Marketing 360 Chapter 4

What is the definition of culture?
learned behaviors through socialization
How is culture transmitted?
Not biologically but my family and social organizations
What happens to the elements of culture when you change one of them?
The elements of culture are interrelated so when one changes they all are affected
Is culture static?
No it is dynamic
What are the 5 major elements of culture?
Material culture, social institutions, religion, aesthetics, language
How does the Level of Technology of a culture affect marketing?
Related to the mechanical skills and understanding of how things work. learning to push buttons- how you can market people
What are some of the largest religions of the world in number of followers?
Christianity, Islam, atheist
What major religion promotes a caste system, the veneration of the cow, and arranged marriages?
Hinduism
What major religion is considered to be “reform Hinduism”?
Buddhism
What major religion considers the Koran as the ultimate guide?
Islam
What is usury.
usury is applying a very high interest payment on a loan.
What branch of Christianity promotes individualism and no distinction between secular and religious life?
Protestant
What is considered to be the official religion of Japan?
Shinto
What is a cultural translator?
anything that represents a culture’s way of life, including gestures, material objects, traditions, and concepts.
What is backwards translation?
first translate in your own language to the language you want then send it to desired native speaker of the foreign language and have them translate it back into your language to test it
What is a Value?
enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct
What are some core American values?
importance of hard work, own tangible goods, religions freedom, technological advances, looking young
Who is Geert Hofstede and what is the significance of his research on culture?
he did a study on thousands of IBM employees to determine how certain cultural dimensions influences behavior in the corporate environment.
What are the 5 Cultural Dimensions according to Hofstede?
Power Distance (PDI)
Individualism versus collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity versus femininity (MAS)
Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)
Pragmatic Versus Normative (PRA)
Indulgence versus Restraint (IND)
What country has the highest score in individualism according to Hofstede?
USA
What country has the highest score in masculinity according to Hofstede?
Japan
What is “cultural borrowing” ?
sometimes cultures find better solutions in other countries so they adopt them.
What does What is “cultural borrowing” have to do with finding solutions?
Culture is viewed as the accumulation of series of best solutions to problems
what major religion prohibits usury?
Islam
What is the Cultural dimension: Power distance index?
focuses on authority orientation, hierarchy
What is the Cultural dimension: Uncertainty avoidance index?
focuses on risk orientation, rules
What is the Cultural dimension: Masculinity/ femininity index?
focuses on achievement, sex roles
What is the Cultural dimension: Longer term orientation index?
focuses on the long term commitments, tradition
What is the Cultural dimension: individualism/collectivism index?
focuses on self orientation, initiative