are called ________.
polymorphic
On Big Bang Theory, Sheldon Cooper plays a ________ expert with knowledge in topics ranging from flag history to string theory.
polymorphic
Opinion leaders who are also early purchasers of a product are called ________.
innovative communicators
Tracy loves shopping with her personal shopper, Carrie, at Nordstrom’s. Carrie is a ________.
surrogate consumer
Which job role best fits the definition of a surrogate consumer?
interior decorator
Shoppers on Amazon.com can search for products using words like “must read” and “girl power.” These categorizations are based on a ________.
folksonomy
Members of a social network are called ________.
nodes
On Flickr, shared photos represent the ________ which is the basis for the network.
social object
Social networks tend to be more successful if they create a sensation that participants are in a tangible place. This is known as ________.
presence
Word-of-mouth communication in the form of brand-specific mentions in social media are called ________.
influence impressions
80% of brand mentions online are made by just 6.2% of social media users. Forrester Research calls these influencers ________.
mass connectors
Jane is searching for the latest fashion in jeans at the Levi’s Friends Store. She connects online using Facebook, and invites Kelsey to shop with her inside the online store. Jane is participating in a form of e-commerce known as ________.
social shopping
Which term refers to a multiplayer, competitive, goal-oriented activity with defined rules of engagement and online connectivity among a community of players?
social game
What term refers to the hardware system upon which a social game is played?
platform
A hair cream remover meant to replace the razor was marketed to men but failed miserably. Which determinant of diffusion was most likely to blame?
compatibility
When online ads go viral, they may influence adoption of the product being promoted due to the heightened ________.
observability
When marketers embed brand messages in social games, they are seeking to influence consumer behavior through the ________ determinant of diffusion.
observability
Organizing music using Spotify or another similar application enables users to listen to music virtually anywhere and across multiple devices. This is an example of the ________ determinant of diffusion.
relative advantage
Ashley, an upper-income consumer with an eye for fashion, loves getting a steal at the Dollar Store. She is engaging in ________.
parody display
A ________ is an idea or product that enters the consciousness of people over time.
meme
M-PESA, a mobile-phone-based money transfer service, was initially designed to meet the needs of developing nations before being adapted elsewhere. M-PESA is an example of a ________ innovation.
reverse
The tipping point most likely occurs just towards the end of the adoption stage for the ________.
early adopters
Which promotional strategy uses unconventional means, such as street theater, to encourage WOM about products?
guerilla marketing
The diffusion of innovations is a process whereby a new product, service, or idea spreads through a population
T
The most radical of the innovation change forms is called a discontinuous innovation because it creates major changes in the way we live.
T
The trickle-down theory of fashion says that fashion moves from the upper classes to the lower classes.
T
A fad has a relatively long acceptance cycle in today’s marketplace because of the money necessary to develop the fad.
F
Because Stephanie is an innovator with computer products, marketers should assume that she is also an innovator with clothing styles.
F
A clothier produced a line of clothing with insect repellant impregnated into the fabric for outdoor enthusiasts. This product has a good chance of being adopted because it has a relative advantage.
T
Shift Corporation could not sell its premium running shoes at $59.99, but when they were priced at $159.99, the shoes sold out of the stores almost overnight. Shift had just experienced the snob effect characteristically explained by the sociological model of fashion.
F
Opinion leaders often absorb much of the risk in buying new products because they generally buy them first.
T
The original opinion leadership framework of an influence network has been largely displaced by the two-step flow model of influence
F
Opinion leaders are likely to also be opinion seekers.
T
A surrogate consumer, by definition, makes a purchase on behalf of another consumer.
F
Most opinion leaders are celebrities rather than everyday consumers.
F
The most common method of identifying opinion leaders is to use the social registry document kept by most city newspapers
F
Word-of-mouth has a more powerful effect on consumers than paid advertising does.
T
Consumers are swayed more by negative word-of-mouth than by positive comments.
T
As people transmit information to one another, they tend to change the message.
T
Vicente is conducting research to test the hypothesis that the social contagion effect is weak in adults. His finding that adults who have a close friend who abstains from drinking alcohol are more likely to abstain themselves will support his hypothesis.
F
The idea of the wisdom of crowds explains why groups of people often come up with more creative solutions to problems than individuals do.
T
Complaint Web sites tend to incorporate evidence of injustice, identity, and agency in the communications posted
T
Most of the brand mentions made in social media are made by just 6.2% of social media users.
T
Dungeons and Dragons is a role-playing game
T
Fashion is the process of social diffusion by which some group adopts a new style
T
Innovations diffuse in the same way that new fashions diffuse in the market.
T
Billions of dollars in real money are exchanged for virtual goods used in social games.
T
Social shopping is a hybrid of social networking and online retailing.
T