Marketing 350 Exam 2

ABC model of attitudes
Affect, behavior, and cognition are the three components of this model.
Advergaming
a downloadable or Internet-based video game that advertises a brand-name product by featuring it as part of the game.
Affect
describes how a consumer feels about an attitude object
Allegory
a story of about an abstract trait or concept that advertisers tell in the context of a person, animal, vegetable, or object
Attitude Object
anything toward which one has an attitude towards
Attitude
is a lasting general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues
Attitude accessibility perspective
behavior is a function of the person’s immediate
perceptions of the attitude model, in the context of the situation in which he or she encounters it
Attitude models
specify the different elements that might work together to influence people’s evaluations of attitudes objects
Attitude toward the act of buying
focuses on the perceived consequences of a purchase
Authority
we believe an authoritative source much more readily than one that is less authoritative
Balance Theory
-considers how people perceive relations among different attitude
objects, and how they alter their attitudes so that these remain consistent(or “balanced”)
Behavior
refers to the actions he or she takes toward the object or in some cases at least
his or her intentions to take action about it
Celebrity endorsements
marketer’s hope that the star’s popularity will transfer to the
product or when a nonprofit organization recruits a celebrity to discourage harmful behaviors
Cognition
​is what he or she believes to be true about the attitude object
Cognitive-affective model
​ proposes that an emotional reaction is just the last step in a
series of cognitive processes that follows sensory recognition of a stimulus and retrieval of
information from memory that helps to categorize it.
Consensus
we consider what others do before we decide what to do
Consistency
​ people try not to contradict themselves in terms of what they say and do
about an issue.
Counterarguing
a consumer thinks of reasons why he or she doesn’t agree with the
message
Comparative advertising
​ refers to a message that compares two or more recognizable
brands and weighs them in terms of our or more specific attributes.
compliance
we form an attitude because it helps us gain rewards or avoid punishment
(lowest level of involvement)
communications model
​this model specifies the elements they need to control to
communicate with their customers
Disclaimers
some subtle cues can diminish credibility, usually required to provide
Experiential Hierarchy of effects
​ we act on the basis of our emotional reactions
Ego-defensive function
attitudes we form to protect ourselves either from external threats
or internal feelings
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
assumes that, under conditions of high involvement, we
take the central route to persuasion
Fear appeals
emphasize the negative consequences that can occur unless the customer
changes a behavior or attitude.
Fishbein Model
the model measures Salient beliefs (those beliefs about the object a
person consider during evaluation, Object attribute linkages (the probability that a particular
object has an important attribute), evaluation (of each of the important attributes)
Foot in the door technique
consumers are more likely to comply with a big request if they
agree to a smaller one first.
Functional Theory of Attitudes
how attitudes facilitate social behavior
Guerilla Marketing
promotional strategies that use unconventional means and venues to
encourage word of mouth about products
Halo Effect
which occurs when we assume that persons who rank high on one
dimension excel on others as well
Identification
occurs when we form an attitude to conform to another person’s or group’s
expectations.
Independence Hypothesis
argues that affect and cognition are separate systems so that
it’s not always necessary to have a cognition to elicit an emotional response.
Internalization
at a high level of involvement, deep seated attitudes become part of our
value system. These attitudes are difficult to change because they are so important to us
Knowledge Bias
​implies that a source’s knowledge about a topic is not accurate
Knowledge function
w​e form attitudes because we need order, structure, or meaning.
(it’s ok to wear casual pants, only on friday)
Hierarchy of effects
the attitude that researchers developed to explain the relative impact
of the three components: knowing, feeling, and doing
High involvement hierarchy
assumes that a person approaches a product decision as a
problem-solving process
Latitudes of acceptance and rejection
people differ in terms of information they will find
acceptable or unacceptable
Liking
​we agree with those we like or admire
Low involvement of hierarchy of effects
assumes that the consumer initially doesn’t have a
strong preference for one brand over another; instead, he or she acts on the basis of limited
knowledge and forms an evaluation only after he or she has bought the product
M-Commerce
​where marketers promote their goods and services via wireless devices
including cell phones
Martyrdom Effect
people tend to donate more money when they have to suffer a bit for the
cause
Metaphor
places two dissimilar objects into a close relationship such that “A is B”
Mere Exposure phenomenon
people tend to like things that are more familiar to them,
even if they were not that keen on them initially
Multi-attribute attitude model
these types of models assume that consumers’ attitude
toward an attitude object depends on the beliefs they have about several of its attributes
Multiple pathway anchoring and adjustment model (MPAA)
​emphasizes multiple pathways
to attitude formation including outside-in inside-out pathways
Native Advertising
​digital messages designed to blend into the editorial content of the
publications in which they appear
Normative Influence
a contradiction between what we say we will do and what we actually
do when the moment of truth arrives
Paradox of low involvement
when we don’t care as much about a product, the way it’s
presented increases in importance
Permission Marketing
acknowledges that a marketer will be more successful when he or
she communicates with consumers who have already agreed to listen to him or her; consumers
who “opt out” of listening to the message probably weren’t good prospects in the first place
Persuasion
involves an active attempt to change attitudes
Plinking
is the act of embedding a product or service in a video
Principle of cognitive consistency
we value harmony among our thoughts, feelings,
and behaviors and a need to maintain uniformity among these elements motivates us
Product Placement
is the insertion of real products in fictional movies
Reality Engineering
occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use
them as promotional vehicles
Reciprocity
we are more likely to give if we receive first.
