Marketing 350 Terms

lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues
attitude
anything towards which one has an attitude
attitude object
basic principle of reward and punishment
-we develop an attitude towards products because they provide pleasure or pain
utilitarian function
relate to the consumer’s self concept or central values
value expression function
attitude we form to protect ourselves either from external threats or internal feelings
ego defense function
we need order, structure, or meaning
-applies when a person is in an ambiguous situation or when he or she confronts a new product
knowledge function
the way a consumer feels about an object – emotional component
affect
refers to the actions he or she takes toward the object or in some case at least his or her intentions to take action about it – actionable component
behavior
the beliefs a consumer has about an object – rational component
cognition
1. think feel do (car)- seeks out all information and weighs alternatives before carefully making decision
high involvement hierarchy
feel do think- package design, advertising, brand names, and nature of setting influence our attitudes
experimental hierarchy
1. think do feel (gum)
a. initially doesn’t have a strong brand preference and evaluates after purchase
low involvement hierarchy
form an attitude because it helps us gain rewards or avoid punishment
compliance
form an attitude to conform to another person’s or groups expectations
identification
we value harmony among our thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and a need to maintain uniformity among these elements motivates us.
principle of cognitive consistency
assumes that we observe our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are.
self perception theory
consumers are more likely to comply with a big request if they agree to a smaller one first.
foot in door technique
assumes people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know and feel.
social judgement theory
with an attitude standard, people consider and evaluate ideas falling within the latitude favorably, but are more likely to reject those that fall outside the zone
latitudes of acceptance and rejection
considers how people perceive relations among different attitudes and objects and how they alter their attitudes so that these remain consistent.
balance theory
An updated version of Fishbein multiattribute attitude theory that considers factors such as social pressure and the attitude toward the act of buying a product rather than simply attitude toward the product itself
theory of reasoned action
– the process in which a reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct – creates conflict between what we say and do
normative influence
to account for the effects of what we believe other people think we should do
subjective norm
perspective recognizes there are more factorys between intent and performance, ,considers all the differenct factors that lead to an outcome
theory of trying
play a huge role in influencing attitude about a message and product.
source effects
A communicator’s expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
source credibility
Refers to the social value recipients attribute to a communicator
-Relates to the person’s physical appearance, personality, social status, or similarity to the receiver
source attractiveness
a new advertising strategy that focuses on digital messages designed to blend into the editorial content of the publications
naive advertising
implies a sources knowledge about a topic is not accurate
Blogs, news, social media
knowledge bias
Occurs when a source has the required knowledge but we question their willingness to convey is accurately
○ News
○ Weight loss programs
reporting bias
Our society’s assumption that attractive people are smarter, hipper and happier than the rest of us
halo effect
tendency to like persons or things if we see them more often
mere exposure phenom
psychological theory that repetition causes familiarity but over time can increase consumers’ boredom
two factor theory
calling attention to a product’s negative attributes and then diminishing these arguments
refutational arguments
refers to a message that compares two recognizable brands and weighs them in terms of an attribute
comparative advertising
process of appropriating pop culture to integrate into marketing strategy- what is “cool and hip”
reality engineering
placing unusual messages where consumers don’t expect
guerilla marketing
games with interactive advertisements in order to target specific customer segments
advergaming
embedding a product or service link into a video
¥ youtube links
plinking
presents content evoking an emotional response to support an argument.
emotional appeals
presents content that focuses on attributes and a logical argument.
rational appeals
Draw a comparison between two objects
“A is like B”
simile
emphasize negative consequences to communicate a message.
fear appeal
humor to catch consumers attention and tell a message about a product.
humor appeal
draw attention to the sexual content and distract from the message
sex appeal
Tie two different objects together with a common characteristic
metaphor
Stories about a trait or concept in the concept of a person or thing
■ Isaac Newton and the apple tree simplified gravity.
allegory
Combines words with images
resonance
This condition forces us to make repeated decisions that may drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart decisions.
consumer hyperchoice
A person’s efforts to change or maintain his or her actions over time, whether these involve dieting, living on a budget, or training to run a marathon, involve careful planning that is a form of self-regulation.
self regulation
There is a decline in the actual state (something breaks) or increase in ideal state desire (want something new)-step 1
problem recognition
The process by which we survey the environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision -step 2
info search
This stage is where consumers choose a product from several different alternatives (brands, variations of the product, etc.)-step 3
evaluate alternatives
alternatives the consumer knows about
evoke set
alternatives the consumer considers buying
-Typically a consumer’s consideration set is small and includes very few alternatives
consideration set
Choosing the product andOccurs when the consumer takes the product home and decides whether it meets, or exceeds their expectations -step 4
product choice and post purchase evaluation
when companies overload a product with features
feature creep
Uses fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), a brain-scanning device that tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks to take an up-close look at how our brains respond to marketing messages and product design features.
neuromarketing
a Web site or app that helps to filter and organize online market information so that customers can identify and evaluate alternatives more efficiently Ex: comparison shopping sites, forums, fan clubs
cybermediary
sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies to learn from past user behavior to recommend new purchases. Ex: Amazon recommendations, ads
intelligent agents
software that examines the Web for matched to terms the user provides Ex: Google, Bing
Search engines
the procedures companies use to design the content of Web sites and posts to maximize the likelihood that their content will show up when someone searches for a relevant term
SEO
consumer eliminates various decision alternatives if they lack important criteria
non compensatory rules
Consumers first rank product attributes in terms of their importance, then compare brands
lexicographic
Similar to the lexicographic rule because the buyer also evaluates brands on the most important attribute.In this case, though, he or she impose specific cut-offs.
elimination by aspect rule
(more common in high-involvement decisions) consumer considers all the attributes/benefits of the alternatives (good and bad), weighs them, and arrives at an overall good choice.
compensatory rules
leads to the option that has the largest number of positive attributes.
simple additive rule
allows the consumer to take into account the relative importance of the attributes by weighting each one.
weighted additive rule
the options a consumer will consider in making a decision.
consideration set
The way information about a product choice is framed can prime a decision even when the consumer is unaware of this influence.
positioning
relies on history and past behavior to make routine decisions.
habitual decision making
is what we call it when exposure to some thing influences the behavior of an individual later on, without that individual being aware that the first thing is guiding their behavior to a certain extent.
priming
is a deliberate change by an organization that intends to modify behavior and also nudge can result in dramatic effects.
nudge
is a “rule of thumb” to simplify things – a
mental shortcut
heuristics
we associate events that may or may not actually influence one another
usually cause incomplete information
covariation
over______ of all shopping decisions are finalized in store
70percent
the family member that keeps track of bills and decides how to spend surplus funds
– who the marketers want to know
FFO
1. mood
2. whether we feel time pressure to make the purchase
3. particular reason we need the product
4. salesperson or realtor
things that affect our choices
includes a buyer, a seller, and a product or service along with other factors such as reason we want to make a purchase and how the physical environment makes us feel.
consumption situation
role he or she plays at any one time-helps to determine what he or she wants to buy or consume
situation self image
the process laminated by traditional retailers whereby consumers shop their stores to obtain product information and then purchase the chosen product online at a lower price.
showrooming
an e-commerce site that provides exclusive styles by prodding manufacturers to produce runway pieces they wouldn’t otherwise make to sell in stores.
pretailer
Strategy where stores create imaginative environments that transport shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation.
retail theming
a store’s “personality,” composed of such attributes as location, merchandise suitability, and the knowledge and congeniality of the sales staff.
store image
the use of space and physical features in store design to evoke certain effects in buyers
atmospherics
let consumers participate in the production of the products or services they buy there (Build a Bear)
activity stores
Unplanned buying: about ⅓ of unplanned buying is caused by a shopper recognizing a new need while in the store
spontaneous shopping
A business model where people rent or barter what they need rather than buying it
sharing economy
-It is our overall reactions to a product after we’ve bought it. Depending on the level of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction plays a key role in our future behavior.
postpurchase satisfaction
one consumer exchanges something he or she owns for something the other person owns.
lateral cycyling