Refutational Arguments
-first raise a negative issue and then dismiss it can be quite
effective
Reporting bias
occurs when a source has the required knowledge but we question his or
her willingness to convey it accurately
Resonance
​another type of literary device advertisers frequently use. It is a form of
presentation that combines a play on words with a relevant picture
Scarcity
​ items are more attractive when they aren’t available
Self-perception Theory
​provides an alternative explanation of dissonance effects. It
assumes we observe our own behavior to determine just what our attitudes are, much as we
assume that we know what another person’s attitude is when we watch what he/she does.
Sex appeals
varies from subtle hints to blatant displays of skin
Shared endorsements
users who follow or rate a product or service may find that their
endorsements show up on an advertiser’s page
Similie
compares two objects “A is like B”
Sleeper effect
​people appear to “forget” about the negative source and change their
attitudes anyway
Social judgement theory
– ​also assumes that people assimilate new information about
attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel
Source Attractiveness
refers to the social value recipients attribute to a communicator
Source credibility
refers to a communicator’s expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness.
Source derogation
​the consumer may doubt the credibility of a biased presentation.
Subjective norm (SN)
to account for the effects of what we believe other people think we
should do
Theory of reasoned action
the improved fishbein model that identifies intentions versus
behaviors.
Transmedia storytelling
-​ strategy typically includes communications media that range from
Web Sites, blogs, and email to recorded phone calls and even graffiti messages scrawled in
public spaces
Two factor theory
explains the fine line between familiarity and boredom; it proposes that
two separate psychological processes operate when we repeatedly show an ad to a viewer.
Utilitarian Function
​relates to the basic principles of reward and punishment. We
develop some attitudes to reward products simply because they provide pleasure or pain
Value-expressive function
relate to the consumer’s’ self-concept or central values. A
person forms a product attitude in this case because of what the product says about him or her
as a person
Purchase momentum
occurs when our initial impulse purchases actually increase the
likelihood that we will buy even more
Consumer hyperchoice
e-Forces us to make repeated decisions that may drain psychological
energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart choices
Constructive Processing
​argues that we evaluate the effort we’ll need to make a particular
choice and then tailor the amount of cognitive
Mental budget
helps us to estimate what we will consume over time so that we can regulate
what we do in the present
Self regulation
a person’s efforts to change or maintain his or her actions over time
Implementation intention
may dictate how much weight we give to different kinds of information
Counteractive construal
exaggerating the negative aspects of behaviors that will interfere with
the ultimate goal
Feedback loop
provide people with information about their actions in real time, and then give
them a chance to change those actions
Morning Morality Effect
shows people are more likely to cheat, lie, or even commit fraud in the
afternoon than in the morning
Executive Control Center
the part of the brain that we use for important decision making
Rational Perspective
According to this view, people calmly and carefully integrate as much
information as possible with what they already know about a product, painstakingly weigh the
pluses and minuses of each alternative, and arrive at a satisfactory decision
Problem Recognition
occurs at the upper funnel, when we experience a significant difference
between our current state of affairs and some state we desire
Information Search
is the process by which we survey the environment for appropriate data to
make a reasonable decision
Evoked Set
alternatives the consumer knows about
Consideration Set
​the ones the consumer seriously considers
Feature Creep
spiral of complexity, having too many options to where the consumer can’t figure
out how to work a product
Post Purchase Evaluation
occurs when we experience the product or service we selected and
decide whether it meets or exceeds our expectations
Neuromarketing
uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a brain-scanning device
that tracks blood flow as we perform mental tasks to take an up-close look at how our brains
respond to marketing messages and product design features
Cybermediary
a website or app that helps to filter and organize online market information so
that customers can identify and evaluate alternatives more efficiently
Intelligent Agents
sophisticated software programs that use collaborative filtering technologies
to learn from past user behavior to recommend new purchases
Search Engine Optimization(SEO)
refers to the procedures companies use to design the
content of websites and posts to maximize the likelihood their content will show up when
someone searches for a relevant term
Link Baiting
careful crafting of a title that markets the content
Long Tail
we no longer need to rely solely on big hits to find profits
Hybrid Products
products that feature characteristics from two distinct domains
Knowledge Structure
a set of beliefs and the way we organize these beliefs in our minds
Category Exemplars
​brands we strongly associate with a category get to “call the shots”
Evaluative Criteria
the dimensions we use to judge the merits of competing options
Determinant Attributes
​the features we actually use to differentiate among our choices
Compensatory Rule
allows a product to make up for its shortcomings on one dimension by
excelling on another
Simple Additive Rule
lead to the option that has the largest number of positive attributes
Weighted Additive Rule
Allows the consumer to take into account the relative importance of the
attributes by weighting each one
Non compensatory Rule
​if an option doesn’t suit us on one dimension, we just reject it out of
hand and move onto something else rather than think about how it might meet our needs in
other ways
Lexicograhpic Rule
“select the brand that is the best on the most important attribute”
Elimination-by-aspects rule
similar to the lexicographic rule because the buyer also evaluates
brands on the most important attribute, but he/she imposes cut offs
Habitual decision making
describes the choices that we make with little or no conscious effort
Inertia
involves less effort to throw a familiar package into the cart. (buying the same shampoo)
Brand Loyalty
describes a pattern of repeat purchasing behavior that involves a conscious
decision to continue buying the same brand
Framing
how we pose the question to people or what exactly we ask them to do
Loss aversion
people hate losing things more than they like getting things
Prospect Theory
analyze how the value or a decision depends on gains or losses
Mental Accounting
the way we frame a question as well as external issues that shouldn’t
influence our choices, but do anyway
Sunk cost fallacy
if we’ve paid for something, we’re more reluctant to waste it
Behavioral Economics
focuses on the effects of psychological and social factors on the
economic decisions we make, and many of these choices are anything but rational
Priming
cues in the environment that make us more likely to react in a certain way even though
we’re unaware of these influences
Nudge
a deliberate change by an organization that intends to modify​ behavior
Default Bias
where we are more likely to comply with a requirement than to make the effort not
to comply
Maximizing Solution
cognitive decision strategy we use when we want to arrive at the best
result possible
Satisficing solution
exert less mental effort and simply receive an adequate outcome. “Just good
enough”.
bounded rationality
“good enough” perspective on decision making
heurisitcs
“mental rules of thumb” range from the general to the specific
Market Beliefs
​beliefs about a product that many of us may share
Consensual Purchase Decision
when members of a family agree on the desired purchase and
they disagree only in terms of how they will make it happen
Accommodative Purchase Decision
group members have different preferences or priorities
and can’t agree on a purchase that satisfies everyone’s needs
Synoptic Ideal
​calls for the husband and wife to act as joint decision makers
Autonomic decision
when one family member chooses a product
Syncretic decision
decisions that involve both partners
Juggling Lifestyle
guilt-ridden compromise between conflicting cultural ideals of motherhood
and professionalism
Social Shopping
an emerging form of e-commerce that allows an online shopper to simulate
the experience of shopping with others in a brick-and-mortar store
Time Poverty
consumers believe that they are more pressed for time than ever.
Psychological time
more likely to be in a consuming mood at certain times more than others.
Temporal Orientation Dimension
​the significance we place on the past, present, or future
Polychronic Orientation Dimension
distinguishes between people who prefer to do one thing at a
time from those who have multitasking timestyles
Gemba
(japanese) “one true source of information”
Expectancy disconfirmation model
we form beliefs about product performance based on our
prior experience with the product or communications about the product that imply a certain level
of quality
Lateral cycling
consumer exchanges something he or she owns for something the other person
owns.
Consumption situation
​includes a buyer, a seller, and a product or service and the reason we
want to make a purchase and how the physical environment makes us feel
Situational self image
the role he or she plays at any one time that helps us to determine what
he or she wants to buy or consume
Open rates
​the percentage of people who open an email message from a marketer
Timestyle
people’s allocation of time, an individual’s priorities help to determine this
Co-consumers
​the other people in a setting
Total quality management (TQM)
​a complex set of management and engineering procedures
that aims to reduce errors and increase quality
Showrooming
when a shopper visits a store like Best Buy to explore options for big ticket items
like TVs or appliances and then he or she finds a cheaper price for the specific model online
Pretailer
​providing manufacturers to produce items that they wouldn’t otherwise make because
store buyers weren’t sure anyone would pay the money for them
Retail theming
when stores go all out to create imaginative environments that transport
shoppers to fantasy worlds or provide other kinds of stimulation
store image
​important dimensions include location, merchandise, suitability, and the
knowledge and congeniality of the sales staf
Atmospherics
the “conscious designing of space and its various dimensions to evoke certain
effects in buyers”
Activity Stores
​let consumers participate in the production of the products or services they buy
here
Unplanned buying
​when he or she is unfamiliar with a store’s layout or perhaps he or she is
under some time pressure
Point-of-purchase
​an elaborate product display or demonstration, a coupon dispensing
machine, or an employee who gives out free samples of a new cookie
Dyadic encounters
a relationship where both parties much reach some agreement about the
roles of each participant
Identity negotiation
​some factors that help to define a salesperson’s role are his or her age,
appearance, educational level, and motivation to sell
Sharing economy
people rent rather than buying what they need
Product disposal
what we do with our things when we’re done with them
Recommerce
shows that consumers want to squeeze more value out of their possessions by
selling or trading them
Swishing
where people organize parties to exchange clothing or other personal possessions
with others